Trick Photography and Special Effects
There are many different optical effects that can result in spurious images or distort real ones. Aim your camera at a bright light and you're almost certain to see something. Dirty filters or shooting through a dirty window can cause odd spots and dots. Any one of these should be pretty obvious to an amateur astronomer, so I don't propose going into any detail.
The first recorded reference to the optical effects of thin films was made by Lord Rayleigh in 1886. He noted that the amount of light reflected from glass surfaces decreased as they became slightly tarnished with age. He attributed it to the formation of a superficial layer of different refractive index on the surface. It is now common practice to coat glass surfaces with a dielectric material which has a lower refractive index than the glass to improve aspects of optical performance.
*Some software, such as MPO-PhotoRed will perform the calculations correctly even if the two exposures are not identical. In order for the calculations to be valid, the imager's reported exposure duration must be equal to its actual duration. If very short exposures are used (e.g., less than a second), then you are placing demands on shutter speed and consistency that should be checked by experiment with your equipment. In addition, for very short exposures, you may find that the effective exposure duration varies across the field of view.
Figure 5.7 summarizes these dependencies for the turbulence structure shown in figure 5.3. This figure supports the general simplification that for some of the optical effects, at least, the turbulence can be described as being mainly in two distinct regions one close to the ground, and one in the region of 10 km height, although one should remember that the phase correlations are almost entirely determined by the lower of these layers.
Be sure to cancel the flash mode on the camera. Set the camera to focus for infinity, shutter priority, ISO 100 and remote or self-timing. Although the Moon appears to be solely shades of gray, do not set the camera for black-and-white photography. You may lose some detail but you can change the image to black-and-white when you process it in your computer. For photographs of the Moon at low magnification, depending on the phase, use shutter speeds from 1 80 to 1 50 of a second. Then take several photographs at each of several increasing magnifications. For the highest, the shutter speed may be as long as V2 second with an 80-mm refractor. Take high magnification photographs of overlapping sections along the terminator. To be sure, it takes some experimenting and not a little patience to become familiar with the procedure for getting excellent photographs, but is well worth the effort.
Optical effects (reflection, diffraction, absorption in polysilicon layers, etc.) leading to discrepancies between the incident laser energy and LET simulation adequacy suffers due to metal strip shadowing. Nevertheless, laser simulators are very useful tools in IC response investigation in space radiation environment.
The reason that you cannot view faint objects in detail is that your eyes send images to your brain too rapidly. While you can adjust the shutter speed on a camera, or the read-out time for a CCD in order to collect more light, you cannot alter your basic physiology to slow down the transmission of signals to your brain.
JMI NGT-18 telescope with complete Astrovid 2000 video assembly and video control box (on the table), which provides manual gain, shutter speed settings, as well as contrast. JMI NGT-18 telescope with complete Astrovid 2000 video assembly and video control box (on the table), which provides manual gain, shutter speed settings, as well as contrast.
If the camera has mirror lock (Canon) or exposure delay (Nikon), turn that feature on. Let the camera autofocus and take a picture using the self-timer or cable release. View the picture at maximum magnification on the LCD display and evaluate its sharpness. Switch to manual focus and try again, varying the focus slightly until you find the best setting. Also adjust the exposure for best results. If you have mirror lock or prefire, you can stop down to f 8 and use a slower shutter speed.
Almost two hundred years ago William Wordsworth wrote 'My heart leaps up when I behold a rainbow in the sky'. These simple words neatly express the delight that this most colourful of atmospheric light patterns evokes. Rainbows can be enjoyed without any understanding of the underlying optical effects, but some knowledge of their characteristics is not hard to acquire.
It cannot be overemphasised that by far the best form of cleaning of optical surfaces is to prevent the dirt from accumulating there in the first place (i.e., use rain guards, lens caps, and cases whenever appropriate). The reason for this is that it is extremely easy to damage optical surfaces by cleaning them. In reality, an optical surface has to be quite filthy before the dirt has an optical effect that is significantly noticeable during visual observation and there is a real need to clean it. The objective lenses of my binoculars go for years without being cleaned, and the eyepieces may only be cleaned once a year, although those that I use for star parties tend to need a clean after each event.
One of these confidence-building tests involved 'mapping' Earth's charged-particle environment, which varied dramatically as Columbia circled the globe in periods of sunlight and darkness every 45 minutes. During this time, Nicollier also activated the Tether Optical Phenomena (TOP) experiment, developed by Stephen Mende of Lockheed Martin's Palo Alto Research Laboratory in California this employed a hand-held, low-light-level television camera to provide visual data in support of questions concerning tether dynamics and the optical effects created by
He noticed that many of the ones that were observed edge on possessed an equatorial band of obscuring matter. If the Milky Way were such a system and possessed this obscuring matter, then this fact would explain why no distant nebulae were observed in the band of the galaxy. The zone of avoidance would then be a simple optical effect and would not imply any physical connection between the nebulae and the galaxy. Curtis's study of novae in photographic plates of spiral nebulae seemed to indicate that they were similar in kind to the novae in the Milky Way. Their faintness and apparent similarity to galactic novae would mean that the spirals were at a very great distance. The 1885 nova in Andromeda was interpreted as an exceptionally bright event not typical of the class of novae as a whole. The discovery by Vesto Slipher (1875-1969) in 1916 of very large radial velocities of spiral nebulae (discussed in more detail in the next chapter) indicated to some astronomers that these objects...
