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In 1959, he took the entrance exams for University College, Oxford, with the intent of studying physics, known during that time as the natural sciences. University College did not offer courses in mathematics. Stephen's father preferred that he take up studies in chemistry and medicine, but Stephen convincingly argued that mathematics was what he was best at it was what he loved. Within a few days after the completion of his exams and interviews, Hawking was accepted and awarded a scholarship at University College.
Fulvio melia is Professor of Astronomy and Associate Head of Physics at the University of Arizona. He has held numerous visiting appointments at universities in Europe and Australia, including posts in Paris, Heidelberg, Padua, and Melbourne. Melia has won many national and international distinguished awards for scholarship and teaching. His research focuses on the characteristics and behavior of black holes and other compact stars, and he has published over 180 papers in the primary literature.
The United States in 1955 that China began the serious development of modern rockets. He had won a scholarship to MIT in 1935, and later became Robert Goddard Professor of Jet Propulsion at CalTech. It is ironic that this supposed communist had been assigned the rank of temporary colonel in the US Air force in 1945, so that he could tour the German rocket sites, and meet Werner von Braun. He became, in effect, the Korolev or Werner von Braun of the Chinese space programme. Work on modern rockets began in China in 1956, and by the end of 1957, through an agreement with the USSR, R-1 and R-2 rocket technology had been transferred to the Chinese. Understandably these were old Russian rockets, and bore more resemblance to the German A4 than to the then current Russian launchers. Following the breach with the USSR in 1960, the Chinese programme continued, with an indigenous version of the R-2 called Dong Feng, or East Wind. Engulfed by the Cultural Revolution, the programme struggled...
The next step in his scholastic career took him to Harvard University, where he received his Doctorate in 1964. When asked if he could recall anyone who gave him specific guidance or inspiration at this time, he responded, No I followed my instincts, but I did have many outstanding CalTech and Harvard professors.'' Along his scholastic way, he picked up a Society of Kennecott Fellows scholarship in geology (1958-59), a Harvard Fellowship (1959-60), a Harvard Travelling Fellowship (1960), a Parker Travelling Fellowship (1961-62), and a National Science Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellowship from the Department of Geological Sciences at Harvard (1963-64).
Wells was a novelist and science-fiction writer whose works popularized the idea of space travel and inspired the pioneers of astronautics. The son of a shopkeeper, Wells was born on September 21, 1866, in Bromley, England. In 1884, he entered the Normal School of Science in South Kensington under scholarship, but uninspired by routine academics, he left that institution in 1887 without a degree. Most of his education came from omnivorous reading, a habit he developed as a child while convalescing from a broken leg. He taught in private schools for four years and eventually received a degree from the Normal School of Science in London. He settled in London, where he worked as a teacher and wrote extensively on educational matters.
Supported by an ROTC (Reserve Officers' Training Corps) scholarship, Drake enrolled in Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in 1949 to study aircraft design. He soon became more interested in electronics, however, and changed his major to engineering physics. In his junior year, he heard Otto Struve, a well-known astrophysicist, say in a lecture that half the stars in the galaxy might have planetary systems, and some of those planets might well contain life. It was an electric moment, Drake wrote in his autobiography, Is Anyone Out There I wasn't alone anymore. . . . This most preeminent astronomer . . . dared to speak aloud what I had only dreamed about. Drake earned his B.A. from Cornell in 1952, then worked for the U.S. Navy for three years as a shipboard electronics officer to pay back his scholarship. In 1955, when his military commitment was completed, he began graduate studies at Harvard. He had intended to study optical astronomy, but a summer job as a radio
Born into a teacher's family in the small town of Sedletse, Chelomei moved to Kiev at the age of 12 and later attended the Kiev Aviation College, graduating in 1937. He earned the equivalent of a master's degree in 1939 and was awarded the prestigious Stalin Doctoral Scholarship in 1940. In 1941, he joined the Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motor Building (TsIAM) in Moscow, where his main interest was pulse-jet engines. In 1944, the remains of a German pulse-jet-powered V-1 shot down in London were delivered to Moscow by British allies. In June, Chelomei was invited to the Kremlin, where Stalin's deputy responsible for the aviation industry, Giorgiy Malenkov, asked him if the V-1 could be duplicated. Chelomei gave a confident reply and two days later found himself in charge of a new, one-hundred-strong department at TsIAM. By the end of 1944 he had reproduced the German engine and by mid-1945 had built a similar missile of his own design.
