References

1 Memo from Phil Chapman to Curt Michel, 16 October 1967, Curt Michel Collection, Rice University, copy on file, AIS archives. 2 Memo (DB3 11 19) from Charles A. Berry MD, Director of Medical Research and Operations to Deke Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations, 27 November 1967, subject Bioscience Training for the Scientist-Astronauts, Curt Michel Collection, Rice University, copy in AIS Archives. 3 Academic Training Program for Group Six Astronauts, Mission Training Section, Mission...

Back in the pool

Musgrave was also designated MS 4 and assumed the EV 2 and IV 2 role for the mission's EVA programme. His primary crew responsibilities also included the galley on the mid-deck, 35 mm photographic equipment, medical issues, on-orbit stowage, and FDF issues concerning EVA. His back-up crew responsibilities included the Hubble Space Telescope, payload communications, 70 mm photographic equipment, in-flight maintenance, dealing with the Public Affairs Office and flight plan issues in the FDF. The...

Story Musgrave

In many respects, Story Musgrave's life and accomplishments were shaped by a troubled youngster's desperate affinity with nature. It was to nature he fled in body and spirit to seek a calming distraction from a life riven by conflict and torment. Just as he would later turn to the elevating works of Thoreau and Emerson, the young boy found comfort in nature, and inspiration in the night sky. There are many who would describe picturesque Stockbridge, Massachusetts, as a sublime sort of place in...

The last flight

Musgrave was named to the crew of STS-80 on 17 January 1996. The sixteen-day science mission was to deploy and retrieve a pair of science satellites - the ORFEUS-SPAS astronomy satellite and the Wake Shield Facility (making its third flight to grow thin film semiconductor material in the near-perfect vacuum in orbit). There were also two planned EVAs, designed to refine techniques that would be employed on the ISS during its construction. Musgrave was assigned as MS 3 and rode on the flight...

An entirely new type of space transportation system

After more than a decade of development and debate, authorisation to proceed with the new programme to replace the Apollo-Saturn series of vehicles was given by President Richard M. Nixon on 5 January 1972. In his press conference statement, Nixon said I have decided today that the United States should proceed at once with the development of an entirely new type of space transportation system designed to help transform the space frontier of the 1970s into familiar territory, easily accessible...

Contents

Authors' List of List of List of Other 1 The Wrong Organising the A manned satellite Orbital piloted spaceship of the Soviet Union 3 Security over Who should or could Requirements for astronaut selection - the USAF approach 7 Requirements for astronaut selection - the NASA approach 8 The first Pilot-astronauts not Science and manned space NASA's long-term planning In a packed Science and manned orbital space flight Salyut, Skylab and Spacelab - orbital research labs for scientists 22 2...

Requirements for astronaut selection the NASA approach

In November 1958, a month after the civilian space agency NASA had been formed, planning to select the first candidates for the Mercury programme began. The first decision to be made concerned the type of candidate that would be most suitable. Experience gained in the manned rocket aircraft research programme, high-altitude balloon and parachute descent projects, and a variety of research by the USAF into aerospace medicine, had defined a number of parameters with regard to the stresses and...

A bonerattling liftoff

One of the new assignments for the 51-A crew was to work with the insurance industry, which was becoming more involved in the space business. Allen found it amusing to hear from an English insurance representative who, throughout his professional life, had insured things against fire or the chances of explosion. Now he was working with astronauts in the space business, who purposely set fire to a massive amount of explosives at launch .'' He was incredulous to find that he was now betting on...

A strong educational discipline

Donald Lee Holmquest was born on 7 April 1939 to Lillie Mae (nee Waite) and Sidney Browder Holmquest. At some point, his mother's family had anglicised their original German surname from Weitz to Waite, and she told him that her grandfather had been a gun maker in Germany. She had elected to leave school and find work at the tenth grade level so she could attend the funeral of her older brother, who was killed while working on the railroad in Chicago. Lillie never returned to school, as it was...

