Index

absorption dips, 220 accretion accreting binary pulsars, 223 accreting millisecond pulsars, 234 accreting neutron stars, 216-236 accretion barrier, 224 accretion column, 226 accretion disks advection-dominated accretion flow model, 254 AGN, 375

cataclysmic variables, 147 disk corona, 222, 252 neutron stars, 218 precession, 221 standard disk model, 242 X-ray binaries, 241 accretion mound, 227 accretion powered pulsars, 223, 224 accretion stream, 222 accretion torque, 224 cataclysmic variables, 157-159 X-ray binaries, 241-243 active galactic nuclei (AGN), 30, 373-391, 415-416,463 emission lines, 377 Fe II lines, 377 Fe Klines, 389-391 luminosity function, 468-471 relativistic jets, 379 soft X-ray excess, 388 X-ray variability, 384-386 afterglow, see gamma-ray bursts AGB stars, 134

angular resolution, see spatial resolution ANS, see satellites aperture modulation, 28-39 spatial, 33 temporal, 29 Ariel V, see satellites ASCA, see satellites asteroids, 87

asymptotic giant branch, 146

Atoll sources, see quasiperiodic oscillations auroral emission, 90-92

background rejection capability, 9, 10 beat frequency, 230 BeppoSAX, see satellites binaries, see X-ray binaries black holes, 237, 238, 375, 482 blackbody radiation, 246 central massive, 358 intermediate mass, 358 supermassive, 367, 471 bolometers, 82

Boroson & Green eigenvector, 380 brown dwarfs, 106, 114-117 magnetic activity, 115-117 bursters, 220, 231 Bursting Pulsar, 228, 233

cataclysmic variables (CVs), 143-168 accretion rates, 157-159 magnetic CVs, 148-150 intermediate polars, 146, 147, 151-154 polars, 145-147, 154-157 non-magnetic CVs, 146-148, 150-151 catalogs

Bright Star Catalog (BSC), 104 Gliese catalog, 104 NEXXUS, 107 CCDs, 50

active pixel sensors, 68-70 frame store pnCCDs, 65-67 MOS CCDs, 52 pnCCDs, 52-68 central compact objects (CCOs), 198-200 Chandra, see satellites Chandrasekhar mass, 162, 183, 356 charge exchange, 87-91, 94 Class I protostars, 125 COBE, see satellites coded masks coding function, 34 image reconstruction, 33, 35 uniform redundant arrays (URAs), 36 coherent modulation, 220 collimators, 29 grid, 31

rotation modulation, 32 slat, 30

collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), 265 comets, 85, 87-89, 94 X-ray morphology, 88, 89 X-ray spectra, 89 Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), see satellites comptonization, 221, 247 Constellation-X, see satellites cool stars, 106-114 Copernicus, see satellites corona, 97, 100-101 cosmic ray acceleration, 282-287 cosmic X-ray background, 457 cyclotron lines, 221, 223, 227

dark energy, 428, 480 dark matter, 402, 480

halos, 403 degeneracy, 160 detached binaries, 138 detector lifetime, 9 diffraction spectrometer, 73 dithering technique, 37 Doppler effect, 239, 278, 385 dynamo processes, 98, 105-107, 119

eclipsing X-ray binaries, see X-ray binaries Eddington luminosity, 161, 242, 354, 357 Einstein Observatory, see satellites energy resolution bolometers, 82 GSPCs, 13, 26 MOS CCDs, 52 MWPCs, 22

proportional counters, 8, 11 scintillation counters, 15 transmission gratings, 73 eROSITA, see satellites EUVE, see satellites EXOSAT, see satellites

Fano Factor, 8

Fe Klines, 389-391

fireball model, see gamma-ray bursts flares, 100-102, 367-371 fluorescence, 89-92

galactic center, 331-343

galactic ridge X-ray emission, 343 molecular clouds, 341-343 SgrAEast, 338-339 SgrAWest, 333 Sgr A*, 339-341 galactic nuclei, 358 galactic plane, 320 galaxy clusters, 395-430 AGN, 415-416 evolution, 425-427 gravitational potential, 397 inter cluster medium (ICM), 413-421

heavy elements, 416-421 mass determination, 398-401 matter composition, 401-403 mergers, 407,410 self-similar prediction, 405 X-ray spectra, 416 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), 356,434-453 afterglow, 356, 437-439 cosmology, 451 dark GRBs, 438 emission scenarios, 446-449 cannonball model, 448 electromagnetic black hole theory, 448 fireball model, 446 Poynting Flux hypothesis, 448 host galaxies, 443 jet-break, 439 jets, 439-441

long duration GRBs, 435,442, 450 polarisation, 440 progenitor models, 450 short duration GRBs, 435,450 supernova connection, 442 gas scintillation proportional counters

