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for the protons, electrons, and nuclei Z respectively. The parameter a in Eq. 1.2.6 is determined by the solar wind velocity, the size and geometry of the modulation region, whilst the particle velocities for CR particles are interrelated as v- = R-1 R2 + m2pc412, ^ = R_1[r2 + (impc2/z) J^ . (1.2.7)

Using the results of determination of the interstellar electron spectrum Deo on the basis of the data on the nonthermal galactic radio emission, the interstellar spectra of protons and nuclei Z may be determined from Eq. 1.2.6 without knowing the modulation parameters:

Dpo = Dp,0bs((o/De,obs)p, Dzo = Dz^((o/De,obs)Z , (1.2.8)

a where vejvp and ve/vZ are determined by the Eq. 1.2.8. The parameter a/A may be determined from the comparison between the observed spectra on the basis of Eq. 1.2.6:

ar = ~ve (R m(,obs (R )/ Deo (R)) = -vp (R )ln((p,obs (R)/ Dpo (R)) (12.9)

Such analysis was carried out in many works (see, for example, Dorman and Dorman, 1965, 1967; Earl, 1972; Cummings et al., 1973; Cechini et al., 1974; Lezniak and Webber, 1974). It was found by Lezniak and Webber (1974), in particular, that the coordination of numerous experiments can be achieved on the assumption that A should markedly increase with decreasing Ek (see Fig. l.2.3) in the low energy range (Ek < 100 MeV for electrons and Ek < 10 MeV for protons).

Electron kinetic energy [MeV]

1.0 10 102 103 104 Proton kinetic energy [MeV]

_I_I_I_I I I I_I_I_LJ_Ü_I_I_'ill_I_I_■ ■ ■ ■ 1

Fig. 1.2.3. The behavior of A as a function of rigidity and kinetic energy for galactic CR at low solar activity in 1965 and at high solar activity in 1969. According to Lezniak and Webber (1974).

Results shown in Fig. 1.2.3 are in accordance with Fig. 1.9.4-1.9.8 in Section 1.9.7. This means that the main role in the low energy particle scattering in the interplanetary space should be played not by the magnetic clouds but by the inhomogeneities with the field structure of various complexities. The maximum size of the inhomogeneities may be estimated on the basis of comparison between Fig. 1.2.3 with Fig. 1.9.4-1.9.8 in Section 1.9.7. Since it follows from this

comparison that = 3 X10 V in 1965 and = 7 x10 V in 1969, we obtain

A1 ~ 2.5 X 10 cm in 1965 and A1 ~ 6 x1010cm in 1969 near the Earth orbit at

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