Chapter Ii

Definitions — Points and Circles of Reference

10. Definitions 14

Vertical Line — Zenith — Nadir — Horizon — Vertical Circles — Almucantars — Poles — Equator — Hour Circles — Par allels of Declination — Meridian — Prime Vertical — Ecliptic — Equinoxes — Solstices.

CHAPTER III Systems of Coordinates on the Sphere

11. Spherical Coordinates 18

12. The Horizon System 19

13. The Equator Systems 19

15. Coordinates of the Observer 22

16. Relation between the Two Systems of Coordinates 23

CHAPTER IV Relation between Coordinates

17. Relation between Altitude of Pole and Latitude of Observer 27

18. Relation between Latitude of Observer and the Declination and Alti tude of a Point on the Meridian 30

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19. The Astronomical Triangle 31

20. Relation between Right Ascension and Hour Angle 36

CHAPTER V Measurement of Time

21. The Earth's Rotation 4*

22. Transit or Culmination 4c

23. Sidereal Day 40

24. Sidereal Time 41

25. Solar Day 41

26. Solar Time 41

27. Equation of Time 42

28. Conversion of Mean Time into Apparent Time and vice versa 45

29. Astronomical Time — Civil Time 46

30. Relation between Longitude and Time 46

31. Relation between Hours and Degrees 49

32. Standard Time 50

33. Relation between Sidereal Time, Right Ascension and Hour Angle of any Point at a Given Instant 52

34. Star on the Meridian 53

35. Mean Solar and Sidereal Intervals of Time 54

36. Approximate Corrections 56

37. Relation between Sidereal and Mean Time at any Instant 57

38. The Date Line 61

39. The Calendar 62

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