Contents

Part I X-Ray Astronomical Instrumentation

1 Overview 3

R. Staubert and J. Triimper

2 Proportional Counters 5

E. Pfeffermann

2.1 Introduction 5

2.2 Gaseous Detectors 5

2.3 Operation Principle of a Proportional Counter 6

2.3.1 Quantum Efficiency of Proportional Counters 7

2.3.2 Energy Resolution 8

2.3.3 Time Resolution 9

2.3.4 Background Rejection Capability 9

2.3.5 DetectorLifetime 9

2.4 Large Area Proportional Counters for X-Ray Astronomy 10

2.5 Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters 11

References 13

3 Scintillation Counters 15

E. Kendziorra

3.1 Introduction 15

3.2 Scintillation Counters for X-Ray Astronomy 16

References 19

4 Imaging Proportional Counters 21

E. Pfeffermann

4.1 Introduction 21

4.2 Geometry of Multiwire Proportional Counters 21

4.3 Position Resolution of Multiwire Proportional Counters 22

4.4 Position Readout Methods 23

4.5 The ROSAT PSPC 25

4.6 Imaging Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters 26

References 28

5 Aperture Modulation Telescopes 29

R. Staubert

5.1 Principle of Aperture Modulation 29

5.1.1 Temporal Aperture Modulation 29

5.1.2 Spatial Aperture Modulation 33

5.2 Various Coded-Mask Telescope Missions 37

References 39

6 Wolter Optics 41

P. Friedrich

6.1 Principle 41

6.2 Wolter-Type Telescopes 43

6.3 General Imaging Properties 45

6.4 Nesting of Mirror Shells 47

6.5 Fabrication Techniques for Wolter Telescopes 48

6.6 Missions with Wolter Telescopes 49

References 50

7 CCD Detectors 51

L. Struder and N. Meidinger

7.1 Introduction 51

7.2 MOS CCDs 52

7.3 Fully Depleted Back-Illuminated pnCCDs 52

7.3.1 The Concept of Fully Depleted, Back-Illuminated, Radiation Hard pnCCDs 53

7.3.2 Limitations of the CCD Performance 57

7.3.3 Detector Performance (On Ground and In Orbit) 61

7.3.4 Frame Store pnCCDs for Basic and Applied Science 65

7.3.5 New Devices 68

7.4 New Detector Developments: Active Pixel Sensors for X-Rays ... 68

7.5 Conclusion 70

References 71

8 High Resolution Spectroscopy 73

P. Predehl

8.1 Introduction 73

8.2 Transmission Gratings 73

8.2.1 EinsteinOGS 76

8.2.2 EXOSATTG 77

8.3 Chandra 77

8.3.1 Chandra HETG 78

8.3.2 Chandra LETG 78

8.4 Reflection Gratings: XMM-Newton RGS 79

8.5 Bolometers 82

References 82

Contents ix Part II Galactic X-Ray Astronomy

9 Solar System Objects 85

K. Dennerl

9.1 Introduction 85

9.2 Solar X-Rays 86

9.3 Solar Wind 87

9.3.1 Comets 87

9.3.2 Geocorona, Mars Exosphere, and Heliosphere 89

9.3.3 Magnetized Planets 91

9.4 What do We Learn from the X-Ray Observations? 94

References 95

10 Nuclear Burning Stars 97

J.H.M.M. Schmitt and B. Stelzer

10.1 The Sun, Stars, and Stellar X-Ray Astronomy 97

10.1.1 Advances of Stellar X-Ray Astronomy 97

10.1.2 TheX-RaySun 99

10.1.3 Spatial Structure of Stellar Coronae 100

10.1.4 X-RayFlaring 100

10.1.5 ROSAT All-Sky Survey: Which Stars are X-Ray Emitters? 102

10.1.6 Connection of X-Ray Emission with Other Stellar Parameters 105

10.2 Cool Stars On and Off the Main-Sequence 106

10.2.1 Stellar Interiors and Magnetic Dynamos 106

10.2.2 Cool Field Stars in the Solar Neighborhood 107

10.2.3 Intermediate-Mass Stars 108

10.2.4 OpenClusters 110

10.2.5 EvolvedStars 111

10.2.6 CloseBinaries 114