(GSPCs), 6, 11-12,26-28 geocorona, 85, 86, 89, 90, 94 giants, 111-114 Ginga, see satellites Granat, see satellites grazing angle, 41,45

halos, 446 dark matter, 403 distance determination, 328 dust scattering halos, 324-329 Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), see satellites

HEAO-1, see satellites

HEAO-2, see satellites heliosphere, 85, 91, 94

Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars, 123-125

Herbig-Haro objects, 126

HETE-2, see satellites

HEXE, 17

hot interstellar medium, 358-363 early type galaxies, 363 spiral/starburst galaxies, 359-363 hybrid stars, 112

innermost stable orbit (ISCO), 231

INTEGRAL, see satellites inter cluster medium (ICM), 413-421

heavy elements, 416-421 interstellar medium (ISM), 310-329 chimney model, 320 dust, 313-314 fountain model, 320 gas, 311-313 three-phase model, 318 turbulences, 322

jets

AGN, 379

gamma-ray bursts, 439-441

Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale, 159 Kepler orbits, 221 Kerr holes, 242, 255, 256 King model, 403

Kolmogorov-Obuchov turbulence, 408

Lockman Hole, 460

magnetars, see neutron stars magnetic activity, 98 magnetic braking model, 185-187 magnetic winds, 128-130 magnetically confined wind shock model

(MCWS), 128, 129 magnetosphere, 221, 224 magnetospheric radius, 218 Malter effect, 10 mass function, 220 mass transfer, 218 microquasars, 244 millisecond pulsars, see pulsars missing mass problem, 402 molecular clouds, 341-343 multi-wire proportional counters (MWPCs), 5, 21-26

neutron stars, 182-213, 216-236 accelerated cooling scenario, 191 binaries, see X-ray binaries blackbody radiation, 242 equilibrium period, 224 magnetars, 193 magnetic fields, 218, 221 magnetic moments, 224 precession, 205 radiation mechanism, 221 radius, 206-207 spin-up, spin-down, 222 standard cooling scenario, 190 thermal emission, 200 thermal evolution, 190 nonequilibrium ionization (NEI), 265 NORAS cluster survey, 423 normal galaxy cores, 367-371 novae, 160-166

classical novae, 168-181

constant bolometric luminosity phase, 171

decay time, 169

fireball phase, 170

optical novae, 354-355

outbursts, 158, 159

post-novae, 162

recurrent novae, 162

symbiotic novae, 162

X-ray sources, 170-171

objects a CRB, 100 a Per, 111 p Oph, 125 a OriE, 129 01 OriC, 129 0509-67.5,267,268 0519-69.0, 267 0534-69.9, 293 0540-69.3, 288 0548-70.4, 293

1E 1207.4-5209, 199, 287, 288 1E 1613-5055, 199 1E 1613-509, 287,288 1E 1740.7-2942, 336 1E 2259+586, 287 1E 0102.2-7219, 271, 279, 286 1H 0707-495, 386 3C 397, 288 3C 273, 379 3C 391, 292 3C 58, 289 433 Eros, 87

45P/HMP, 88 A1742-294, 336 A1835, 413 A3667, 407 A754,407 Abell 1413, 399 Abell 2218, 401 Algol, 100 Arcturus, 112 Barnard 68, 318 C/1996 B2, 88 C/1999 S4, 88 C/2000 WM1, 88