Camera users, who first voiced skepticism when hearing that these little devices could rival more expensive CCD cameras, later wound up changing their minds when they saw the resulting images. Without a doubt, webcams are swiftly becoming the preferred CCD devices for imaging the planets. They are very easy to use and inexpensive, with prices starting just under 150. Webcams are also extremely lightweight and compact, and connect to a computer by way of an available USB port, and those sold for astronomy purposes feature removable lenses and convenient adapters that easily slip into the eyepiece holder of the telescope, as seen in Figure 9.7. To make them suitably within the means of most amateur astronomers, webcams embody relatively small CCD chips (preferred models use CCD chips as opposed to CMOS chips), yet their smaller pixels mean higher resolution and relatively large images. Viewing of images essentially occurs in real time on a computer monitor, and focusing takes place by...
Thus far the deleterious effects of the atmosphere on the image due to density inhomogeneities in the path of optical wavefront have been discussed in chapter 5, and the retrieval of image by means of off-line processing is highlighted in chapter 6. This chapter enumerates the recent developments in technology that have enabled the correction of perturbations in the wavefronts in real time by incorporating a controllable counter wave-front distortion which both spatially and temporally follows that of the atmosphere. For long-exposure and high resolution imaging, it is essential to compensate for atmospheric turbulence in real time. Such a technique, referred to adaptive optics (AO) system, refers to optical systems which adapt to correct the optical effects introduced by the medium between the object and its image. It performs two main functions such as, (i) sensing the wavefront perturbations, as well as (ii) compensating the disturbances in real time.
The Nikon Coolpix 990 995 4500 are great cameras for afocal photography. Their small lens provides a good optical match to eyepieces. They have automatic operation and full manual control of focus, aperture and shutter speed. Also, they I use the Coolpix 990 in manual exposure mode with the aperture set wide open and the shutter speed adjusted for correct exposure. Manual focus is set to infinity, and the flash is disabled. Camera sensitivity is best set to ISO 100 based on my experience with test images at ISO 100, 200 and 400. The higher ISO speed allows faster shutter speed but the images become very noisy. White balance is set to direct sunlight for all images. Contrast and brightness are set to normal, causing the same contrast and brightness adjustments on all images. Image sharpening is set to high and image size is set to the maximum of 2048 x 1536 pixels. Metering is not used.
There are several ways in which a temperature inversion can be brought about. For example, the lowest layer of a mass of air resting on a much cooler surface is cooled by the surface. At mid latitudes, such inversions frequently occur over lakes and bays on still, warm afternoons in spring and early summer. In Arctic and Antarctic regions, the source of warm air is usually a cell of high-pressure air sandwiched between weather fronts, while the cold surface is either a vast ice field, or a huge stretch of icy-cold water. In fact the optical effects of the superior mirage are sometimes referred to as high-pressure refraction. High-pressure air generally brings with it clear, stable conditions followed by short-lived but violent cold-front storms, and a feature associated with the Arctic mirage is excellent visibility followed by storms. Sometimes the temperature inversion occurs at some distance above the Earth's surface. These so-called 'lifted' inversions are responsible for...
A curious effect can be noticed at twilight, or whenever the intensity of illumination is greatly reduced. The effect is named after the man who first brought it to public attention. His name was Evangelista Purkinje, and he was the Professor of Physiology at the University of Prague until his death. He discovered many interesting eye-related optical effects, one of which has come to be known as the Purkinje effect.
Next, I decided to capture a few calcium K images through my CaK 70 using my CEMAX 12-mm and Canon s100 2.0Mpix digital camera, since I have had such great success in the past with the same eyepiece camera combination. In order to capture a properly exposed image with the s100, I had to increase the exposure compensation +2 3 of a stop from the usual default value of zero that I used for capturing hydrogen alpha images. I noticed that the calcium K image appears much brighter on the cameras with liquid-crystal display (LCD) screen than a hydrogen alpha image does. I am not sure if this is because the LCD viewfinder is better at displaying it or the CCD imager is better at capturing it. In either event, I have found that capturing a quality calcium K image is much easier than capturing a hydrogen alpha image. Since I capture all my images by handholding my Canon s100 up to the eyepiece on a scope that is on an unguided and relatively unstable photo tripod, I usually need to capture at...
These optical effects, due to scattering by the atmosphere of Venus, were unsuspected until transits were first watched. They limit the accuracy with which the phenomena may be timed, and that has important scientific and practical repercussions, as we will now see.
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