There are some parallels between the lives of Sir Arthur Eddington (18821944) and Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). They were both born into families of modest means, their fathers died early, Eddington's when he was two and Newton's before he was born. Both men were recognized early by their teachers as being exceptional, and were assisted in their education by scholarships. Each achieved fame in his own time and was knighted by the crown. Neither was married or had children. Eddington was awarded a scholarship at the age of sixteen, but officially he was too young to enter university. It was a problem that was solved quickly, however, and did not cause him to delay entry to Owens College, Manchester. In his first year of study, Eddington took general subjects before spending the next three years studying mainly physics and mathematics. Eddington was greatly influenced by one of his mathematics teachers, Horace Lamb. His outstanding academic work allowed him to win a number of highly...
To his own surprise, Hubble learned on the day he graduated from Wheaton High School in June 1906 that the University of Chicago had awarded him a scholarship, one of dozens given to promising high school students around the country. The University no doubt viewed the so-called ''Entrance Scholarship,'' which covered a student's first year's tuition, as a kind of recruiting tool, for it had opened its doors and admitted its first class only 14 years earlier. Although the stature of its first faculty members ensured its greatness as an institution of higher learning and research, the university, with its Gothic style buildings modeled on those of Oxford University, still faced a struggle to establish itself as a rival of its older counterparts in the east. Hubble did join the basketball and track teams, and boxed in off-campus venues. With the basketball team, he traveled all over the Midwest and to Philadelphia and Washington, DC, sharing the glory of the team's national championship...
After graduating from Enid High School in 1948, Garriott went to undergraduate school at the University of Oklahoma on a Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC) scholarship, which paid about half of his college expenses. While still in high school, he had worked as a technician in the local radio station. The income from this work had been largely saved and would cover most of his remaining college education costs. Studies did not occupy all his time, however. After dating The following year, he was awarded his Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering and then, because of the NROTC scholarship, he was obliged to serve in the United States Navy. During three years on active duty, he served as a line officer and electronics officer, and was stationed aboard several destroyers at sea. Garriott then returned to graduate school, this time at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, where he was selected to work as a research assistant in the Radio Propagation...
The emergence and spread of Islam in the seventh and eighth centuries was followed by the establishment of enlightened institutions that actively encouraged the study of mathematics, science, and philosophy. In the Middle East, and later in Sicily, northern Africa, and Moorish Spain, the Arabic language became the medium for scholarship. The pursuit of astronomy fulfilled both astrological and religious purposes. In religion the Islamic calendar required a very accurate lunar-solar calendar, involving tables giving the days of first sighting of the crescent moon, an event that marked the beginning of a new month. An important question in Islam concerns the direction at a given location to Mecca, what is called the Kibla, which determines the orientation of morning prayers. The calculation of the Kibla required astronomical knowledge. There were also strong rationalist elements in the Arabic scientific tradition, involving the assimilation of Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle,...
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) is often credited with the beginning of modern astronomy (Figure 1.3). He was born in Poland, and studied mathematics and optics at Krakow University. After returning to Poland from several years' study of church law in Bologna, Italy, Copernicus was appointed as a priest in the cathedral of Frauenburg (now known as Frombork, in northern Poland), where the rest of his life was sheltered and devoted to scholarship.
