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There was a potentially serious problem on the first day of the mission. Once the payload bay doors had been opened, with their critical heat-dispensing radiators, Garriott and Merbold tried to open the hatch leading into Spacelab. Their joint efforts were in vain - the hatch was jammed tight. All six men - pilots and scientists alike -turned their immediate attention to remedying the problem and offering solutions. Fifteen minutes later, to their immense relief, the hatch finally yielded, allowing Garriott, Merbold and Lichtenberg to make their way through into the laboratory and ready it for occupancy. Reflecting on the dramas with the balky hatch, Garriott said: ''My recollection is that Brewster Shaw was actually the one who pressed the hardest, and it finally opened for him. None of us wanted to use too much force in fear of doing some permanent damage and then not getting the hatch open.''28

Spacelab was equipped in part with side-by-side standard experiment racks, each about nineteen inches wide. In the long module there would normally be sufficient room to load ten such racks on each side of the laboratory, although that number would decrease if any double-racks were carried - as on this flight, when two double-rack modules were loaded.

The seventy-one scientific experiments and investigations that would be conducted during the flight, ranged across five disciplines: atmospheric physics and Earth observations; space plasma physics; material sciences and technology; astronomy and solar physics; and life sciences. Scientists from the United States, Canada, Western Europe and Japan had been selected as principal investigators (PIs) for various experiments and each had their own team of experts for design, testing,

Garriott works at the aft flight deck station of the Shuttle 1 G simulator at JSC in preparation for STS-9.

crew training, in-flight operations and science interpretations. Among them was a French experiment, the Atmospheric Lyman-Alpha Emissions detector (ALAE), which would be used to measure the radiation produced by sunlight's action on hydrogen, and to make the first measurements of atomic deuterium, a heavy form of hydrogen, in the atmosphere. The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST) and the Very Wide Field Camera (VWFC) were studies conceived and put together by the University of California and the Space Astronomy Laboratory in Marseilles, France respectively, and were designed to help explain the life cycle of stars and galaxies. Targets of the FAUST ultraviolet telescope included distant quasars, hot stars and galaxies, while the VWFC would search out and take ultraviolet images of new astronomical targets and also help researchers gain a better understanding of known objects.

Two instruments, known as the West German Metric Camera and NASA's Large Format Camera, were also included. They combined techniques and equipment to provide high-resolution images intended for use in mapping parts of the Earth's surface. The Metric Camera was a modified aerial survey-mapping camera, mounted on the optical-quality window in the ceiling of the Spacelab module.

Material science experiments were included, to study processes and determine the advantages of fabricating materials such as crystals, alloys and ceramics in conditions of weightlessness. As NASA was hoping that the private sector might demonstrate an interest in manufacturing in space, experiments in materials processing aboard Spacelab 1 were of particular importance. These experiments were carried out in a double-rack module with so much equipment that it was effectively an entire materials science laboratory.

One of the materials science racks included isothermal and gradient furnaces used to conduct a variety of experiments on different metals. A mirror-heating facility furnace reduced silicon rods to a molten state through radiation from two halogen lamps, then solidified and re-crystallised them into a single rod to gauge the effects of weightlessness on the re-crystallisation process. Other processing experiments included a study of the diffusion coefficient of liquid metals, or how metals diffuse through each other. Another module incorporated into the double-rack was an Italian-designed fluid physics laboratory, allowing the first significant opportunity to observe fluid dynamics on orbit. Long, freestanding columns of different liquids were created in this module, and their reaction to zero gravity, stretching, rotating and vibrating was closely monitored. Alongside this unit was a special chamber in which ultra-high vacuum conditions could be created to allow a study of the way different metals adhered to each other.

The second double-rack experiment module was dedicated to life sciences. Sixteen vital life science tests would be conducted during the flight, including those related to physiology, the cardiovascular system, haematology and immunology, the muscu-loskeletal and neurovascular systems, cellular functions, circadian rhythms and biological processing.

