Project Management Templates

PM Milestone 7000 Business Templates

PM Milestone Documents address the needs of each phase of your project, across each project management discipline. These economical tools have been developed, tested and proven in the project management of projects ranging from small, personal projects to multi-billion dollar international projects and are now made available to promote excellent project management practices across the industry. These documents are specifically suited for the contractual aspects of Businesses and the project aspects of Business Plans, Human Resource, Tender Management, Establish, Planning, Execution, Safety and Hand over covering the entire Project Life Cycle. Your time is too valuable to spend hours searching the Internet or building your own project management documents from scratch. With the power of our PM Milestone, youll get professional, high-quality results at a fraction of the time and cost. All documents have been written by experienced consultants, who have drawn upon years of experience across a wide range of organizations. More here...

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Project Management

One cannot review the process of instrument development without a few words about the role of project management. Project management for instrumentation to be flown on a spacecraft is particularly challenging for a number of important reasons Flight hardware projects are almost invariably the province of international consortia of participating science groups. Usually no formal, legal arrangement exists between the members of such consortia and each member is separately funded. As with any gathering of organisations, there will be conflicting agendas at some level. Each member will need to prioritise its activities in the context of its own engineering and science programme. An overall project manager will be appointed but will have little or no direct authority over consortium members (with the exception of their own local team). The challenge of project management to coordinate effectively without authority is particularly apposite to scientific instrument development by university...

Conducting the observations

This is one project where the leader's organizing and planning skills will be critical to success Observers must be recruited, the purpose and strategy explained, and detailed plans prepared. The leader will need to determine the availability of equipment for everyone, and perhaps arrange for necessary borrowing and lending (e.g., not everyone has a stopwatch, some people may need to share transportation, etc). The leader will also want to examine the planned observing location at least a few days in advance of the event (especially if it is in an unfamiliar area) to select observing sites, establish the inner and outer boundaries of the predicted observation path, discuss access permission with private property owners, evaluate the safety and security of roadside or wilderness territory, etc. These are all of the things you'd do for a total occultation or asteroid occultation expedition, multiplied by the fact that you're planning for multiple observing sites that will be scattered...

Spacewalking from the Shuttle

Yet, originally, in the early development of the Shuttle, an EVA capability was considered unnecessary and was not provided. ''The NASA perspective of a Shuttle was an airliner,'' said spacesuit engineer Jim McBarron, ''and the people inside it wouldn't need suits. It was through prompting and questioning that Aaron Cohen, who was then the Shuttle project manager, finally accepted a contingency capability for closing the payload bay doors - which was an issue they were faced with - to put an EVA capability on the Shuttle.''

Acquiring a Launch Site

Debus took the occasion of the top-level meeting at Huntsville on 25 April 1961 to brief Robert Seamans, NASA Associate Administrator, on the mobile launch concept, the conferees discussed other questions, especially the lack of space at Cape Canaveral. Gen. Donald Ostrander, Dr Wernher von Braun, and William Fleming, soon to be head of the Project Review Division, participated in the discussion. At its conclusion, Debus was directed to meet with Maj. Gen. Leighton I. Davis, commander of the Air Force Missile Test Center, to discuss NASA's need for additional land.1 The presidential challenge (a man on the moon by 1970) lent urgency to Debus's inquiry. Very likely, the launching of a moon rocket, Saturn or Nova, would create blast hazards requiring a large safety zone around the pad. Acquisition of many acres of real estate was the next step in building the moonport and the question facing the Launch Operations Directorate (LOD) was, Where The answer would prove twofold NASA...