Another Trip Into Space

The flight of STS 51-F was the final flight to include ''rookie'' scientist-astronauts from the 1967 selection. Though they had gone through the long wait and uncertainty over their flights, they had achieved their goal, and while some had already decided to move on to new careers and objectives in life, others still longed for a second or third flight into space. By the end of 1985, Parker and Garriott were both assigned to new missions. For Musgrave, Thornton and (for a time) England, the...

NASAs astronaut selection process

In the 1959 group, the selection process was primarily a biomedical experimental study. No one had selected people for space flight training before, so there was no previous experience to draw upon. Originally tailored for the Mercury programme, the selection criteria were amended and broadened for the second and third groups as experience was gained. Those chosen for Group 4 (the scientist-astronauts) were expected to be assigned to later Apollo missions and follow-on programmes. As Mercury...

Early influences

Duane Edgar Graveline was born on 2 March 1931 in the small border town of Newport, Vermont, located ten miles south of Canada on the southern tip of the spectacular Lake Memphremagog. His parents, Edgar and Tina, imbued in their older son a strong, lifelong pride in his French Canadian heritage. Before they met, his mother Tina Lamere had been a renowned ski jumper, while his father Edgar would become a sporting goods store owner and marina operator with a grand passion for flying. Young Duane...

Acknowledgements

For their assistance in conducting research, supplying photographs and checking facts for us, we would like to thank Walt Sipes, Hart Sastrowardoyo, Bruce Rogalska, Peter Smith, Dr. John B. Charles, Lawrence McGlynn, Anne Lenehan, Michael Cassutt, and Francis and Erin French. For information on the life of Karl Henize, many thanks to his family Caroline and Vance Henize, and Roddy Seekins. For information on Bob Parker, many thanks to Sonia Parker at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center, San...

Strapping on the jets

After the six-month academic and familiarisation training programme, the XS-11 were ready to begin their year-long pilot training course. The new group had been selected in the aftermath of the Apollo 1 pad fire in January 1967, and the space programme was changing as a result. In addition, they were out of the research laboratories and many were falling seriously behind in their own science work. Adding to their frustration, the new group of scientist-astronauts had tried to convince Air Force...

Garriotts diary

Owen Garriott kept a daily record, and the extent of the tests, evaluations and interviews can be established from this. First of all there were blood sugar tests 50 cc of blood was extracted, and then each subject had to drink a large cup of glucose, after which four smaller blood samples were taken at thirty-minute intervals to observe any variation of sugar concentration. Eighteen dental X-rays were taken, and then there was a brief discussion about the subject's medical history. As Garriott...

Thirtyfive new guys

Following their selection on 16 January 1978,3 the thirty-five members of Group 8 underwent a two-year (later amended to one year) Astronaut Candidate training programme beginning in July, which would qualify them for technical assignments leading to selection to a Shuttle flight crew. The pool of astronauts from which a Shuttle crew (between five and seven persons) could be selected had now increased, and the scientist-astronauts still awaiting their first missions were now hoping that NASA's...

Skylab assignments

During 1971, at the time of discussions over who would crew the Skylab missions, the following scientist-astronauts were still listed as active in the CB remaining 1965 members, geologist Schmitt had been working on Apollo issues for years and was in line to fly the final Apollo landing mission after backing up Apollo 15, so he was never really under consideration for an AAP Skylab mission. The other three, however, had been working on the programme for some years, as well as fulfilling some...

Last Steps On The Lunar Surface

The final departure of humans from the Moon was marked by a meditative ceremony, acknowledging the end to the greatest scientific undertaking and exploration ever attempted by people from Earth. In a melancholy statement read to the astronauts from Mission Control, President Nixon paid homage to the significance and majesty of the Apollo programme. He was sadly prophetic when he stated that it might be the last time any humans walked on the Moon in the twentieth century, but he did say that the...

Defining the role of mission specialist

By April 1976, scientist-astronaut William Lenoir had been assigned to participate in the ASSESS-II mission, although he expressed concerns over his ability to fulfil both his CB assignments and those with ASSESS-II at the same time. Writing to the Director of JSC, the Acting Director of Flight Crew Operations, the Acting Director of Science and Applications and the Chief of CB Science and Applications, Bob Parker requested that Lenoir be relieved from some of his other assignments in order to...

