Another Trip Into Space

The flight of STS 51-F was the final flight to include ''rookie'' scientist-astronauts from the 1967 selection. Though they had gone through the long wait and uncertainty over their flights, they had achieved their goal, and while some had already decided to move on to new careers and objectives in life, others still longed for a second or third flight into space. By the end of 1985, Parker and Garriott were both assigned to new missions. For Musgrave, Thornton and (for a time) England, the desire to return to space was still strong enough to keep them in the astronaut programme. Although the line of crews and new astronauts - all awaiting their chance to fly - was much longer and their chances of making another flight were slimmer, they would wait it out for a while again. However, seventy-three seconds of a cold January day in 1986 would drastically and tragically change their fates.

England takes the opportunity to look out of the window during the mission.

REFERENCES

1 AIS telephone interview with Ed Gibson, 3 January 2004.

2 David J. Shayler interview with Karl Henize, Houston, Texas, August 1988, AIS Oral Archives.

3 NASA News, JSC 78-03, 16 January 1978.

4 NASA News, JSC 78-33, 26 July 1978.

5 Joseph P. Allen, NASA JSC Oral History Project, 18 March 2004, p. 24.

6 Commercial Space, March 1987, p. 38 article Melting Pot by J. Lowndes.

7 STS-1 mission commentary tape transcript 0181, 04-14-81, 18.16.30 GMT, p. 1.

8 NASA News, JSC 82-012, 1 March 1982.

9 AIS telephone Interview with Bill Lenoir, 24 June 2005.

10 Modifications - STS-4 to STS-5, Rockwell International News Release update, 1982. Copy on file AIS archives.

12 A Two Million Mile Space Odyssey, Joseph P. Allen and Thomas O'Toole, Readers Digest 124, January 1984, pp. 1923. Condensed from Omni magazine, June 1983.

13 Operational Medicine Report, STS-5. Crew Health Assessment and Support Activities, NASA JSC Life Sciences Division, Report Number E-989-82-05, December 1982. Copy in AIS archives.

14 STS-EVA Report No. 1: STS-5, November 1982, compiled by David J. Shayler and Keith T. Wilson, AIS Publications, January 1984; also STS-5 Air-to-Ground Transcripts, November 1982.

16 J. Allen NASA Oral History, 18 March 2004, pp 23-29; also AIS interview with J. Allen, Houston, Texas, August 1988.

17 Memo from John A. Wegener, CG3 Chief, Training Integration Branch; Subject STS-6 EVA, dated 17 December 1982, (CG3 82-TS-73). Copy on file AIS archives.

18 AIS interview with Story Musgrave, JSC Houston, Texas, August 1988.

19 STS-6 Post-flight Crew Conference transcript, 22 April 1983, NASA JSC, Houston, Texas; private discussions with Paul Weitz, May 2003, London, England; also AIS telephone interview with Story Musgrave, 23 June 2005.

20 AIS interview with Jennifer Thornton, San Antonio, Texas, 2 July 2000.

21 AIS telephone interview with Bill Thornton, San Antonio, Texas, 16 February 2006.

22 STS-8 Press Kit, August 1983, NASA Release 83-53, p. 7.

23 STS-8 Flight Crew Report, July 1984, copy on file AIS archives.

24 STS-8 Post-flight Training Report, MOD, Training Division, NASA JSC, 2 December 1983, TD252/A173, copy on file AIS Archives.

26 Reference 23, pp. 9-10, Medical DSOs.

27 AIS interview with Bill Thornton, 5 August 1988, NASA JSC, Houston.

28 Owen Garriott email to Colin Burgess, 4 February 2004.

29 Newsweek magazine, 25 November 1983, article A Giant Workshop in the Sky. No authorship of article given.

30 Newsweek magazine, 2 December 1983, article Not For Astronauts Only. No authorship of article given.

31 Garriott quote from Space Flight News interview, February 1988 edition

32 Garriott quote from JSC Oral History transcript, 6 November 2000

33 From Time magazine 6 December 1983, article Guinea Pigs in Orbit by Frederic Golden. Reported by Jerry Hannifin and Geoffery Leavenworth, Houston.

34 Online NASA website, NASA Science News, item, Ham Radios in Space. http://science.-nasa.gov. No authorship given.

35 Website: Ham Sats, http://www.qsl.net/ve6bpr/page2.htm. No authorship given.

36 Garriott e-mail to Colin Burgess, 5 February 2004.

37 Understanding Space: Scientific Eyes in Orbit by Francis French, Spaceflight magazine, October 2003. Based on R. Parker talk given at Reuben H. Fleet Center, San Diego, 1 June 2002.

38 STS-9 Post-flight Mission Report.

39 STS 51-A Flight Crew Report, (CB-85-048) dated 28 March 1985, pp 23-26 EVA training section, copy in AIS Archives.

40 NASA JSC Oral History, Joseph P. Allen, 18 November 2004, Part 4, pp. 1-2.

41 Exploring Space, David J. Shayler, Hamlyn Children's Books, 1994, foreword by Joe Allen, p. 2.

42 Joe Allen's EVA comments in Exploring Space, previously cited, p. 32.

43 Walking in Space, David J Shayler, Springer-Praxis 2004, pp. 264-267.

44 AIS interviews with Joe Allen, August 1988 and August 1989.

45 Briefing by the Astronauts of Shuttle mission 51-A to the Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space, 99th Congress, 1st Session, 28 January 1985, pp. 20-21.

46 Entering Space, Joe Allen and Russell Martin, Orbis London, 1984, pp. 223-238.

47 Reference 44; and Reference 5, pp. 19-20.

48 STS 51-B Technical Crew Debrief, Flight Crew Operations Directorate, June 1985, JSC 20556, copy on file AIS archives.

49 Spacelab 3 brochure, NASA EP203 16M484, Marshall Space Flight Center, 1984, pp. 1819.

50 NASA distributes Spacelab payload for analysis following Shuttle landing, by Craig Covault, Aviation Week and Space Technology, 13 May 1985, pp. 18-21.

51 STS 51-B Flight Crew Report, undated (1985), copy on file AIS Archives.

52 Karl Henize interview with Andy Salmon, 22 July 1991, NASA JSC.

53 Copies of hand-written notes from Karl Henize, dated April-June 1984, AIS archives.

54 AIS interviews with Story Musgrave and Karl Henize, August 1988; AIS telephone conversation with Story Musgrave, 23 June 2005.

55 All recollections from Tony England are sourced from the AIS telephone interview of 14 July 2005.

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