New Contractors with New Roles

LOC's peculiar relationship with the stage contractors caused difficulties during the next two years. The stage contractors, still working under contracts with Marshall, looked to Huntsville for direction and contract management. The launch team's efforts to monitor contractor operations, suggest equipment modifications, or obtain information on contractor requirements were relayed by the contractor to his home office and from there to Marshall. Douglas officials pointed up the awkwardness of the arrangement during the SA-5 launch preparations when they questioned the launch team's right to reject company work. Douglas officials refused to yield until Col. Lee B. James, Saturn I-IB Project Manager in Huntsville, notified company management that LOC was responsible for the quality of S-IV stage equipment at the Cape.17

Alls Well That Ends Well

Lee James, Marshall's Saturn I-IB project manager, and Ted Smith, Douglas director of S-IV stage development, were among the 200 who gathered at the LC-37 blockhouse on Sunday evening for the start of the SA-5 countdown. Robert Moser was test supervisor for the operation KSC's John Twigg and Douglas's John Churchwell served as test conductors for the S-I and S-IV stages. There were three holds during the night 3 minutes for network checks, a 17-minute hold for battery verification, and a 27-minute hold to change an accelerometer. Shortly after sunrise the launch team discovered a leak in the S-IV main LOX line that took 48 minutes to correct. 35

Flight rules overruled 169

''This is an excellent use of the Shuttle to perform microgravity experiments that are primarily operated remotely from the ground,'' said USMP Project Manager David Jarrett, adding that the ability to exercise such control would provide scientists with useful experience as NASA prepared to build a permanent space station in the mid-to-late 1990s. In terms of the kind of research being conducted, USMP could be envisaged as an 'automated' version of USML-1 flown on Columbia's previous mission, since it too was designed to capitalise on the United States' lead on worldwide microgravity research.

An Example of Complexity on the ISS

In response to the need for a modern escape vehicle capable of transporting all seven crew members, NASA is close to completing the development of a 4 billion escape vehicle called the X-38 that will replace the smaller Soyuz. The X-38, a twenty-nine-foot-long triangular pod, would use its body like a wing to glide back to Earth. Engineers have already tested two versions of the craft by dropping them from a B-52 aircraft over the California desert. The final version is anticipated for delivery in 2004. According to John Muratore, project manager for the X-38 project at Johnson Space Center in Houston

Columbia returns home to KSC 177

''This experiment is important to the semiconductor industry because the ability of semiconductors to process and store information is dependent on the quality of the crystals used,'' said Boeing's CVTE Project Manager Barbara Heizer before the flight. ''Large, uniform crystals grown during spaceflight may lead to greater speed and capability for computers, sensors and other electronic devices.''

Prospects for Extremely Large Telescopes

A period of time the California universities merged their efforts with those of the U.S. and Canadian national observatories, in what is now termed a public-private partnership. Both of those organizations had carried out studies of their own for a Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope (GSMT) and a Very Large Optical Telescope (VLOT). The partnership was later renamed the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project and Gary Sanders (Caltech) was appointed as the Project Manager. Due to conflict-of-interest issues, the U.S. National Observatory later withdrew its direct participation in the TMT project. Other large consortia also formed with the intention of building an ELT using one of the other technologies. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a project to build a multiple mirror telescope with an effective aperture of 20 m using the borosilicate honeycomb technology and individual primaries of 8.4 m. Around the same time period, the European Southern Observatory consortium of nations began to...

T he Role of the c urator

Tor, project manager, site administrator, technical support, computer graphic artist, tutor, and not least, diary secretary. The curator also provided and supported the design brief, through providing detailed pages focusing on the stained-glass design process. Those artists who accessed and followed this advice made the most appropriate designs in a medieval style, and commented on its being valuable to them. However, the stained-glass artists did not use the Web site help as much as the inexperienced artists as due to having prior expert knowledge. Consequently some of their designs conformed more to their individual style than the Rose windows medieval glass brief.

Controversial Flight

Nevertheless, Holloway had called for an unscheduled pre-flight assessment of the mission's rat research plans however, he would later deny that he had felt pressurised to do so by either the White House or NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. ''I know there were rumours to the contrary, but I did it,'' he said of the assessment, which was led by Deputy Surgeon-General Robert Whitney of the Department of Health and Human Services. Still, the SLS-2 project management were quick to stress that they were treating the dissection of the rats as delicately as possible. ''We expect some public concern about the animal work we will be doing,'' NASA's SLS-2 project manager Frank Sulzman said before the flight. ''We feel we have done everything that should be done in order to ensure that these animals are treated humanely and that we conform to standard practices for animal care and research.'' Whitney's probe broadly agreed with Sulzman's comments, describing the agency's animal-care review process...