Dr Bill and SMEAT

As a physician with a background in exercise and an investigator of one of the experiments to be flown on the station, Bill Thornton could draw upon years of personal research and his development of techniques, procedures and hardware for exercise in space, as well as assignments in the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program. In the planning for SMEAT, a total of 412 hours of training were allocated to each man. In reality, all three exceeded 500 hours, with Thornton recording 509.25 hours of...

Fun in space

Despite the hard work of retrieving both satellites Allen, like all other astronauts, took time to enjoy his experiences. He shared this with those on the ground through fun demonstrations with liquids (using orange juice, coffee and water) and of movement in space (by performing no-handed push-ups and somersaults in the mid-deck). The most amusing sequence, however, was also one that the crew kept secret for some years. With a few hours to themselves after retrieving the satellites, Gardner...

SMDIII an overview

The three SMD simulations were preparations for future medical Spacelab missions to be flown on the Shuttle. They were based upon the strong precedent set by SMEAT and Skylab, in that any mission of this complexity required a ground-based simulation to iron out any developmental problems and to enable operations on orbit to run more smoothly. The crew for SMD-III. Left to right Carter Alexander, Bill Thornton and Bill Williams inside the simulator during preparations for the test. The rats are...

Physician cosmonauts

Of the seventeen scientist-astronauts selected by NASA, five were qualified Doctors of Medicine. In the Soviet programme, medical doctors have been selected at various times since the 1960s, although only three have flown in space. Given the Soviet programme of long duration space flights over the past three decades, it may seem strange that so few doctors have made it to orbit, but of course delays and changes to the programme, budgets, politics, medical issues and other more pressing events...

Skylab Human Experience

For in-depth historical and operational details of the Skylab programme, see Skylab America's Space Station, David J. Shayler, Springer-Praxis, 2001. What follows are additional observations and comments from the three science pilots who flew the missions. The first manned mission (Skylab 2-25 May-22 Jun 1973) After a delayed launch and the Skylab repair, the science programme of Skylab 2 crammed as much science and investigations into the final two weeks of the mission as possible. Problems...

Where Are They

In the transition to the twenty-first century, many of the seventeen men selected in NASA's two scientist-astronaut groups in 1965 and 1967 are still actively pursuing many other goals, while their ongoing work in science and medicine is both prodigious and worthwhile. Allen IV, Joseph P., completed his second space mission in 1984, and released his book, Entering Space An Astronaut's Odyssey (co-authored with Russell Martin) the same year. The following year, he announced his retirement from...

Problems and progress

Early in the flight, there would be several problems for the crew to contend with and resolve if they could. Electronic equipment failed, causing the loss of vital experiment data. A computer somehow forgot what day it was, resulting in an infrared sensor being pointed at the wrong targets. Then a timer on several experiments failed until the Red Team of Parker and Merbold managed to repair it with a pair of pliers and a Parker (rear) and Garriott work in the long module of Spacelab 1. The...

Owen K Garriott

On 22 April 1889, right on the stroke of high noon, gunfire rang out along the borders of what would become known as Oklahoma Territory the following year. At the sound of the shots, twenty-five thousand hopefuls began a frenzied stampede into flat, dry Indian country, urging on their horses and wagons. Some even proceeded on foot, but all were engaged in a desperate race for newly released tracts of land in former Cheyenne-Arapaho territory. By sunset, thousands of 160-acre quarter sections''...

A long preparation

Karl Henize spent almost a decade working on a specific astronomical payload for the Space Shuttle before finally making it to orbit with that same package. A package of proposals for what became Spacelab 2 was first suggested by scientists in 1976. Henize was one of the scientists who nominated experiments for the payload, but his was not compatible and was not selected. It would have been a 0.5-m (twenty-inch) telescope, derived from his earlier work in Gemini and Apollo. Marshall Space...

Chronology of the NASA Scientist Astronaut Programme

1957 Oct 4 The Soviet Union opens the space age with the launch of Sputnik 1 1958 Oct NASA is created as an American civilian space agency to manage and develop US civilian man in space programmes 1959 Apr NASA selects America's first astronauts - seven test pilots chosen for the one-man Project Mercury programme 1960 Mar The Soviet Union selects its first team of cosmonauts - twenty military pilots, including Yuri Gagarin, primarily for the one-man Vostok programme 1961 Apr 12 Cosmonaut Yuri...

