Contents

Preface vii

Acknowledgments x

Introduction xi

^ 1 From Pioneer Lunar Probes to Interstellar Messengers 1

Artificial Intelligence 2

The Basic Principles of Robotics 6

Pioneer to the Moon and Beyond 9

Early Soviet Luna Missions 14 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)—America's

Premier Space Robot Factory 17

MESSENGER Mission 26

Robot Spacecraft in Service to Astronomy 30

^ 2 How Robot Spacecraft Work 34

Space Robots in Service to Science 35

General Classes of Scientific Spacecraft 37

Functional Subsystems 50

Solar Photovoltaic Conversion 51

Electro-Optical Imaging Instruments 52

Spacecraft Clock and Data Handling Subsystem 56

Single-Event Upset 57

Navigation of a Robot Spacecraft 58

Telecommunications 59

Deep Space Network 61

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