Spacecraft Engineering The Final Frontier

Most people, I believe, consider spacecraft engineering to be at the cutting edge of technology, so it comes as something of a surprise that it is often very conservative in its approach. On the one hand, we have subsystem engineers who are always striving to develop new ideas and technologies in their specialist area, to improve the performance of the spacecraft, while at the same time reducing its mass and power requirements. This kind of innovative engineering is the life-blood of the sort of person who becomes a talented and dedicated subsystem specialist. On the other hand, new ideas bring with them questions about their feasibility Will they work in orbit How long will it take and how much will it cost to test a new idea to answer these questions to the satisfaction of the project managers Essentially such innovations introduce risk into the situation, and this kind of risk poses a threat to program schedules, with consequent impact on project costs. Thus we end up in a...

Macromanagement prototypes

The management of space enterprises is in transition, from the way short-duration spaceflights have been managed for the past 40 years, to high-technology, computer-based project management and leadership, which is quite flexible and multinational in scope. The new global space approach may possibly create an ad hoc consortium, possibly with the United Nations or UNESCO as sponsor, comparable with the coalition of allies in the Gulf War. Or it may require the creation of a world space

Emerging Space Roles Of Earthbased Managers

University schools of business and management have yet to produce significant research on the challenges in managing offworld macroprojects. Analysis needs to be devoted to the expertise and skills necessary for Earth-based managers of projects occurring hundreds or thousands of miles away from them. We have much to learn in this regard from previous project managers of unmanned probes by spacecraft, such as the Mariner, Viking, Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo missions, as well as from those who managed the Luna, Soyuz, Mir, and Energia programs. A book on space project management has yet to be written the issues range from limited controls to tele-operations (the control on Earth by an operator of a machine that is at a remote location in space). New management problems are likely to be experienced related to queuing time'' (signal delays between operator and command and machine response and back). Some of the management changes relate to the use of automation and robotics in space. The...

Software as Systems Integrator

Portant to them,'' Martin recalled, ''to know exactly what was happening every instant of time.'' He characterized the debate over synchronous versus asynchronous executives as ''almost a religious war.''24 Again, the analogy of project management is instructive should everything be directed from a central location on a precise schedule Or coordinated in a looser, almost organic form This seemingly arcane technical debate had implications that would surface dramatically in the final seconds of Apollo 11.

Iss Learnings In Macromanagement

Building, orbiting, maintaining. and staffing the two orbital laboratories called Mir and the International Space Station were momentous achievements, as well as awesome engineering feats that confirm the need for improved space management synergy 40 . However, given the histories of both these space stations, there must be a better way to manage space macroprojects. Building on experience in high-technology management, it will require macromanagement skills if numerous spaceports are to be constructed on the ground or in orbit, along with a lunar base in the decades ahead. That means creating a macroproject with a business focus, financial controls, adaptability, organizational cohesion, entrepreneurial culture, and a sense of integrity (as Professor Sean O'Keefe once lectured to his students at Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs). Also space agencies and corporations, as well as schools of business and engineering, will have to provide education...

The Deepest Photo of Space

On March 9, 2004, astronomers working with the Hubble telescope unveiled the most distant portrait of the visible universe ever achieved. Named the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), this photograph revealed images of the first galaxies to emerge shortly after the big bang, a time when the first stars reheated the cold, dark universe. This historic new view is actually two separate images, one taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the other by its Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Both images, when combined, reveal galaxies that are too faint to be seen by ground-based telescopes. In an interview found on the Web site, project manager Massimo Stiavelli states, Hubble takes us to within a stone's throw of the Big Bang itself. Referring to the image studded with a wide range of galaxies of various sizes, shapes, and colors, Stiavelli adds, There is a zoo of oddball galaxies littering the field. Some look like toothpicks others...

