Red Shift

Gamow, George

The discovery of the red shift in the spectra of distant stellar galaxies revealed the important fact that our universe is in the state of uniform expansion, and raised an interesting question as to whether the present features of the universe could be understood as the result of its evolutionary development...We conclude first of all that the relative abundance of various atomic species (which were found to be essentially the same all over the observed region of the universe) must represent the most ancient archaeological document pertaining to the history of the universe.


The Evolution of the Universe (p. 680) Volume 162, Number 4122, October 1948

Gray, George

...just as the shifting of bookkeeping accounts into the red measures disintegrating, scattering, dissipating financial resources, so the shifting of starlight into the red indicates disintegrating, scattering, dissipating physical resources. It says that the universe is running down,..To entertain this preposterous idea of all these massive star systems racing outward was to accept a radically new picture of the cosmos—a universe in expansion, a vast bubble blowing, distending, scattering, thinning out into gossamer, losing itself. The snug, tight, stable world of Einstein had room for no such flights.

The Atlantic Universe in the Red (pp. 233, 236) Volume 1151, Number 2, February 1933

Jeans, Sir James

Another that the universe retains its size, while we and all material bodies shrink uniformly. The red shift we observe in the spectra of the nebulae is then due to the fact that the atoms which emitted the light millions of years ago were larger than the present-day atoms with which we measured the light—the shift is, of course, proportional to distance.

Supplement to Nature Contributions to a British Association Discussion on the Evolution of the Universe (pp. 703-4) Volume 128, Number 3234, November 1931

Stapledon, Olaf

I noticed that the sun and all the stars in his neighbourhood were ruddy. Those at the opposite pole of the heaven were of an icy blue. The explanation of this strange phenomenon flashed upon me. I was still traveling, and traveling so fast that light itself was not wholly indifferent to my passage. The overtaking undulations took long to catch me. They therefore affected me as slower pulsations than they normally were, and I saw them therefore as red. Those that met me on my headlong flight were congested and shortened, and were seen as blue.

Last and First Men and Star Maker Star Maker Chapter II (p. 262)

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