Adding the PDEs to the results in Figure 4.23, the result is Figure 4.29 that gives the SSTO mass ratio (weight ratio) to reach a 100 nautical mile orbit (185 km) with hydrogen for fuel as a function of the maximum airbreathing Mach number for both continuous and cyclic operation engines. Seven classes of propulsion systems are indicated: rocket-derived, airbreathing (AB) rocket, so-called KLIN cycle, ejector ramjet, scram-LACE, air collection and enrichment systems (ACES) and pulse detonation derived engines (PDR/PDRE). As in Figure 4.23, there is a discontinuity in the results. If the mass ratio to orbit is to be significantly reduced the s.u wMQl s.u wMQl
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