Washington Double Star Catalogue USNO httpad usnonavymilwdswdshtml

Primary source of data on any double star. Suggested lists of neglected and unconfirmed pairs for observing. Current version of the orbital catalogue (Sixth) is at http wds. Third speckle catalogue CD-ROM (June 2001) can be obtained by e-mail or post from Dr. Brian D. Mason , Project Manager, Washington Double Star Program, Astrometry Department, US Naval Observatory, 340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20392-5420, phone 202-762-1412 fax 202-762-1516 email bdm draco.

URSAM Makes Its Debut

After winning the criteria contract, URSAM directors hired retired Col. William D. Alexander as project manager to coordinate the work and ensure firm adherence to schedules. Alexander had served as Chief of Facilities Design for the Air Force's Ballistic Missile Program in his last assignment. He took charge of the VAB design project when a 16-man team from URSAM began work at Cape Canaveral on 10 September 1962. The first major decision called for a back-to-back placement of the four bays. see chapter 6-5

Hot Science In A Warm

Zhou Weijia Wisconsin

On STS-107, two different plants - a rose and an Asian rice flower - were housed inside Astroculture and, as of 24 January, their growth was proceeding well. ''It's truly fascinating to see two flower plants doing very well up there,'' said project manager Weijia Zhou of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, which worked jointly with IFF on the study, adding that ''the space-grown rose is a mild and pleasant kind of aroma the other Earth-grown is strong''.

Surveys and data archives the virtual observatory

Formed in June 2002 with over 16 member countries, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) has the goal of facilitating international coordination and collaboration for the development of the tools, systems, and organizational structures needed to enable an integrated, worldwide, virtual observatory with access to enormous data archives. As Robert Hanisch, project manager of the U.S. National Virtual Observatory, and Peter Quinn, director of the ESO Astrophysical Virtual Observatory, state in a 2003 introduction to the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), what astronomy is facing is a data avalanche''. Moore's Law is driving astronomy as much as it is the semiconductor industry. Moore's Law is the empirical observation made in 1965 by Gordon E. Moore (co-founder of Intel) that the number of transistors on a chip seemed to be doubling annually. He later modified the estimate to a doubling rate of every two years in 1975. Although in no sense a physical law,...

Usmp2 Longterm Payoff

''These light-scattering optical measurements will help to test theories at temperatures closer to the critical point than is possible on Earth,'' Zeno Project Manager Richard Laurer told journalists on 10 March. As this research went on, astronaut Andy Allen described the purpose and accomplishments of the experiment in a televised downlink. Using a vial filled with freon, he explained to audiences how gases reached their critical points, and added that, knowing for example the critical point of water led to the development of new techniques to decaffeinate coffee.

European isolation studies

In this 1990-1991 undertaking, the focus was on selection and training from 13,000 hopeful British applicants to 150 chosen to take a succession of psychological and medical tests. The latter group took an executive physical, followed by tests of symbolic, mechanical, and spatial reasoning abilities. From these findings, 35 then underwent a day of further psychological tests covering personality, working style, and public presentation skills. By this means, hopefuls were reduced to 22, who received five more days of intensive medical tests, further reducing the number to 16. These were permitted to take the stress tests, centered around a centrifuge, at the Institute of Aviation Medicine in Farnborough, U.K. As successive individuals were eliminated, the assessment process climaxed for 10 with final examination by a team of Soviet doctors who came to London. From these, two were finally picked a woman and a back-up man. Scheduled to actually fly on the...

