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For their assistance in conducting research, supplying photographs and checking facts for us, we would like to thank Walt Sipes, Hart Sastrowardoyo, Bruce Rogalska, Peter Smith, Dr. John B. Charles, Lawrence McGlynn, Anne Lenehan, Michael Cassutt, and Francis and Erin French.

For information on the life of Karl Henize, many thanks to his family; Caroline and Vance Henize, and Roddy Seekins. For information on Bob Parker, many thanks to Sonia Parker at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center, San Diego

For supplying anecdotal material, Dr. Alex Dessler from the University of Arizona, Dr. Loren Acton from the Montana State University, and Professor Bob Bless from the University of Wisconsin. Further assistance from the University of Wisconsin was given by staff members and researchers Leonard Black, Steve Masar and Kerri Canepa.

We would also like to thank Jody Russell from NASA's Media Resource Center, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Sally Little, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and to Professor C. William Birky for details of his family and career background.

The following astronauts were instrumental in providing an insight not only into their flights, but also into the workings of NASA during their time there: Joe Allen, Ed Gibson, Karl Henize and Bill Thornton. In addition, we wish to thank all the members of the two groups for their time during various interviews, correspondence and assistance in the compilation of this book. Much of this assistance has been listed as references and sources. We must also thank the various candidates from the two groups for supplying additional information about their quest to become a scientist-astronaut.

The cooperation of the staff at the Public Affairs Office and the History Office at NASA JSC in Houston over many years has been of considerable help in accessing archival data on the scientist-astronauts. This has been continued by the staff of the University of Houston at Clear Lake, the custodians of the NASA JSC History

Collection. Staff members of Rice University, Houston, have given extensive support in researching the Curt Michel Collection held there.

Thanks go to Jerry Carr for access to his personal archive that included details of the Group 4/5 academic and survival training programme during 1966-1967.

The two authors' personal archives, collected over forty years, have been indispensable in conducting research, but there was also a network of colleagues and friends willing to share snippets of information and suggestions for further research to add that little bit of extra detail to the facts. This select group includes Rex Hall, Mike Cassutt, and Bert Vis, each of whom has helped indirectly in the compilation of this volume over many years.

We must of course thank Owen Garriott for the superb foreword, for supplying the authors with a copy of his diary notes on his selection as well as other vital information and quotable material, and for clarifying a few points in the draft phase.

Thanks also to Mike Shayler our copy editor, whose professional work over an extended time period (and time zones) along with skilful photo preparation is appreciated. Once again the support and understanding of Clive Horwood, Chairman of Praxis in difficult times for us all is recognised as is his continued support and belief in his authors. Thanks to the staff of Springer-Verlag in both London and New York for post-production support; to Neil Shuttlewood and staff at Originator, for their typesetting skills; to Jim Wilkie for his continued skills in preparing the cover for the project, and the printers for the final result.

Both authors wish to thank the support and encouragement of our immediate families in the compilation of this book, especially Bel Edge and Pat Burgess.

This has been a very personal project for both authors, who have a long interest in the lives and careers of the NASA astronauts (whether or not they ever made it into orbit) and the families who support them. All of their stories need to be told, as it was a team effort that got them though the selection and training, into space, out to the Moon and safely home. The seventeen scientist-astronauts selected in 1965 and 1967 were just as important to the overall NASA effort to reach the Moon and laying the foundations for what followed as the other groups selected between 1959 and 1969. Thanks to their efforts, sacrifices and determination this important story can now be told.

Karl Henize, with camera, at the aft flight deck windows of Space Shuttle Challenger during the STS 51-F Spacelab 2 mission in 1985. An astronomer by profession, the delight on his face reflects his feelings at finally making it to orbit after waiting eighteen years to fly in space.

To Dr. Karl G. Henize (1926-1993) Mission Specialist STS 51-F (Spacelab 2) 1985

Karl Henize, with camera, at the aft flight deck windows of Space Shuttle Challenger during the STS 51-F Spacelab 2 mission in 1985. An astronomer by profession, the delight on his face reflects his feelings at finally making it to orbit after waiting eighteen years to fly in space.

This book is also dedicated to the other sixteen men who were chosen as NASA's scientist-astronauts. We further dedicate this work to the families who supported them in their quest for space and to the candidates who almost became fellow scientist-astronauts.

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