Centaurus A, 379

Chal star forming region, 115

CL0024+17, 401

Coma cluster, 111,396,408

Crab nebula, 194, 262, 287

Crab pulsar, 185, 195

CXO M31 J004327.2+411829, 296

CXOU J232327.9+584843, 200

Cygnus loop, 289-290

DEM L71, 269, 276,293

E0657-56,408

Feige 24, 135

G191-B2B, 135, 137

GD 50, 137

GRB 030329,440-442

GRB 031203,442, 446

GRB 050509B, 452

GRB 060218,442

GRB 980425,442

GRS 1915+105, 351

H1504+65, 141

HD 149499B, 140

HD 133880, 129

Ho 12, 296

Hyades cluster, 111

IC 2391, 111

IC 2602, 111

IC 443,292

IC 4665, 111

IC4756, 111

IRAS 13224-3809,383, 386 J0205+6449, 288 Keplers supernova, 273, 277, 278 KPD 0005+5106, 140 LP 944-20, 117 M-0.02+0.07, 333 M 101, 355, 359

M 31, 296, 347, 350, 353, 355, 356, 358 M 33, 296, 350, 351,355,356 M67,111 M 81, 355 M 86,411 M 87,414, 419

Magellanic Clouds, 267, 347, 349, 351, 356,

359 MBM 12, 317 MCG-6-30-15, 389 Monogem Ring, 294 N103B,267 N 49, 288 N49B, 293 N 63A, 282 NGC 104, 213 NGC 1275,415 NGC 2516, 111 NGC 253,354,361 NGC 3079, 362 NGC 4038/39, 354 NGC 4697, 355 NGC 6475, 111 NGC 7293, 136 NGC 752, 111

Ophiuchus molecular cloud, 318

PG 1034+001, 140

PG 1159-035, 136

PHL 1092, 384

Pleiades cluster, 111

Praesepe cluster, 111

PSR B0531+21, 195

PSR B0540-69, 184

PSR B1509-58, 184

PSR B1821-24, 212

PSR B1957+20, 212

PSR J0437-4715, 208, 212

PSR J1119-6127, 196

PSR J2124-3358, 212

PWVul, 171

QUVul, 171

RBS 1223, 203

RBS 1774, 203

RCW 86, 285

RE J0503-289, 140 RX J0420.0-5022, 202, 203 RX J04591+5147, 285 RX J0720.4-3125, 202, 203, 205 RXJ0806.4-4123, 202, 203 RX J0822-4300, 200 RX J0852.0-4622, 285,288 RX J1242-1119, 368 RX J1605.3+3249, 202, 203 RX J1713.7-3946, 285,288 RX J1856.5-3754, 202-204,206 RX J2117.1+3412, 140 RXS J1308.8+2127, 202 RXS J2143.0+0654, 202 Sco X-1,217 Sgr A, 333

SgrAEast, 333,338-339 Sgr A West, 333 Sgr A*, 333,339-341,358 Sgr B2, 341 Sirius B, 134 SN 1006, 267, 275, 282 SN 1970G, 304 SN 1978K, 303 SN 1980K, 265 SN 1987A, 265, 300-302, 356 SN 1993J, 302, 357 SN 1998bw, 304 Tychos supernova, 266, 274, 287 V1494 Aql, 177 V1974 Cyg, 172 V382 Vel, 176, 178 V4743 Sgr, 179 V838 Her, 174 Vega, 108 Vela, 281,287, 288 Vela pulsar, 196 Virgo cluster, 410-412 W44, 288 W49B, 273, 292 open clusters, 110-111

PG stars, 140 phoswich detectors, 16 photo effect, 6, 21 photoionization, 153 planets and moons

Moon, 29, 85-87, 90 Jupiter, 85, 87, 91, 94 Europa, 85, 93 Ganymede, 93 Io, 85, 93

Mars, 85, 87, 90, 94 Mercury, 87 Neptune, 87, 94 Saturn, 85,87,91,93,94

Titan, 94 Uranus, 87, 94 Venus, 85, 87, 94 post-novae, see novae pre-main sequence stars, 118-126 propeller effect, 224 proportional counters, 5-12 pulsar wind nebulae, 186, 287 pulsars, 182-213,218,242

anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXP), 186 Crab-like pulsars, 193-198 high-energy emission models, 187 millisecond pulsars, 213 millisecond pulsars, 208-222 outer gap model, 189 polar cap model, 189 rotation-powered pulsars, 185-187, 197 soft-gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), 186 Vela-like pulsars, 196-198 pulse phase spectroscopy, 228 pulse profiles, 225

quantum efficiency pnCCDs, 53, 57, 61 proportional counters, 7 quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs), 220, 228, 230, 256-257 Atoll sources, 220, 229 kHz QPOs, 220, 228, 230 Z-sources, 229

radial velocity variations, 220 radiation belts, 18 Rapid Burster, 220, 233 Rayleigh-Gans theory, 325 reflection gratings, 79 REFLEX cluster survey, 422, 428 Roche lobe overflow, 147, 217, 241 ROSAT, see satellites Rossby number, 105 Rowland Torus, 73 RXTE, see satellites