The Boeingmarshall Space Flight Center Collaboration

Lrv Blueprint

The Apollo Command Module built upon the lessons learned from the Mercury and Gemini capsules. The Saturn V drew heavily from all that was learned from the Saturn I and other smaller launch vehicles. The Lunar Roving Vehicle, however, had no such evolutionary legacy. It was a spacecraft unlike anything else ever done by the United States space program. Boeing's LRV project manager in Huntsville, Henry Kudish, wrote in the July 1970 issue of Space Flight that the LRV was, in fact, ''a very complex spacecraft.'' However, MSFC and the Boeing-GM team did have nearly a decade of previous vehicle studies and prototypes to draw upon that

Ceremonies at Completion

Launch Tower

Although workers had topped out the structural steel in the VAB, the work was far from finished. Steven Harris, VAB project manager, noted that one of the biggest tasks was keeping up with evolving equipment as the work went along. He remarked The VAB was designed and is being constructed concurrently with the development of the Saturn V vehicle, and any changes made on the vehicle or its support equipment may require changes in the building.43 At the time he was speaking, designers had already incorporated some 200 changes into the VAB since construction began, the most recent being modification of the extensible platforms as required by the final design of the mobile launcher. A second major factor in Marion's favor, besides its considerably lower bid, was its announced intention of choosing a project manager from its own personnel, thus saving considerable time in building a team.5 Bucyrus had said it would bring in one from outside. Having received the contract, Marion selected a...

Faster Better And Cheaper

As a result, the designing engineers got stressed, the technicians didn't have enough time for all the tests required and the project management lacked the resources to properly check everything that was being done. The final verdict was that the new missions had been done too quickly and too cheaply.

The Night Launch Of Apollo

Jim Sisson, MSFC Acting Project Manager for the LRV in Huntsville, had been at the Cape to ensure that the LRV's batteries had been fully charged, that there had been good readings on both batteries before it had been closed out, and that there were no other issues with the LRV. He had had a long day on 5 December and got into bed just before midnight. At 3 00 a.m. the following morning, he was awoken from his sleep by a phone call from the Crew Quarters in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building.

Troubled Road To Space

The country - or West Germany, at least - had been one of ESA's strongest members before reunification, but now had to commit an increasing share of its finances to extensive public works improvements in the former East Germany. ''We all realise the effort that needs to be spent to get the former East Germany up to speed, infrastructure-wise,'' said Spacelab-D2 Project Manager Hauke Dodeck. ''We have very tight budgets in all areas, including research and technology.'' Already, Spacelab-D3 had been cancelled, in favour of limited participation in a general, 'pan-European' Spacelab-E1 mission. Ultimately, that flight, too, never took place.

Full Plate Of Experiments

Had Challenger not been lost in January 1986, it is likely that Spacelab-D2 would have taken place some time in 1988, about three years after the D1 mission. The delays in getting the Shuttle back into space, however, pushed it back into 1992 and finally 1993, but the enthusiasm of West Germany - and later the unified Federal Republic - remained intact. ''It is viewed by the general public, as well as the politicians in our government, as a very important mission,'' said Heinz Stoewer, a Spacelab-D2 project manager for DARA which, with DLR (the German Aerospace Research Establishment), was financing the flight.

Onward and Upward with NASA

NASA's failure review board traced the problem to JPL's shoot and hope approach. JPL needed to test components and verify systems on the ground beforehand to ensure that spacecraft would work right the first time. To correct what NASA called a loose anarchistic approach to project management, Pickering assigned new managers to Ranger, bringing in Bob Parks, the former Sergeant manager, as head of the lunar program and Harris Bud Schurmeier as Ranger project manager. Parks and Schurmeier applied the rigorous methods of systems engineering, including a formal design review and failure reporting system. The most important management technique involved design freezes and change control at particular stages the project manager froze the design of a component, allowing modifications only with his written approval. The project manager thus kept individual engineers and scientists from pursuing indefinite improvements at the expense of the overall schedule, budget, and reliability. All of...

The Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope WSRT

As is obvious from Fig. 7.4, the antennas are equatorially mounted. In the mid nineteen sixties this had become an unusual choice for structures of this size, but strongly suggested by the nature of the basic telescope operation. The standard observation would consist of long, mostly 12 hour, source tracking during which the orientation of the east-west baseline rotates with respect to the sky, thereby providing the north-south component in the synthesized aperture plane. With an equatorially mounted antenna this means a single motion about the polar axis with the constant speed of the earth's rotation. In the declination coordinate only the correct value needs to be set before the start of the observation. A simpler positioning and control system is hardly conceivable. And this was precisely what the original design entailed. When a future commissioner explained that he would not be able to determine pointing corrections or obtain beam maps with such a limited control system, a...