10.3 Very Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs 114

10.3.1 Magnetic Activity on VLM Stars and Brown Dwarfs 115

10.4 Premain Sequence Stars 118

10.4.1 The Role of Magnetic Fields on Premain

Sequence Stars 119

10.4.2 X-Ray Emission from T Tauri Stars 119

10.4.3 X-Ray Emission from HAeBe Stars 123

10.4.4 X-Ray Emission from Low-Mass Protostars 125

10.4.5 Other Types of X-Ray Sources

Related to Star Formation 126

10.5 Stellar Wind Sources 126

10.6 Stars with Magnetic Winds 128

References 130

11 White Dwarfs 133

K. Werner

11.1 Introduction 133

11.2 Discovery of X-Rays from White Dwarfs 133

11.3 ROSAT 135

11.4 X-Ray Spectroscopy with EUVE, Chandra, and XMM-Newton 137

11.5 Hydrogen-Deficient White Dwarfs 139

References 142

12 X-Ray Emission of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects 145

K. Beuermann

12.1 Historical Introduction 145

12.2 The Zoo of CVs 146

12.3 Accretion Geometries 147

12.3.1 Nonmagnetic CVs 148

12.3.2 Magnetic CVs 148

12.4 X-Ray and EUV Emission from Nonmagnetic CVs 150

12.5 X-Rays from Intermediate Polars 151

12.6 X-Rays from Polars 154

12.7 Accretion Rates 157

12.8 Novae and Close-Binary Supersoft Sources (CBSS) 160

12.8.1 The Relation between CVs, Novae, and CBSS 160

12.8.2 Close-Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources (CBSS) 162

References 166

13 Classical Novae 169

J. Krautter

13.1 Introduction 169

13.2 Sources of X-Rays 170

13.3 EXOSAT: A Rather Noisy Beginning 171

13.4 ROSAT: Basic Properties 172

13.5 Chandra and XMM: High Resolution and New Surprises 176

13.6 Concluding Remarks 181

References 182

14 Pulsars and Isolated Neutron Stars 183

14.1 Introduction: Historical Overview 183

14.2 Physics and Astrophysics of Isolated Neutron Stars 185

14.2.1 Rotation-Powered Pulsars:

The Magnetic Braking Model 185

14.2.2 High-Energy Emission Models 187

14.3 High-Energy Emission Properties of Neutron Stars 192

14.3.1 Young Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants 193

14.3.2 Cooling Neutron Stars 200

14.3.3 Millisecond Pulsars 208

14.3.4 Summary 213

References 213

15 Accreting Neutron Stars 217

R. Staubert

15.1 Introduction 217

15.2 Overview 218

15.2.1 TheZoo 219

15.2.2 Orbits and Super-Orbital Periods 220

15.2.3 Accretion Physics 221

15.3 High Mass X-ray Binaries: HMXB 222

15.4 Low Mass X-ray Binaries: LMXB 222

15.5 Strongly Magnetized Neutron Stars 223

15.5.1 Classical X-Ray Pulsars 223

15.6 Weakly Magnetized Neutron Stars 228

15.6.1 Z- and Atoll-Sources 229

15.6.2 kHz QPOs 230

15.6.3 Bursters 231

15.6.4 Accreting ms Pulsars 234

15.7 Summary 235

References 235

16 Black-Hole Binaries 237

Y. Tanaka

16.1 Introduction 237

16.2 X-Ray Binaries 238

16.3 Black Holes Identified from Mass Functions 239

16.4 X-Ray Properties 240

16.4.1 Mass Accretion 241

16.4.2 Soft X-Ray Transients 243

16.4.3 X-Ray Spectra 245

16.4.4 Relativistic Iron Line 254

16.5 Quasiperiodic Oscillations 256

16.6 Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources 257

References 258

17 X-Ray Studies of Supernovae and Supernova Remnants 261

R. Petre

17.1 Introduction 261

17.1.1 X-Ray Emission from SNRs 261

17.1.2 Early SNR X-Ray Astrophysics 262

17.1.3 Supernovae 265