Life sciences were an important facet of Spacelab research on this and later flights. Many experiments were carried out to help scientists understand the varied and sometimes mysterious ways in which the human body responds or adapts to space flight. In the long process of evolution, our bodies have become accustomed to the demands and foibles of gravity in many ways, but when gravity is taken away those same bodies undergo certain physiological changes. Blood, for example, is redistributed differently, affecting the circulatory, cardiovascular and endocrine systems (the latter involving hormone production and functions to regulate and control the body's

Mission Specialist Garriott (left) and ESA (German) physicist and Payload Specialist Merbold work in the first Spacelab mission long module during STS-9. The workload of the science programme is amply demonstrated by the documents they hold. Garriott has a data log book for the solar spectrum experiment, while Merbold holds a ground map for monitoring objectives of the matrix camera experiment.

Mission Specialist Garriott (left) and ESA (German) physicist and Payload Specialist Merbold work in the first Spacelab mission long module during STS-9. The workload of the science programme is amply demonstrated by the documents they hold. Garriott has a data log book for the solar spectrum experiment, while Merbold holds a ground map for monitoring objectives of the matrix camera experiment.

metabolic activity). Muscles and bones also begin to deteriorate in conditions of weightlessness, and a number of sensory signals become confused and scrambled.

As part of their haematology and immunology studies the scientists would draw blood and then conduct laboratory tests and experiments under conditions of weightlessness. The blood samples were used to measure changes to the red cell mass and lymphocytes (white blood cells) in microgravity. Haematology studies seemed to indicate that bone marrow function is inhibited in weightlessness, resulting in the suppression of erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates the creation of red blood cells. Lymphocytes help the human body resist infection by recognising and eliminating any harmful foreign agents. ''Operation of many of the experiments required two people working together as a team, particularly in the life sciences area,'' Garriott reflected. ''You would perform a test on one person, and then you would reverse the roles and they would perform that test on you. Experimenter and subject, and vice

In one experiment, known to the science team as the ''hop and drop'' test, they were involved before, during and after the flight in research into what is known as the otolith-spinal reflex. This is a postural reflex that normally and instinctively prepares the human body for the jolt associated with landing after a fall. To substitute for gravity in-flight, the Spacelab crew members were held to the floor by several bungee cords attached to a torso harness, and surface electrodes were placed over the calf muscles to record their neuromuscular reactions. The subject would then be suspended about a foot from the floor against the pull of these bungees Then the suspension handle would be released at an unexpected moment, and the crewman would drop to the deck. Electrical sensors on the leg measured the reflexive response as the crewman caught himself as his feet hit the deck. 28 The experiment would demonstrate that otolith-spinal reflexes progressively decrease in microgravity, indicating that the otolith organs are inhibited in weightlessness, and are gradually ignored by the body's nervous system during space flight.

One startling physiological discovery came when a Nobel Prize-winning theory on the mechanics of the inner ear was disproved. This long-held theory asserted that nystagmus, or rapid eye movement, could be triggered by thermal convection in fluid in the semicircular canals of the inner ear. But convection does not occur in micro-gravity, so no eye movement should have been detected. Tests were carried out on two subjects during the flight, and both responded with eye movements. This surprising discovery demonstrated that bodily mechanics other than thermal convection are involved in caloric nystagmus.

There was also the vexing problem of the physiological response to space flight that quickly came to be known as Space Adaptation Syndrome, or SAS - an affliction peculiar to more than half of all space travellers, ranging from mild discomfort to brief, episodic periods of nausea. To aid in their research the science team carried out a number of neuro-vestibular studies into the adaptation of the human brain to the environment of space. In order to record continuous measurements of brain and heart activity, and head and eye movements, the Spacelab crew members wore a physiological tape recorder - similar in appearance to a Walkman tape player - to provide data on whether head movements and visual disorientation actually provoked SAS.

As it happened, three of Columbia's science team developed symptoms of SAS. With a researcher's diligence, they kept detailed notes on the different stages and time frames of these episodes, as well as monitoring their head movements with accel-erometers. While personally undesirable for those on board Columbia, this unpredictable illness would prove quite fortuitous for ground researchers, as it became the first fully documented, clinical case study of SAS and the vital role that vision played in the adaptation process in a weightless environment.