The Moon Gets an Automobile

The launch team started preparing for the rover in late 1970 when the requirements document arrived from Marshall Space Flight Center. Arthur Scholz, Boeing's rover project manager at KSC, drew up the test and checkout plan describing the sequence of operations. The first events on the flow chart involved reception and inspection, activation, and calibration of the rover's ground support equipment.

Success under pressure

JPL was handed the task of engineering the rovers, landers and EDL systems, as well as planning the mission operations. Pete Theisinger, a JPL veteran whose experience went back to the Mariner program of 1967, would be the project manager. He assembled a team of the finest available JPL engineers to work on the MER program. Squyers would work with Theisinger's engineers to realize the Athena scientific payload that would go on the rovers. The rovers would be larger than Sojourner and bear little resemblance to the microrover, but it was believed that the Pathfinder EDL system and lander could be used with little modification, though the mass of the eventual rover would prove otherwise. The problems that the MER program would encounter could not be foreseen, but no additional time could be given to the program to resolve them. The rovers had to be launched in a given window of time only several weeks long, or they would have to wait another twenty-six months before trying again - an...

Crew Station Subsystem

There were quite a few of us sent from New Orleans to Huntsville to work on the proposal,'' Kimsey told Jones for the ALSJ. One of the other fellows, Waine Borne, and I had been working together from 1961. We had gotten to be good friends. We both had Model A Fords that we had restored. The Model A has beads around the fenders. I was joking with Waine and drew a bead on the fenders of the Rover. The project manager asked me why I put the bead on the fender and I told him it was to stiffen the fender. The bead remained on the fender. Now it's sitting on the Moon. It is the same width as a Model A Ford. No one but the two of us really knew the story.''

Plasma Cleaning

Contamination is one of the biggest threats to any optical detector system. It is a textbook example of problems that are better prevented than solved. This is easily possible prior to assembly. However if the dewar must be reopened again later, this is where the dilemma begins. On the one hand, there is a significant risk of contamination. However, cleaning by means of the conventional washing and baking not only disrupts the project schedule but can also open a Pandora's box of new problems because disassembling and re-integrating a detector system poses a large variety of risks.

To the Hadley Plains

Arthur Scholz, Boeing's LRV project manager at Kennedy Space Center, stood at the edge of the Cape's famous Skid Strip. Measuring 45 m wide by more than 3,000 m long, the runway was built in the 1950s to permit landing of the U.S. Air Force Snark cruise missile. The Snark employed a simple three-point skid-type landing gear so the missile could be reused for program development. Today, 14 March 1971, the Skid Strip would receive a C-130 Hercules with a very special cargo LRV-1. Scholz spotted the C-130 about the same time he heard the distinctive sound of the plane's four Allison turboprop engines. The plane made a smooth landing and soon came to a stop. The LRV had been shipped bolted to its shipping fixture together they were offloaded onto a truck and taken to the Operations and Checkout Building. For the next six weeks, the rover would undergo an extensive series of inspections and performance checks. Acceptance took place at Boeing in Washington State Checkout and Test would be...

Effects of DOD work

Have otherwise left the lab Did defense work attract only the second-string engineers, people whose absence would not have hurt the planetary program One can identify several individuals in defense projects who would return to leading roles in planetary exploration the Pathfinder experiment had David Evans and Glenn Cunningham as managers and Wesley Huntress as project scientist Anthony Spear was a lead manager on ASAS and other army programs.92 In the 1990s Evans and then Cunningham would serve as project manager for Mars Observer, and Cunningham later ran Mars Global Surveyor Spear would manage Magellan and the other Pathfinder, the Mars mission of 1997 and Huntress directed NASA's space science office. It is doubtful that any of these people would have left JPL without defense assignments, but amid the dearth of deep-space missions, defense projects provided an opportunity for up-and-coming staff to get management experience.