17.2 Young SNRs 265

17.2.1 Ejecta Abundances, Distribution, and Ionization Structure in Young SNRs 265

17.2.2 Identification of Shock Structures 274

17.2.3 Equipartition of Ions and Electrons 275

17.2.4 Kinematics 276

17.2.5 Jets and Shrapnel 280

17.2.6 Hard, Nonthermal Continua and Cosmic Ray Acceleration 282

17.2.7 Stellar Remnants 287

17.3 Evolved SNRs 289

17.3.1 The Cygnus Loop 289

17.3.2 Detailed Shock Physics in the Cygnus Loop and Puppis A 290

17.3.3 Mixed Morphology Remnants 291

17.3.4 Ejecta in Evolved SNRs 293

17.3.5 The Monogem Ring 294

17.3.6 Newly Discovered Evolved SNRs 294

17.4 Extragalactic SNRs 295

17.5 X-Ray Supernovae 297

17.5.1 SN 1987A 300

17.5.2 SN 1993J 302

17.5.3 SN 1978K 303

17.5.4 SN 1998bw 304

17.5.5 SN 1970G 304

17.5.6 Type IaSNe 305

17.6 Conclusion 306

References 306

18 The Interstellar Medium 311

D. Breitschwerdt, M. Freyberg, and P. Predehl

18.1 Introduction 311

18.1.1 Gas 311

18.1.3 Outline 314

18.2 Observations of the Hot Interstellar Medium 314

18.2.1 The Pre-ROSAT Era 314

18.2.2 The Contributions by ROSAT 315

18.2.3 The CCD Era and The Future 318

18.3 Models of the Interstellar Medium 318

18.4 Dust Scattering Halos 324

18.4.1 History 324

18.4.2 X-Ray Scattering on Dust Grains 325

18.4.3 Observations and Results 327

References 329

19 The Galactic Center 333

P. Predehl

19.1 Introduction 333

19.1.1 Morphology of the Galactic Center 333

19.1.2 EarlyX-RayObservations 334

19.2 Sgr A East and its Environment 338

19.2.1 The Nature of Sgr A East 338

19.2.2 X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of Sgr A East 338

19.2.3 Bipolar Lobes 339

19.3 SgrA* 339

19.3.1 X-Ray Detection ofSgrA* 339

19.3.2 Flaring SgrA* 339

19.3.3 The Nature ofSgrA* 340

19.4 X-Ray Luminous Molecular Clouds 341

19.4.1 X-Ray Reflection Nebulae 341

References 343

Part III Extragalactic X-Ray Astronomy

20 X-Rays from Nearby Galaxies 347

W. Pietsch

20.1 Introduction 347

20.2 History of X-Ray Observations of Galaxies 347

20.3 Point-Like Emission Components 349

20.3.1 X-RayBinaries 351

20.3.2 Supersoft Sources, Optical Novae 354

20.3.3 Supernova Remnants and Supernovae 356

20.3.4 Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources 357

20.3.5 Galactic Nuclei 358

20.4 Hot Plasma Components 358

20.4.1 Hot Interstellar Medium and Gaseous Outflows in Spiral and Starburst Galaxies 359

20.4.2 Hot Gaseous Emission in Early Type Galaxies 363

20.5 Future Prospects 363

References 364

21 X-Ray Flares in the Cores of Galaxies 367

S. Komossa

21.1 Introduction: Tidal Disruption of Stars by Supermassive Black Holes 367

21.2 X-Ray Flares from Inactive Galaxies 368

21.3 Chandra and XMM-Newton Follow-Up Observations 368

21.4 Future Observations and Applications 371

References 371

22 Active Galactic Nuclei 373

T. Boller

22.1 General Introduction to Active Galaxies 373

22.1.1 Nuclear Components of Active Galaxies 374

22.1.2 The Black Hole 375

22.1.3 The Accretion Disk 375

22.1.4 Signatures of Activity 376

22.2 Introduction to Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies 379

22.3 The X-ray Slope - Optical Line Widths Relation 380

22.3.1 Correlation in the Soft Energy Range 380

22.3.2 Correlation in the Hard Energy Range 382