Sts 51b Spacelab 3 And Those Monkeys

Spacelab 3, the first operational mission of the series, had originally been intended to fly after Spacelab 2, but delays to the instrument pointing system of that developmental mission meant the flight order was reversed. Spacelab 3 would carry a payload of experiments in the fields of materials science, space technology and life sciences. Payload specialists for the flight were identified on 8 June 1984 as Taylor Wang and Lodewijk van den Berg, with their back-ups named as Eugene Trinh and...

Skylab Rescue a fifth mission

When a leaking RCS thruster problem surfaced early in the Skylab 3 mission, the prospect of a two-man rescue flight to return the three astronauts was seriously considered, to the point of preparing the launch vehicle and training the crew in the profiles required to complete the mission. In the event, the rescue flight was not needed, but had it flown then it could have seen the flight of the first of the Group 6 scientist-astronauts several years before his colleagues. Bill Lenoir was...

Americas greatest flying machine

On 12 April 1981, the twentieth anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's first flight into space, the Space Shuttle system lifted off on its maiden launch. Pilot-astronauts John Young and Bob Crippen took Columbia on a two-day test flight around the Earth. Shortly after coming back to the Astronaut Office in 1978, Joe Allen was assigned to the In February 1980, Joe Kerwin and Group 8 astronaut Anna Fisher undertook weightless training for an axial scientific instrument change out on a mock-up modular...

Military scientists

In the 1960s, there was a programme of military manned space operations and experiments. These were initially planned for Vostok and Voskhod but never developed to flight status (although the unmanned military version of Vostok, called Zenit, flew for many years20). In addition, plans were formulated to fly military research missions on a military-class Soyuz spacecraft (Soyuz VI), a military space plane (Spiral) and on the military space stations (Almaz) that flew as Salyut 2 (1973), Salyut 3...

A time of devastation

Within weeks of NASA announcing the names of the six scientist-astronauts, a furore of monumental proportions erupted. In July, Carole Jane Graveline filed for divorce in San Antonio, accusing her husband of harsh, cruel and tyrannical treatment'' and saying he had an uncontrollable temper. While understandably devastating for her husband, it created a massive media headache for NASA, who at that time was desperate to maintain the pristine, clean-cut, all-American image of its astronauts....

Qualifying the Lunar Receiving Laboratory

Though Apollo was conceived in 1960 and the lunar mission commitment initiated in 1961, it was not until 1964 that NASA recognised the need for a suitable facility to process lunar samples, reducing any associated risks (from the rocks or the astronauts) of contamination. Initially, a very modest facility was considered, whose origins date back to 1959. In fact, it was nothing more than a clean room in which lunar material could be packed in a vacuum, leaving the more complex experiments and...

Iss Science Officer

In 2002, in recognition of the expected expansion of scientific activities on the space station, NASA identified a new duty assignment for one NASA astronaut on each ISS main expedition crew, the Science Officer. Initially, they would focus solely on US research, but over time NASA planned to discuss the role with other partners, possibly expanding the concept as the station itself was enlarged and incorporated more scientific research facilities from other member countries. The NASA ISS...

Robert Ar Parker

The anticipated letter of confirmation arrived amid great excitement at the Madison home of Dr. Robert Parker, an assistant professor of astronomy at the nearby University of Wisconsin (UW). The letter, date-stamped 2 August 1967, was from the office of Deke Slayton, NASA's Director of Flight Crew Operations. The style was quite formal, but it was written verification of the news Parker had received in a call from Alan Shepard just two weeks earlier, on 21 July. In part, it read ''I am happy to...

Flight surgeon

By now he was keen to join the Air Force as a flight surgeon, no doubt influenced in this ambition by his father, who had been a pilot in the Civil Air Patrol. Graveline could never understand his younger brother, Norman, not sharing this sublime passion. Following a two-month assignment as an assistant to a family doctor in Vermont, he drove down to Washington DC to take up a USAF Medical Service internship at the Walter Reed Medical Center. In June 1956, Graveline attended the primary course...