The navy ran Polaris out of the Special Projects Office (SPO), which played a role of systems engineer similar to that played by TRW in the Atlas program. To manage the complexity of the Polaris program, SPO engineers developed the Program Evaluation and Review Technique, or PERT, a method of plotting and tracking complex schedules that survives to this day as a staple of project management, and which NASA and the IL team would see again as part of Apollo.11 Indeed SPO's role on Polaris became one model for NASA's management of Apollo.

Rblllty of ths

LLRV Project Manager, said he understood that Dean Grimm of MSC believed that the LLRV was not configured to have the jet engine provide simulation of a constant-lift rocket thrust in addition to providing the 5 6th g lift. Ryken forwarded to Tarbox a copy of a report, LLRV Automatic Control System Service and Maintenance Manual, plus notes on the system in the hope that these would help him and NASA personnel better understand the system. He also included suggestions about reducing aerodynamic moments which Grimm felt might interfere with LEM simulation.


Cassini also provided one more example of the increasingly commercial mindset of JPL, one that extended into the practice of systems engineering. The number of instrument teams complicated the usual negotiations for mass, money, and power supplies. John Casani, the initial project manager, brought in John Ledyard, a Caltech economist, for advice on the allocation of resources among the teams. Instead of the standard, centralized allocation of reserves by the project manager, Ledyard recommended a decentralized marketplace Casani would give all the reserves to the instrument teams at the outset and then set up an online bazaar. As Casani described it, If you need more money, you say, 'I've got 3 kilograms, what am I bid for it ' You can sell some of your mass margin, or you can sell some of your power margin, or you can sell some of your money margin. Or you can say, 'I need money this year, if you give me a hundred thousand this year I'll give you a hundred twenty-five thousand next...


The concept had attracted particular interest from NASA after the collision of an unmanned Progress resupply freighter into the Mir space station in June 1997, which forced the evacuation and depressurisation of one of its scientific research modules. Had a free-flying camera of AERCam Sprint's capabilities been available, it might have been possible to investigate and acquire high-quality photographs of the damage, without risking human lives on a spacewalk. ''They're Mir's crew limited on the views they can get right now because of where the station's windows are located,'' project manager Cliff Hess said before Columbia's launch. ''That's exactly what AERCam is meant for to give you some other view that you can't get otherwise.''


Named in honor of Roger Byrd, who has 16 years experience in project management, systems research and development, computer systems, and electronics maintenance and repair. He has extensive management experience with the GEODSS Project. He is currently the site manager at the GEODSS site in Maui and he has obtained research and development experiences working on radar projects and various space-related projects, as well as hands-on technical experience of hardware and software. (M 29672)


Muirhead, flight system manager and deputy project manager of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Pathfinder mission. He was responsible for the design, development, test and launch of the Pathfinder spacecraft. He has been commended for his leading role in the successful Pathfinder project and became a highly recognized scientist in the media blitz reporting the status of this remarkable Mars landing. (M 31027)

Red Planet

Since March 2006, when Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) arrived in orbit around Mars, the Red Planet has been placed firmly under the proverbial microscope and has revealed more of its secrets. With the help of his colleagues Tom Thorpe, Jeff Plaut and Diana Blaney, the project manager for the MRO mission, James Graf, describes here the very latest results from all of the Mars missions, both ongoing and recently completed.


Roger Dixon (1947- ) is a staff physicist at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, and Project Manager for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search. He is in charge of and teaches in the Saturday morning physics program for high school students. (M 45337)

Bionic Eyes

Originally, four WSF missions were planned three funded by NASA and a fourth by industry. In May 1998 the Spacehab company acquired the rights to market and manage the Wake Shield from the University of Houston. ''This is a key first step to reassemble the WSF engineering team and bring the hardware out of storage,'' Spacehab project manager Mike Chewning said at the time. ''We have set a very aggressive goal for the flight system to be ready for a mission in mid-1999 and we are all anxious to get started.''