More than 1,800 years before the time of Copernicus, Aristotle had conducted a school in Athens. For his students, Aristotle compiled and arranged the previous two hundred years of Greek scholarship, as well as adding a prodigious amount of text derived from his own studies. His numerous writings comprised a virtual encyclopedia of everything that was known at the time. And he put it all together into a tight system of logical relations, where everything depended on everything else. Notions such as these formed the basis for Copernicus's studies in Cracow. But how was it that the works of an ancient Greek philosopher had survived for so long For a thousand years after the time of Aristotle, his manuscripts were copied and studied in a few academic centers in the lands around the eastern end of the Mediterranean.After 800 ce,Arab culture took up Aristotle's works as it flowered under Islam, the religion of Mohammed. Baghdad (in present-day Iraq), where Aristotle's works were translated...
If, intellectually, the fourth, third and second millennia before Christ belonged, in different measures, to the great civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China, the first undoubtedly belonged to a small country in southeast Europe Greece. It was not a single country, but consisted of various groupings and city states such as Macedonia, Athens and Sparta, which were often at war with each other. But the bond that held them together as a whole was the Greek language, which extended all around the Aegean. In this region, starting about seven centuries before Christ and to last for several centuries, the most remarkable human intellectual explosion occurred, the like of which had not been seen in any previous civilizations, and the like of which was not to be seen again for 2000 years. There were many major and several seminal developments in every area of scholarship in literature, history, drama, architecture, art, sculpture, politics, philosophy, mathematics and science....
Hubble was born November 20, 1889, in Marshfield, Missouri. His father was an insurance agent and moved the family to Chicago when Edwin was nine. He graduated from the University of Chicago in 1910 at age 20 with a degree in math and astronomy. A gifted athlete as well as a top student, Hubble won a Rhodes scholarship and headed to Oxford in England.
While Islamic scholarship flourished, learning in Western Europe stagnated. The disintegration of the Roman Empire resulted in the almost total disappearance of the Greek language and, thus, most of the great Greek scientific works were inaccessible to European scholars. A few secondary works had been translated into Latin, including the first part of Plato's Timaeus - which Trade routes between Western Christendom and the Arab world had been established by the ninth century, but the transmission of scientific knowledge to the West did not really begin until contact with Islamic scholarship was made when European scholars started visiting Spanish monasteries in the eleventh century. Latin translations of previously unknown works began to be made from about 1000, the rate at which they appeared reaching a peak in the twelfth century - often referred to as the 'century of translation'. The Spanish city of Toledo was conquered by Alfonso VI in 1085 and, in the twelfth century, became the...
At the age of 18, Airy was off to Cambridge University with a scholarship and a very high opinion of himself. He made no friends, and professors judged his abilities to be limited, but Airy worked doggedly and carried off the two big science and mathematics prizes as senior wrangler and First Smith's prizeman in 1823. He thought well enough of himself by this time to write his first autobiography.
Karl schindler is an Emeritus Professor with the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, Ruhr University Bochum, Germany, and a distinguished theorist in the field of space plasma physics. In 2001 he was granted the Orson Anderson Scholarship at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP). Dr Schindler is also a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union.
In 1948, Thornton undertook further studies at the University of North Carolina (UNC), where he gained his Bachelor of Science degree in physics on 2 June 1952. He also became a Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) graduate with the USAF. College was, in his own words, ''a balance between survival, education, Air Force ROTC, and ill-considered participation in collegiate football without a scholarship.''
Huntington, The soldier and the state The theory and politics of civil-military relations (Cambridge, Mass., 1957) Morris Janowitz, The professional soldier A social and political portrait (New York, 1960). Huntington and Janowitz continue to define the terms of scholarship on the subject James Burk, Theories of democratic civil-military relations, Armed Forces & Society 29 1 (2002) 7-29, and Peter D. Feaver, Armed servants Agency, oversight, and civil-military relations (Cambridge, Mass., 2003), on 2. On the 1990s Thomas E. Ricks, The widening gap between the military and society, Atlantic Monthly ( July 1997) 66-78.