Technical assignments and the AAP Office

At the time the new group began their training, many of the other NASA astronauts had begun receiving Astronaut Office (CB) technical assignments on future programmes. This included early studies in extending the range of Apollo flights to include more scientifically orientated missions. At a meeting held on 6 August 1964, Astronaut Chief Alan Shepard outlined several technical assignments that would be conducted prior to any further assignments to specific flight crews. Most of these were...

Settling into the Marine Corps

The Marine Corps quickly introduced Story to the world of military aviation and technology. After training, he became an aviation electrician and instrument tech nician, and for a time worked as a plane captain while completing duty assignments in Korea, Japan and Hawaii, and aboard the carrier USS Wasp in the Far East. Musgrave's love of flying had remained with him, and he resumed his studies in order to get a pilot's licence. He began reading any technical manuals on aircraft that he could...

Skylab support roles

In addition to the support assignments already mentioned, some of the scientist-astronauts were involved with specific experiments flown on the workshop, as either principal or co-investigators. Each of these support roles had their own story to tell. Programme scientist Parker's role as programme scientist was to ensure that the science requirements for the manned missions were compatible with programme requirements and safety issues. During Skylab flight operations, Parker would liaise...

Preparing for the task

The two astronauts would eventually spend a total of seventy-five hours on the Moon, and were engaged in lunar extravehicular activity (LEVA) outside Challenger for twenty-two of those hours. At first, Cernan expressed surprise at the glittering appearance of the lunar soil, saying it looked like millions of tiny diamonds, but Schmitt was a little more pragmatic, and stated that it was in fact microscopic beads of glass reflecting sunlight. The soil looks like a vesicular, very light-coloured...

Rice University

In September 1963, now a theoretical physicist, Michel took on a new job as an assistant professor at Rice University in Houston. This was virtually right next door to the Manned Spacecraft Center, and many of its personnel came to Rice for graduate training. Michel began work under Professor Alexander Dessler, who would be instrumental in the formation of America's first college-level department of space sciences, which Dessler - an early supporter of the scientist-astronaut programme -would...

Garriott Owen Kay Science Pilot Skylab 3 MS STS9Spacelab

Born 1930 Nov 22 in Enid, Oklahoma, USA. Qualifications (1953) BS in electrical engineering from the University of Oklahoma (1957) MS in electrical engineering, Stanford University (1960) PhD in electrical engineering, Stanford University. NASA career (1965 Jun 28) selected as a NASA scientist-astronaut, Group 4 (19651967) astronaut academic, simulator, survival and jet pilot training programme (from 1967) development issues for Apollo Applications Program (AAP, later Skylab) (1967) served on...

Assessii in flight

The actual mission began on the afternoon of 16 May 1977 and continued for the next nine days until the evening of 25 May. There were nine, six-hour flights (seven night flights and two day flights) of the CV-990. Between each flight, the payload crew was confined to the CV-990 and the living quarters van, which was connected to the aft door of the aircraft between flights. A five-man payload crew (four PSs - two from the US and two from Europe - and one NASA MS - Henize) conducted single-shift...

Musgrave Franklin Story MS STS6 Ms Sts 51FSpacelab 2 MS STS33 MS STS44 MS STS61 MS STS80

Born 1935 Aug 19 in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Qualifications (1958) BS in maths and statistics from Syracuse University (1959) MA in operational analysis and computer programming from University of California at Los Angeles (1960) BA in chemistry from Marietta College (1964) MD from Columbia University (1966) MS in physiology and biophysics from University of Kentucky (1987) MA in literature from University of Houston. NASA career (1967 Aug 4) selected as a NASA scientist-astronaut, Group 6...

Musgraves STS6 training load

Though formally identified in March 1982, the crew commenced their training in October 1981 with ascent, orbit and entry training lessons in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Their first ascent and entry integrated simulation occurred in September 1982. The STS-6 crew became the first to have a dedicated SMS team from the start of their training programme through to launch. Training for the crew included ascent, orbit and entry flight operations, payload (IUS) flight operations, crew...