Military Spinoffs

The military took a strong interest in Seasat from the outset. As JPL staff contemplated possible payloads they considered their customers and the relative clout they had with Congress and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) the DOD ranked first, NOAA second, and the scientific community last. The DOD's primary interest in Seasat was in altimetry data for geodesy, necessary for the inertial guidance systems of ballistic missiles, but it also helped support an imaging radar and microwave radiometer. The inclusion of the radar raised the issue of classification. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) had a long history of surveillance use Seasat was just its first civilian flight. JPL staff by April 1974 had recognized the problem of the position we should take if classified systems are flying.15 The next year NASA terminated all contacts with foreigners regarding Seasat, an edict that cut several Canadians out of a collaboration on data processing it also threatened to limit the data...

Unequal Partnership

For its part, NASA would operate Spacelab, fly European astronauts as Payload Specialists on selected missions and possibly procure additional hardware. Project management in the United States went to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, and its growing involvement in selecting and training scientists for Payload Specialist positions on Spacelab missions led to an expression of concern from Houston. At the Johnson Space Center (JSC), Director Chris Kraft was reluctant to permit MSFC to choose and train Payload Specialists, arguing that they should be selected from the present corps residing in Houston. Unforeseen problems with the development of the IPS, which Spacelab's MSFC project manager Jack Lee described as new and different and proposed requirements that we hadn't done before, eventually led to Spacelab-2 being postponed until after the Spacelab-3 mission. The latter incorporated a long module and an external platform in the payload bay, known as a...

Missed Warnings

On flight 5IF and on subsequent launches, read the Rogers report. These constraints had been imposed, and regularly waived, by the Solid Rocket Booster Project Manager at Marshall Space Flight Center , Lawrence B. Mulloy. Neither the launch constraint, the reason for it, or the six consecutive waivers prior to 51L were known to NASA Associate Administrator for Spaceflight Jesse Moore or Launch Director Gene Thomas at the time of the Flight Readiness Review process for 51L


Astronomy provided a third target for diversification, owing to NASA's increasing support of it. JPL staff had recognized NASA's interest and pondered how to tap into it.69 The first opportunity appeared in the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), which NASA awarded to JPL in April 1976, apparently to draw on JPL's experience in systems engineering and perhaps also the proximity to Caltech astronomer Gerry Neugebauer, a longtime proponent of the project. JPL handled overall project management on IRAS, while Ball Brothers built the telescope itself under guidance from Ames the Netherlands provided the satellite bus.70 Then, in March 1977 NASA announced a competition to provide a key component for the Space Telescope, for what would be known as the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WF PC). A team led by Caltech astronomer James A. Westphal responded with a proposal based on charge-coupled devices (CCDs), which converted light falling on individual solid-state pixels into electrical signals....

Birth Of Challenger

The NASA perspective of the Shuttle was an airliner, explained spacesuit engineer Jim McBarron, and the people inside it wouldn't need suits. It was through prompting and questioning that Aaron Cohen, who was then the Shuttle's project manager, accepted a contingency capability for closing the payload bay doors - which was an issue they were faced with - to put in an EVA capability.


499-500, 643 Earth orbit environment 20-36 Earth sensors 312-13 EarthSun acceleration ratios 147 EarthSun system 107 EarthSun vector 119 Earth-synchronism 125 Earth-synchronous orbit 122, 123 Earth synchronization versus altitude 126 Earth triaxiality perturbation 137 Earth's atmosphere, propagation in 417-22 Earth's gravitational field 95 Earth's magnetic environment 23 Earth's magnetic field 25, 26 Earth's shadow, orbit intersection with 120 East West station-keeping 141 Eastern Test Range 222 eccentric anomaly definition 86 eccentricity 84 eclipse 327-8,344 duration 118-20 effective aperture 423 effective conductance 378 effective emittance 365, 368 effective project management 586 ejection of panicles 52 electric field emissions 546 electric fields 536-7 electric motors 520

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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