Life science aboard Spacelab was a multi-faceted programme. There was even one experiment to determine whether plants such as sunflowers might still grow in their characteristically spiral patterns, known as nutation, in the virtual absence of gravity. Plant physiologists had long wondered whether this particular movement depended on gravity or an internal growth mechanism. One component of this experiment was a plant growth unit containing two small centrifuges that could produce an artificial gravity of around 1 G- the same gravitational force encountered on Earth. The plants were allowed to grow for about three days under Earth-gravitation conditions, then were hastily removed and transferred to another chamber, this time with zero gravity influence. They were then automatically monitored and photographed by time-lapse photography to see how they responded.

Table 5. Experiments carried out on STS-9/Spacelab 1.

Life Sciences Investigations

• Advanced Biostack Experiment, H. Bucker, DFVLR, Cologne, Germany

• Circadian Rhythms during Spaceflight: Neurspora, F.M. Sulzman, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.

• Effect of Weightlessness on Lymphocyte Proliferation, A. Cogoli, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland

• Humoral Immune Response, E.W. Voss, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

• Influence of Spaceflight on Erythrokinetics in Man, C.S. Leach, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas

• Mass Discrimination during Weightlessness, H.E. Ross, University of Stirling, Scotland

• Measurement of Central Venous Pressure and Hormones in Blood Serum during Weightlessness, K. Kirsch, Free University of Berlin, West Germany

• Microorganisms and Biomolecules in the Space Environment, G. Horneck, DFVLR, Cologne, West Germany

• Nutation of Sunflower Seedlings in Microgravity, A.H. Brown, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

• Personal Electrophysiological Tape Recorder, H. Green, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, England

• Crystal Growth of Proteins, W. Littke, University of Freiburg, West Germany

• Radiation Environment Mapping, E.V. Benton, University of San Francisco, California

• Rectilinear Accelerations, Optokinetic and Caloric Stimulations, R. von Baumgarten, University of Mainz, West Germany

• Three-Dimensional Ballistocardiography in Weightlessness, A. Scano, University of Rome, Italy

• Vestibular Experiments, L.R. Young, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

• Vestibulo-Spinal Reflex Mechanisms, M.F. Reschke, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas

Material Science Investigations

Fluid Physics Module

• Capillary Forces in a Low-Gravity Environment, J.F. Padday, Kodak Research Laboratory, Harrow, England

• Coupled Motion of Liquid-Solid Systems in Near-Zero Gravity, J.P.B. Vreeburg, National Aerospace Laboratory, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

• Floating Zone Stability in Zero-Gravity, I. Da Riva, University of Madrid, Spain

• Free Convection in Low Gravity, L.G. Napolitano, University of Naples, Italy

• Interfacial Instability and Capillary Hysteresis, J.M. Haynes, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

• Kinetics of the Spreading of Liquid in Solids, J.M. Haynes, University of Bristol, United Kingdom Oscillation of Semi-Free Liquid Spheres in Space, H. Rodot, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris, France

Gradient Heating Facility

• Lead-Telluride Crystal Growth, H. Rodot, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris, France

• Solidification of Aluminium-Zinc Vapour Emulsion, C. Potard, Centre for Nuclear Studies, Grenoble, France

• Solidification of Eutectic Alloys, J.J. Favier and J.P Praizey, Centre for Nuclear Studies, Grenoble, France

• Thermodiffusion in Tin Alloys, Y. Malmejac and J.P. Praizey, Center for Nuclear Studies, Grenoble, France

• Unidirectional Solidification of Eutectics, G. Muller, University of Erlangen, Germany

Isothermal Heating Facility

• Bubble-Reinforced Materials, P. Gondi, University of Bologna, Italy

• Dendrite Growth and Microsegregation of Binary Alloys, H. Fredriksson, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

• Emulsions and Dispersion Alloys, H. Ahlborn, University of Hamburg, Germany

• Interaction Between An Advancing Solidification Front and Suspended Particles, D. Neuschutz and J. Potschke, Krupp Research Centre, Essen, Germany

• Melting and Solidification of Metallic Composites, A. Deruyttere, University of Leuven, Belgium