Clyde Tbmbaugh took leave from the Lowell Observatory each school year beginning in the fall of 1932 to formally study astronomy at the University of Kansas on a scholarship. He entered as a 26-year-old freshman and tried to enroll in the freshman astronomy class. But the head of the department was adamant For a planet discoverer to enroll in a course of introductory astronomy is unthinkable. '
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I am indebted to a number of individuals for helping to make this book happen. Among them are several astronauts who actually flew Challenger - Norm Thagard, Vance Brand, Bruce McCandless, George 'Pinky' Nelson and Gordon Fullerton -who kindly took time to speak with me at length over the telephone or answer my many questions via email correspondence. Their insights into the similarities, differences and idiosyncracies of the orbiters, the development of the Manned Manoeuvring Unit, spacewalking procedures and early efforts to understand the causes of space sickness have proven invaluable. Thanks are also due to Roberta Ross and Beth Hagenauer of NASA and Linn LeBlanc of the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation for arranging interviews.
After a couple of centuries of rapid expansion, the Islamic civilization settled down and scholarship began to flourish. From the eighth to the fourteenth centuries, most of the advances in astronomy were achieved by scholars in the Middle East, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. This work crossed religious and ethnic boundaries, with contributions from, among others, Arabs, Iranians, and Turks, and from Muslims, Jews, and Christians. Islamic scholarship explored all branches of knowledge and built on not only the traditions of Greek science and philosophy, but also those of Persia, India, central Asia, and to some extent, China. The unifying feature of this endeavour was the Arabic language, which was very flexible so that it was possible for translators to create the
Named in honor of Owen Jay Gingerich 1930- , Harvard professor of astronomy and of the history of science, and an astrophysicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Although he has made important contributions to the modeling of stellar atmospheres, he is best known for effectively setting the standards of scholarship for modern studies of the history of astronomy and astrophysics. His historical interests are broad, but much of his work centers on Copernicus and Kepler, as is appropriately acknowledged by this planet's provisional designation. He is also celebrated for his basic course on science to non-scientist Harvard students, and he served as director of the IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams for the three years following the transfer from Copenhagen at the end of 1964. (M 9477)
Parker then continued his combined studies in astronomy and physics at Amherst College, where he also did some laboratory teaching in his junior and senior years, and became a member of Phi Beta Kappa. Among his college honours and scholarships, he achieved the distinction of Magna Cum Laude when graduating with his Bachelor of Arts degree in astronomy and physics on 8 June 1958, joining his grandfather on the alumni roll.21
Named in memory of Richard Samuel Westfall (1924-1996), distinguished professor of history and philosophy of science at Indiana University from 1976 to 1989. Westfall is regarded as the foremost scholar of the Scientific Revolution, primarily because of his extraordinary scholarship on Newton see planet (8000) , exemplified in his 1971 treatise on the development of dynamics in the seventeenth century and his 1980 biography of Newton, Never at Rest, both of which won the coveted Pfizer Award of the History of Science Society. (M 34619)
Green, co-founder of Texas Instruments and philanthropist extraordinary, to acknowledge a lifelong commitment to improve the quality of education and scientific research. Green and his late wife Ida funded educational and scientific projects throughout the world, such as academic buildings, health care centers, hospitals, libraries, scholarships and professorships. The Greens assisted in founding new colleges at the University of Texas at Dallas, at Oxford University in England and, in March 1990, Green College at the University of British Columbia. A graduate in electrical engineering, Green spent many years in geophysical field work before becoming a partner of Geophysical Service, Inc., in 1941. He and his partners created a division of that company that ultimately became Texas Instruments.
For Brittany and the British Isles, we can provide some rough conclusions about the state of present scholarship. The earliest evidence for astronomical interests appears in connection with large burial mounds in Brittany and western Ireland. Entrance passages to these tombs usually had an orientation to the southeast, sometimes specifically to the winter solstice. Early megalithic cultures probably spread largely by sea, and astronomical observations would have been important in navigation as well as religion. Artistic motifs may have been used as notations of astronomical phenomena. Gigantic single pillars of stone were sometimes erected during this period, but clear indications that they were used astronomically are lacking. Somewhat before 3000 b.c., large stone circles were built. These were apparently used as meeting places and incorporated community beliefs about cosmic order, which embodied astronomical orientations and therefore the timing of ritual events. There is very good...