SAS-3, see satellites satellites

ANS, 232, 486 Ariel V, 243,486 ASCA, 348, 486 GSPC, 27 ICM, 416

Virgo cluster, 412 X-ray binaries, 253, 255 X-rays from stars, 97 BeppoSAX, 36, 348,486 Algol, 101 GRBs, 437 GSPC, 13, 27 PDS, 18

X-rays from stars, 98 Chandra, 77-79, 348, 486 AGN, 415 Cas A, 277

cataclysmic variables, 152, 153 class I protostars, 125 clusters, 111 faint objects, 110 galactic nuclei, 358 galaxy clusters, 399 grating, 164 HII regions, 126 HCR-I, 112

Herbig-Haro objects, 126 HETG, 78 LETG, 78 novae, 176-180 Orion nebula cluster, 120 Sgr A East, 338 SN 1006, 283 stellar remnants, 288 supernova remnants, 295, 356 T Tauri stars, 122 ultraluminous X-ray sources, 358 VLM stars and brown dwarfs, 116 white dwarfs, 139 Wolter telescopes, 49, 50 X-ray background, 464-465 X-ray binaries, 253, 351 X-ray flares, 368 X-rays from stars, 98 COBE, 457, 486

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), 486 BATSE, 30,435 X-ray binaries, 240, 243 Constellation-X, 477 Copernicus, 413, 486 Einstein Observatory, 30, 486 cataclysmic variables, 145, 150 clusters, 111 galactic center, 334 hot ISM, 359 hot stars, 126

imaging proportional counter (IPC), 23, 26

objective transmission grating, 76 pulsars, 184

supernova remnants, 263, 356 supernovae, 265 supersoft X-ray sources, 162 T Tauri stars, 119 ultraluminous X-ray sources, 357 white dwarfs, 134 Wolter telescopes, 49, 50, 348 X-ray background, 457 X-rays from stars, 97, 103 eROSITA, 65, 480 EUVE, 486 white dwarfs, 137-139 X-rays from stars, 97 EXOSAT, 30, 486 cataclysmic variables, 152, 157 GSPC, 13

large area proportional counter, 10 neutron stars, 184 novae, 171 PSD, 24, 26

transmission grating spectrometer (TGS), 77

white dwarfs, 134 X-rays from stars, 97 Ginga, 486 large area proportional counter, 10 X-ray binaries, 240, 243, 255 Granat, 486 galactic center, 336 X-ray binaries, 240, 243 Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), 30

large area proportional counter, 10 supernova remnants, 263 white dwarfs, 134 X-ray background, 457 HEAO-2, see Einstein Observatory HETE-2, 438, 486 INTEGRAL, 486 coded mask, 36, 38 JEM-X, 24, 26 ROSAT, 348, 486 all-sky survey (RASS), 88, 90, 102-105,

294, 421 brown dwarfs, 115 Cas A, 277

cataclysmic variables, 145, 146, 150, 152, 154, 157

clusters, 111

distant cluster survey (RDCS), 425 galactic center, 336 giants, 111 halos, 324 hot ISM, 359 hot stars, 127 ISM, 315-318 neutron stars, 201 novae, 172-176 PSPC, 21, 25,45 Seyfert I galaxies, 380 supernova remnants, 263, 288, 289, 295, 356

supersoft X-ray sources, 162 white dwarfs, 135-136 Wolter telescopes, 49 X-ray background, 458-463 X-ray binaries, 253 X-ray flares, 368 X-rays from stars, 97 RXTE, 486 HEXTE, 18,31 kHz QPOs, 230

large area proportional counter, 10 X-ray binaries, 240, 243, 255 SAS-3, 486 supernova remnants, 263 X-ray bursts, 232 Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG), 479 Suzaku, 18, 82, 486 Swift, 486 coded masks, 38 GRBs, 451-453 Tenma, 486 GSPC, 13 X-ray binaries, 243 Uhuru, 30, 347, 486 cataclysmic variables, 145 galactic center, 334 galaxy clusters, 395 ICM, 413

large area proportional counter, 10 neutron star binaries, 217 XEUS, 65, 430, 477,479, 481,482 XMM-Newton, 348, 486 cataclysmic variables, 150, 152, 153 CCD detector, 45, 51, 53 Class I protostars, 125 classical T Tauri stars, 119 clusters, 111 galaxy clusters, 399, 426 ICM, 413