• Metallic Emulsion Aluminium-Lead, P.D. Caton, Fulmer Research Institute, Stoke Poges, United Kingdom

• Nucleation of Eutectic Alloys, Y. Malmejac, Centre for Nuclear Studies, Grenoble, France

• Reaction Kinetics in Glass, G.H. Frischat, Technical University of Clausthal, Germany

• Skin Technology, H. Sprenger, MAN Advanced Technology, Munich, Germany

• Solidification of Immiscible Alloys, H. Ahlborn, University of Hamburg, Germany

• Solidification of Near-Monotectic Zinc-Lead Alloys, H.F. Fischmeister, Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart, Germany

• Undirectional Solidification of Cast Iron, T. Luyendijk, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

• Vacuum Brazing, W. Schonherr and E. Siegfried, Federal Institution for Material Testing, Berlin, Germany

• Vacuum Brazing, R. Stickler and K. Frieler, University of Vienna, Australia

Mirror Heating Facility

• Crystalisation of a Silicon Drop, H. Kolker, Wacker-Chemie, Munich, Germany

• Floating Zone Growth of Silicon, R. Nitsche and E. Eyer, University of Freiburg, Germany

• Growth of Cadmium Telluride by the Travelling Heater Method, R. Nitsche, R. Dian, and R. Schonholz, University of Freiburg, Germany

• Growth of Semiconductor Crystals by the Travelling Heater Method, K.W. Benz, Stuttgart University, and G. Muller, University of Erlangen, Germany

Special Equipment

• Adhesion of Metals in UHV Chamber, G. Ghersini, Information Centre of Experimental Studies, Italy

• Crystal Growth by Co-Precipitation in Liquid Phase, A. Authier, F. Le Faucheux, and M.C. Robert, University of Pierre and Marie Curie, Paris, France

• Crystal Growth of Proteins, W. Littke, University of Freiburg, Germany

• Mercury Iodide Crystal Growth, R. Cadoret, Laboratory for Crystallography and Physics, Les, Cezeaux, France

• Organic Crystal Growth, K.F. Neilsen, G. Galster, and I. Johannson, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngbyg, Denmark

• Selfdiffusion and Interdiffusion in Liquid Metals, K. Kraatz, Technical University of Berlin, Germany

Space Plasma Physics Investigations:

• Atmospheric Emission Photometric Imaging (AEPI), S.B. Mende, Lockheed Solar Observatory, Palo Alto, California

• Electron Spectrometer, K. Wilhelm, Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart, Germany

• Magnetometer, R. Schmidt, Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

• Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB), C. Beghin, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris, France

• Space Experiments with Particle Accelorators (SEPAC), T. Obayashi, Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, Tokyo, Japan

Atmospheric Science Investigations

• Active Cavity Radiometer (ACR), R.C. Willson, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California

• Grille Spectrometer, M. Acherman, Space Aeronomy Institute, Brussel, Belgium

• Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO), M.R. Torr, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama

• Investigation of Atmospheric Hydrogen and Deuterium through Measurement of Lyman-Alpha Emission (ALAE), J.L. Bertaux, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris, France

• Solar Constant (SolCon), D. Crommelynck, Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels, Belgium

• Solar Spectrum (SolSpec), G. Thullier, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris, France

• Waves in the OH Emissive Layer, M. Herse, National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris, France

Earth Observation Investigations

• Metric Camera, M. Reynolds, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, G. Konecny, University of Hannover, Germany

• Microwave Remote Sensing Experiment, G. Dieterie, European Space Agency, Paris, France

Astronomy and Astrophysics Investigations

• Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope (FAUST), C.S. Bowyer, University of California, Berkeley, California

• Isotope Stack, R. Beaujean, Kiel University, Germany

• Spectroscopy in X-Ray Astronomy, R.D. Andresen, European Space Research & Technology Centre, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

• Very Wide Field Camera, Go. Courtes, Space Astronomy Laboratory, Marseilles, France

Space Technology Investigations

• Bearing Lubricant Wetting, Spreading & Characteristics, C.H.T. Pan, Columbia University, New York, New York, A. Whitaker, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama

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