Tables

1.1 Identification of configurations in Figure 1.1 17

1.2 Scale of diameters and distances to objects in space 22

1.3 Mass ratios for space exploration mission 24

1.4 Current expendable and partially reusable rocket launchers 24

1.5 Current chemical and nuclear rocket propulsion characteristics 26

1.6 Propulsion performance for mission to the heliopause and nearer 30

1.7 Propulsion performance for mission to Pluto for a 1,000 kg spacecraft 31

1.8 Engine thrust as a function of acceleration for mission to Pluto for 1,000 kg spacecraft 31

2.1 Return from orbit performance is configuration-dependent 62

3.1 Low Earth orbital altitudes and speeds 69

4.1 Representative fuel properties 112

4.2 Combustor entrance geometry and conditions for 19,361 ft/s flight speed ... 117

4.3 Material selections and maximum lift loading boundary for Figure 4.8 124

4.4 Comparison of continuous operation propulsion cycles 130

4.5 Representative propellants and their characteristics 133

4.6 Fuel weight to operational weight empty for propellant combinations from Table 4.5 152

4.7 Specific weights of structures, structural indices 171

5.1 Space infrastructure vehicles and missions 211

5.2 Gravitational characteristics of nearby planets and Earth's Moon 214

5.3 Launchers sized to deliver 19 tons of propellant to LEO 217

5.4 Characteristics of space propulsion systems for orbital maneuvering vehicles 219

5.5 Characteristics of a number of GSO satellites 220

5.6 Sized orbital maneuver vehicles for one-way mission from LEO to GSO . . . 225

5.7 Payload size vs. OMV for a hypergolic propulsion system with a one-way mass ratio of 4 226

5.8 Sized OMVs for two-way mission from LEO to GSO to LEO 227

5.9 Launcher and OMV propulsion options 229

5.10 Sized OMV for 32-degree plane change at 200km for a 2,268 kg satellite.. . . 236

5.11 Hypersonic glider (FDL-7 C/D) for 32-degree plane change at 200 km 236

5.12 Hypersonic glider (FDL-7 C/D) for variable-degree plane change at 200 km and 2.268-ton satellite 237

5.13 Ratio of total propellant weight to satellite weight for an FDL-7 C/D hypersonic glider with a 32-degree plane change capability and two satellite weights 239

5.14 Ratio of total propellant weight to satellite weight for FDL-7 C/D hypersonic glider and three plane change angles for four launcher propulsion systems . . 240

5.15 Ratio of total propellant weight to satellite weight for FDL-7 C/D hypersonic glider compared with the hydrogen/oxygen propellant OMV designed for a 32-degree plane change for four launch propuls 240

5.16 Number of orbital missions per 19 metric ton propellant payload for 2,268 kg satellite payload for the OMV 244

6.1 Launcher requirements to achieve circular low Earth orbit 260

6.2 Injection speed and transit time to Moon from 275 km circular orbit 261

6.3 Arriving or departing the Moon, hypergolic propellant rocket 262

7.1 Neptune mission as a function of acceleration 286

8.1 Comparing orbits of Pluto and of KBO 378

B.1 Fusion space propulsion systems studies 491

B.2 Fusion reactions 492

B.3 Fusion power per unit volume 503

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