Sts6 The Challenge Of

The crew for STS-6 had been announced on 2 March 1982 (NASA News 82-012) as Paul Weitz (commander) Karol Bobko (pilot) Story Musgrave (MS 1) and Don The STS-6 crew receives preliminary flight instruction from Shuttle Landing Facility Manager Roger Gould prior to flying formation manoeuvres in their T-38s the day prior to their launch into space. Left to right Gould, Commander Paul Weitz, MS Don Peterson, MS Musgrave and Pilot Karol Bobko. The STS-6 crew receives preliminary flight instruction...

The second manned mission Skylab 328 Jul25 Sep 1973

Science was given a higher priority on the longer second Skylab mission, as Garriott recalled in 2000. Ninety per cent of your time is spent doing useful science research on board the Skylab, and everybody was highly trained and highly motivated to get that done. I could tell no significant difference between Alan Bean or Jack Lousma's motivation from my own.''19 One of Garriott's primary tasks, in addition to shifts at the ATM console, was operating the S190B Earth terrain camera during Earth...

A butter cookie for good luck

Putting on the EVA spacesuit always reminds me of the feeling I had when my mother dressed me in a very heavy snowsuit. In this case, your shipmates bundle you up. They stuff you in the spacesuit, often with a pat on the back and a butter cookie in the mouth for good luck. Then they put the helmet over your head, snap it into place at the neck ring, and from that moment on you float in the suit, your toes gently touching the boots, your head occasionally bobbing up against the helmet. You are...

A childhood filled with despair

A few miles west of Stockbridge, an old English-style stone mansion bearing the name Linwood still nestles peacefully in a quiet valley beneath the Berkshire Hills. Once situated on a thousand-acre dairy farm overlooking the gentle Housatonic River, the five-storey dwelling, set amidst formal gardens and hedges, is now part of the magnificent Norman Lindsay Museum estate. At one time, it was the boyhood home of future scientist-astronaut Franklin Story Musgrave, born on 19 August 1935 to...

Tony England Losing Sunlab and back to teaching

In October 1985, Tony England had served as Capcom during the STS 51-J classified DoD mission (the maiden flight of Atlantis) and the STS 61-A Spacelab D1 German mission. When he came back to NASA in 1979, he had already decided that once he had achieved his first flight, he would probably return to a teaching position somewhere. But the delays meant it would be six years before England could seriously look at this option. Anticipating problems in qualifying and using the Instrument Pointing...

The Excess Eleven

As members of the first group of scientist-astronauts were completing their training, plans for the Apollo Applications Program were expanding in scope, but being cut back financially. Over the following fifteen years, Apollo hardware was expected to be involved in at least ten manned landings in the mainstream programme, before being used to implement extended lunar surface explorations that could lead to a manned lunar research station. Redesigned Apollo hardware was also planned for use in...

Wilderness and survival training

Nominal and launch abort recovery for Apollo missions was in the ocean, but a mission could be terminated at any point and entry and landing could result in an emergency terrain or out-of-range ocean landing. Therefore, the astronauts were given three types of basic survival training in tropical, desert and water environments. Since the orbital inclination planned for Apollo did not normally cover polar flights, Arctic wilderness training (which the Soviet cosmonauts underwent) was not part of...

Other roads to travel

Following his retirement from medical practice at the age of sixty, 'Doc' Graveline has become a prolific author of medical and science-fiction thrillers, with nine published novels to his credit. His website13 gives a revealing and far more comprehensive look into his impressive career, with detailed information on the groundbreaking bioastronautical work in which he participated. He now lives a contented but prodigious life, with a supportive wife at his side. Suzanne Gamache had lived in...

Parkers role on Astro1

Assigned as MS 3 for the mission and a member of the Red Team (with Gardner and Ron Parise), Parker worked a twelve-hour shift during the mission. During the ascent phase of the flight, he rode in Seat 5 on the mid-deck, exchanging places with Jeff Hoffman for re-entry and returning in Seat 3 on the flight deck. While each of the three The STS-35 crew during emergency egress training at KSC in Florida during 1990. Left to right Pilot Guy Gardner, PS Ron Parise, Sam Durrance (hidden from view at...