From the outset of his college career, Newton's attention seems to have been mainly directed to mathematics. Here he began to give evidence of that marvellous insight into the deep secrets of nature which more than a century later led so dispassionate a judge as Laplace to pronounce Newton's immortal work as pre-eminent above all the productions of the human intellect. But though Newton was one of the very greatest mathematicians that ever lived, he was never a mathematician for the mere sake of mathematics. He employed his mathematics as an instrument for discovering the laws of nature. His industry and genius soon brought him under the notice of the University authorities. It is stated in the University records that he obtained a Scholarship in 1664. Two years later we find that Newton, as well as many residents in the University, had to leave Cambridge temporarily on account of the breaking out of the plague. The philosopher retired for a season to his old home at Woolsthorpe, and...
Named in honor of Elsa Gutierrez Rodriguez-Pardina (1921- ), Argentinian astronomer who has worked in the field of celestial mechanics for more than 30 years. Form 1952 to 1956, she worked at the La Plata Observatory in the Department of Astrometry and Celestial Mechanics. In 1954 she obtained a scholarship from the French government to further her studies in celestial mechanics at the Sorbonne Henri Poincarae Institute. From 1978 to 1986, Pardina led the Celestial Mechanics Department of the Astronomical Observatory of Coardoba. For many years, she was responsible for the celestial mechanics courses taught to undergraduate students. (M 33786)
Vera Cooper wanted to attend Vassar College, a small, all-female school in Poughkeepsie, New York, because Maria Mitchell, the first prominent woman astronomer in the United States, had taught there in the mid-19th century. A second reason for going to Vassar was that I needed a scholarship, and they gave me one, as she told Mercury assistant editor Sally Stephens in a 1991 interview (reprinted in Vera Rubin's collection of papers, Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters). Vassar hardly specialized in astronomy during Cooper's time however, she was the only astronomy major in her class.
The truth about Copernicus lies somewhere between the heroic portrait of popular history and the critical disparagement of contemporary scholarship. Copernicus worked in relative isolation in the single-minded pursuit of a great idea. Furthermore, unlike in modern cosmology, where the major advances have consisted of discoveries (often fortuitous) by skilled observers using advanced technology, Copernicus's achievement was an intellectual one carried out by a single individual working on the northern periphery of christendom. Whatever his limitations as a technical astronomer, he grasped the essential cogency of the heliocentric hypothesis and possessed the tenacity to pursue this idea to the end. That he did so in the circumstances of his time makes him a truly extraordinary figure of the history of science.
England now had to decide on a college, but one of his friends told him he wouldn't get into a good college by graduating early. Undaunted, he took up the challenge by applying to both the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard. To his complete surprise he received acceptances from both colleges, but he finally chose MIT as it ''gave the best scholarship.'' With his college plans now laid out, he graduated from high school at the end of eleventh grade in May 1959, one of a senior class of just forty-six students.
The political history of ancient China was no less turbulent than that of many other parts of the world. From about 4000 B.C.E. onwards it developed from a multitude of farming villages into warring local chiefdoms, and these gradually confederated into larger competing states ruled by powerful dynasties. The best known of these are the Shang and Zhou, which successively controlled ever greater swathes of eastern China during the second and first millennia B.C.E. Yet despite all this social turmoil, a characteristic cultural tradition emerged that is instantly recognizable in arts, crafts, and architecture. One reason is that it arose in geographical isolation from other developing cultures farther west. In 221 b.c.e., China was unified, thus forming one of the world's greatest empires. Further great dynasties, such as the Han, T'ang, Song, Yuan (when China was under Mongul control), Ming, and finally the Qing, endured until the Chinese revolution of c.e. 1911. Imperial China is...