ISM, 318 novae, 179

reflection grating spectrometer (RGS), 79, 164

Seyfert I galaxies, 386-388 Sgr A East, 338 SN 1006, 283

supernova remnants, 295, 356 T Tauri stars, 122 VLM stars and brown dwarfs, 116 white dwarfs, 139 Wolter telescopes, 50 X-ray background, 464-465 X-ray binaries, 253, 352 X-ray flares, 368 X-rays from stars, 98 Yohkoh, 99, 486 Schechter function, 423 Schwarzschild holes, 237, 242, 254, 256 scintillation counters, 14-19 Seyfert I galaxies, 379-386 shell flashes, 160 shocks, 262, 274, 275, 297 Skumanich law, 110

soft X-ray background (SXRB), 85, 90, 314 solar system, 85-95 South Atlantic Anomaly, 18 spatial resolution grid collimators, 31 GSPCs, 27 MWPCs, 22-23 pnCCDs, 53

Wolter telescopes, 48, 49 spectral resolution, see energy resolution split events, 62 star forming regions, 443 stellar remnants, 287-289 stellar winds, 125-128, 217, 218 Sun, 86-87, 99

supermassive black holes (SMBHs), see black holes supernova remnants (SNRs), 193, 198-200, 306, 356-357 core collaps, 269-272 ejecta, 293-294 extragalactic SNRs, 295-297 jets, 280-282 type Ia SNRs, 266-269 X-ray emission, 261-262 supernovae, 306, 356-357 GRB connection, 442 type Ia, 305 X-ray emission, 297

X-ray luminosity, 298 X-ray spectra, 297 supersoft sources, 354-355 Suzaku, see satellites Swift, see satellites

T Tauri stars, 119-123 Tenma, see satellites thermonuclear flashes, 220, 232 thermonuclear runaway (TNR), 169, 170 transfer of angular momentum, 221 transients, 219 transmission gratings, 73-79 resolving power, 74 spectral resolution, 73

Uhuru, see satellites very-low mass stars (VLMs), 114-117 magnetic activity, 115-117

white dwarfs, 133-141 DA, 133 non-DA, 133

DO, 139-141 progenitors, 133 thermal radiation, 134 Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

(WMAP), 451 Wolter telescopes, 29, 50 replication technique, 49 Wolter-1,-2,-3 optics, 43 Wolter-Schwarzschild optics, 43

X-ray background, 457 X-ray binaries, 217, 238, 351-354 black hole binaries, 236-259 close binaries, 114 Algol systems, 114 BY Dra variable stars, 114 RS CVn-type, 114 WUMa systems, 114 eclipses, 100, 219, 220, 222

high mass (HMXB), 218, 239, 240, 351 low mass (LMXB), 218, 239, 240, 351 mass accretion, 241-243 mass function, 239

multicolor blackbody disk model, 246, 250 neutron star binaries, 242, 255 transient sources, 243-245 X-ray spectra, 245-254 X-ray binary pulsars, 219 X-ray bursts, 220, 228 oscillations, 234 type I bursts, 233, 248, 253 type II bursts, 233 X-ray dividing line (XDL), 111-113 X-ray flares, 367-371 X-ray flashes, 444 X-ray luminosity function, 354 X-ray spectra AGN, 463

black hole binaries, 254-255 comets, 88

elliptical galaxies, 358 GRBs, 445

neutron star binaries, 247, 253 spiral galaxies, 358 supernovae, 297 XEUS, see satellites XMM-Newton, see satellites

Yohkoh, see satellites Young stellar objects (YSOs), 118 Class 0 protostars, 118 Class I protostars, 118, 125 Class II sources, 118 classical T Tauri stars, 118, 119 Herbig Ae/Be stars, 118, 119, 123-125 T Tauri stars, 119-123 weak-line T Tauri stars/Class III sources, 118

Z-sources, see quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs)

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