A new breed of astronaut

On 16 April 1964, the National Academy of Sciences was requested to participate in identifying scientific criteria for the selection of scientist-astronauts by Dr. Homer E. Newell, now serving as NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Sciences and Applications.14 A series of meetings by an ad hoc Committee on Scientific Qualifications of Scientist-Astronauts began in May 1964. In the selection process, the NAS would screen the scientific qualifications of all the applicants, while the Office...

Spacelab Medical Development Test I

The first SMD, also termed Life Science Payload Mission Simulation (LSPMS) 1, was conducted between 1 and 8 October 1974 by physician-astronaut Story Musgrave (MS) and Dr. Dennis Morrison (PS) of the Bioscience Payloads Office at JSC. They would complete a seven day shakedown test of operational procedures and experiment demonstrations.''30 Though the pair occupied the Spacelab mock-up for the working day'' period, they lived in a mobile home adjacent to the laboratory during off-duty hours....

Spacelab Medical Development Test III

During the press conference for the second SMD, there were comments about a third, even longer simulation - perhaps as long as thirty days - planned for later that year, as well as future simulations that could include female crew members or representatives from ESA. A meeting about following up the second SMD was held on 25 March 1976, at which new areas of involvement were suggested, including support from the foreign community, as well as any potential commercial user involvement.''34 There...

Just like Copernicus

On 19 February 1932, 459 years to the day after the birth of Copernicus, Joe Kerwin was born to Marie (nee LeTourneux) and Edward M. Kerwin, a Chicago businessman. Like the famed astronomer, he took his early education at a Dominican Catholic school, studied medicine at university, and would later take part in space studies and experiments (in Kerwin's case, aboard America's first space station, Skylab). And just like Copernicus, his work would help revolutionise many aspects of space science....

Growing up in Australia

Chapman, who had learned to read when he was three, was excited by Ethel Turner's large library of paperback novels. She introduced him to the thrillers of John Buchan and Dornford Yates, and to the science fiction of H.G. Wells, Jules Verne and Edgar Rice Burroughs. ''I think it was John Carter's adventures under the hurtling Moons of Barsoom that first made me a space buff,'' he reflects. Initially he attended Mosman primary school, but when he was nine, he moved over to Fort Street...

Introducing electronics into medicine

After spending more than two years in the USAF in secure laboratories, aircraft, or in desolate test stations, Thornton decided to introduce electronics into medicine, rather than fly. His work began at the UNC's Memorial Hospital, where he worked, briefly, in their Departments of Anaesthesiology, Cardiology and Neurology. It was here, in July 1955, that he first met Jennifer Fowler from Hertfordshire in England, who was part of a medical exchange programme, and a chase ensued. ''I now needed...

Spain or Earth orbit

The problems during launch on 29 July led to the first (and, to date, only) Shuttle Abort-to-Orbit (ATO) situation. The first stage performance (SRB and SSME) was reported to the crew as low, and meant that the SSME had to be throttled up to compensate for the problem. At 3 minutes 30 seconds into the flight, the first signs of a main engine problem were noted and at 5 minutes 45 seconds, the No. 1 engine failed and shut down, triggering the Abort-to-Orbit sequence using the remaining two...

Science and technology summary courses

Geology I (56 hours of instruction) This covered basic terrestrial mineralogy, petrology and geological processes, identifying basic rock structures and geological mapping techniques (a total of fourteen sessions in geological processes). Geology II (56 hours of instruction) Terrestrial analogues of lunar geographic features, geological mapping, geophysical studies and appropriate sampling techniques (fifteen sessions), plus fourteen sessions of mineralogy and petrology. Geology field trips (an...

Selecting The Last Landing Site

Apollo Training

The last manned lunar mission to date, Apollo 17, left Earth on 7 December and landed near the south-eastern edge of Mare Serenitatis, in the valley of Taurus-Littrow - a veritable geologist's paradise. Because this was to be the final manned expedition in the Apollo series, serious consideration had been given to the landing site. All of the high priority regions were revisited and examined by scientists, geologists and other lunar experts, and many were excluded for either scientific or...

