A1 Introduction

"Radiation" and "nuclear" are words that tend to spread fear among people. Even in highly technologically developed countries, the public has little or no knowledge of radiation, and when they do it usually associates it with weapons, accidents, fallout and cancer. Only specialists know about natural background exposure or about medical use of radiation. In this context the use of nuclear energy for rockets may encounter strong resistance.

The purpose of this appendix is to inform the non-specialist about what radiation and dose are, about effects of radiation on humans and about sources of radiation, including estimates of the dose from nuclear propulsion systems.

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