22.3.3 NLS1s with Extreme and Rapid X-ray Variability 383

22.4 XMM-Newton Discoveries in the High-Energy Spectra of NLS1s 386

22.4.1 Detection of Sharp Spectral Drops Above 7 keV 386

22.4.2 Neutral, Ionized Absorbers or Reflection

Dominated Models 387

22.5 The Nature of the Soft X-ray Excess 388

22.6 Matter Under Strong Gravity 389

22.6.1 Relativistically Blurred Fe K lines 389

22.6.2 The Iron Line Background 389

22.6.3 The Mean Fe K Spectrum Obtained from Stacking Analysis 391

22.6.4 Fe K Line Profile Changes 391

References 392

23 Clusters of Galaxies 395

H. Bohringer

23.1 Introduction 395

23.2 Cluster Masses and Composition 398

23.2.1 Mass Determination 398

23.2.2 Matter Composition 401

23.3 Exploration of Cluster Structure 403

23.3.1 Self-Similarity of Cluster Structure 403

23.3.2 Merging Clusters of Galaxies 407

23.4 The Virgo Cluster and the Variety of Cluster X-ray Morphology .. 410

23.5 Cooling and Heating of the ICM 413

23.5.1 The Observed Thermal Structure of Cool ICM Cores 413

23.5.2 Heating by a Central AGN 415

23.6 Heavy Element Enrichment of the Cluster ICM 416

23.6.1 Origin of the Heavy Elements in the Central Region 418

23.6.2 Supernova Yields 420

23.7 X-Ray Cluster Surveys 421

23.8 Assessing the Cosmic Large-Scale Structure 423

23.9 ClusterEvolution 425

23.10 Testing Cosmological Models 427

23.11 Conclusion and Outlook 429

References 430

24 Gamma-Ray Bursts 435

J. Greiner

24.1 The First 30 Years 435

24.1. 1 Discovery and BATSE Era 435

24.1.2 The Afterglow Era 437

24.2 Major Observational Findings 439

24.2.2 Supernova Features 442

24.2.3 Host Galaxies 443

24.2.4 X-Ray Flashes 444

24.2.5 X-Ray Lines 445

24.2.6 Time-Variable X-ray Halo 446

24.3 The Basic Scenarios for Gamma-Ray Burst Emission 446

24.3.1 GRB Emission Scenarios 446

24.3.2 Two GRB Progenitor Models 450

24.4 Use of GRBs for Cosmology 450

24.5 Outlook: First Results of the Swift Mission 451

References 453

25 Cosmic X-Ray Background 457

G. Hasinger

25.1 The Early History of the X-Ray Background (XRB) 457

25.2 The ROSAT Deep Surveys 458

25.2.1 Technical and Scientific Preparation 458

25.2.2 The Lockman Hole 460

25.2.3 Optica Identifications of ROSAT Surveys 462

25.3 AGN Spectra and Fits to the XRB Spectrum 463

25.4 Deep Surveys with Chandra and XMM-Newton 464

25.5 A Multi-cone Survey AGN-1 Sample 466

25.6 The Soft X-Ray Luminosity Function and Space Density Evolution 468

25.7 X-ray Constraints on the Growth of SMBH 471

25.8 Conclusions 472

References 473

26 The Future 477

G. Hasinger

26.1 Introduction 477

26.2 Space Agency Strategic Planning 478

26.2.1 NASA "Beyond Einstein" Roadmap 478

26.2.2 ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 479

26.3 Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma 479

26.4 The Next Generation Large X-ray Observatory 480

26.4.1 Evolution of Large Scale Structure and Nucleosynthesis . 480

26.4.2 Coeval Evolution of Galaxies and their Supermassive Black Holes 481

26.4.3 Matter Under Extreme Conditions 482

26.4.4 The Current XEUS Concept 482

26.5 Conclusions 483

References 483

Appendix: More Information About X-Ray Missions 485

Index 489

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