Flight surgeon school

Drafted into the Navy, Kerwin was interviewed at the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. One of the duties offered was the very last place in a flight surgeon school, involving a training programme in aviation medicine at the Naval Air Station in Pensacola, Florida. In addition to studying to be a flight surgeon, he would learn the basics of flying at pre-flight school, with about twenty hours of instruction. This appealed to Kerwin and he accepted, joining the Naval Medical Corps in July 1958....

Flight Training

Ed Gibson had once nurtured a dream of flying for the United States Air Force, but a youthful bout of osteomyelitis, a bacterial inflammation of the bone, had put an end to this particular ambition.2 Back then, even when successfully treated, it was still regarded by the Air Force as a basis for disqualification. Suddenly, with his acceptance as a scientist-astronaut, Gibson was no longer precluded from taking to the skies and flying solo in some of the country's finest jet aircraft. This,...

International Geophysical Year

The worldwide scientific community had designated 1958 as the International Geophysical Year, a period of intense study of the planet. Chapman's principle job was to observe the Aurora Australis - delicate, luminous curtains that light up the night sky in Antarctica. One of the objectives was to take simultaneous photos of the aurora, using a camera mounted on a theodolite at Mawson, and another one at a camp beside an Emperor penguin rookery at Taylor Glacier, some eighty kilometres to the...

Edward G Gibson

Sharing his birth date with that of noted astronomer Edmund Halley, Edward George Gibson came into the world on 8 November 1936, the youngest of three children born to Geraldine (nee Shannon) and Calder Alexander Gibson. The Gibson family lived in the quaint, tree-lined village of Kenmore, located in Erie County near the Niagara River just north of Buffalo, where his father ran the A.C. Gibson Company, a marking devices firm founded by and named after his paternal grandfather, Alexander Calder...

Bill Thornton

Back in 1988, Bill Thornton believed that crew assignments were based on need rather than politics and, fortunately, so did those assigned to selecting astronauts for Shuttle missions. Thornton felt that he flew his two space missions exactly when he should have flown and, after the loss of Challenger, was philosophical about the need to return the Shuttle to routine flight operations and solving all the engineering problems before flying himself, even if this meant his chances of a third...

Chamber testing the Block I CSM

Initial vacuum tests of a Block I Command Module took place in a smaller chamber at the primary manufacturer, North American Aviation, in Downey, California, during the summer of 1966. The full CSM test conducted in Houston's Chamber A covered a period of eighty-three days, with a ninety-two-hour unmanned test followed by a 163hour manned test almost seven days . Astronauts Ed Givens recently selected in the Group 5 intake and Joe Kerwin were chosen for the test, along with USAF Captain Joe...

Eleven becomes ten then nine

After graduation, the military students were allowed to select their own USAF assignments, with first choice going to those with the highest grades. Both Musgrave Bob Parker gives a thumbs-up signal from the rear seat of a T-38 in 1983. Having graduated from the AF flying school in 1969 the scientist regularly used the T-38 for transportation across America. Bob Parker gives a thumbs-up signal from the rear seat of a T-38 in 1983. Having graduated from the AF flying school in 1969 the scientist...

In the footsteps of pioneers

Owen Kay Garriott can trace his family back over several generations notably on his father's side to French immigrant brothers who first set foot in the colonies in the late eighteenth century. Most have been farmers, until my father's generation. No criminals or cattle thieves that I've been told about ''4 The future scientist-astronaut was born in Enid, Oklahoma, on 22 November 1930, the first child of Mary Catherine nee Mellick and Owen Garriott. While he was given his father's forename he...

Joe Allen and the ISF

In the middle of June 1985, Joe Allen announced his intention to resign from NASA the following month to assume a position as Executive Vice President for Space Industries Incorporated SII , a Houston-based firm that was pursuing ventures in the utilisation and commercial use of space. The founder and president of Space Industries was Dr. Maxime Faget the former Director of Engineering and Development at NASA JSC and a leading engineer, who was instrumental in the design and development of all...