A decade of extrasolar planets around normal stars

Proceedings of the Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium, held in Baltimore, Maryland May 2-5, 2005 Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA Published for the Space Telescope Science Institute Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America...

Summary

Migration via gravitational interactions between planets and the gaseous protoplane-tary disk appears to be central to understanding both the formation of gas giant planets, and their early orbital evolution to yield the extrasolar planetary systems currently being observed. Although there are uncertainties in our understanding of migration, there has also been enough progress to convince us that Type I migration is probably a vital ingredient in the formation of gas giant planets via core...

Type II migration

Conditions for the onset of Type II migration In a viscous disk, the threshold between Type I and Type II migration can be derived by equating the time scale for Type I torques to open a gap (in the absence of viscosity) with the time scale for viscous diffusion to fill it in (Goldreich & Tremaine 1980 Papaloizou & Lin 1984). For a gap of width Ar around a planet with mass ratio q Mp Mt, orbiting at distance rp, Type I torques can open the gap on a timescale (Takeuchi, Miyama, &...

How long does the dissipation process take once initiated

Once the process of disk dissipation starts, how long does it take for an individual object to transition from optically thick to optically thin dust The expectation is for a short transition, based on calculations of initial grain growth via pairwise sticking collisions followed by runaway growth that forms large planetesimals (Moon-sized) on timescales of only 105 yr (e.g., Wetherill & Stewart 1993 Weidenshilling & Cuzzi 1993). Is there a radial dependence to the disk clearing or do...

Primary transits

The primary transit by an extrasolar planet, in which the planet passes between its parent star and the Earth, is useful for several reasons. The light curves from such transits have been used to estimate gross properties of all of the presently known transiting planets and of their stars, measuring the stellar and planetary radii, the inclination of the planets' orbit, and the strength of limb darkening on the stars. Moreover, for the two nearest transiting planets, more-or-less successful...

The CAGC computer model

At the time of this conference, there are four groups that have computer models based on the CAGC formation of gas giant planets the collaborators at NASA-Ames Research Center and University of California at Santa Cruz (referred to ARC UCSC group) the group in Japan the group in Bern, Switzerland and G. Wuchterl. The first three groups use a similar technique based on a modified stellar structure evolution code, and Wuchterl uses a fully hydrodynamical computer code to model the evolving...

E 4211 yrs

Inner rings of a tcool 2 simulation at a late time in the asymptotic phase. The curves are azimuthally averaged surface densities. The ABR and SBR, the active and secondary boundary rings, are nearly axisymmetric in structure. The numbered bars along the bottom indicate where inner Lindblad resonances with outer disk patterns can be detected by Fourier analysis. The numbers indicate the m-value or armedness of the modes. Note that resonances seem to straddle all strong radial...

By Joan Najita

National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA Significant progress has been made over the last few decades in probing the gaseous component of planet-forming disks. I discuss how an understanding of the evolution of the gas in disks can help us to understand the processes of giant and terrestrial planet formation. I also discuss the observational tools that are currently available to study the gaseous component. These include in situ probes of the gas, as well as more indirect...