Contents

Foreword xv

Authors' Preface xvii

Acknowledgements xxiii

List of Illustrations xxvii

List of Tables xxxiii

List of Abbreviations xxxv

Other Works xli

Prologue xliii

1 The Wrong Stuff 1

Organising the effort 1

A manned satellite project 2

Orbital piloted spaceship of the Soviet Union 3

Security over science? 3

Who should or could fly? 7

Requirements for astronaut selection - the USAF approach ... 7

Requirements for astronaut selection - the NASA approach ... 8

The first cosmonauts 12

Pilot-astronauts not scientist-astronauts 13

Science and manned space flight 13

NASA's long-term planning 1959-64 14

In a packed programme 17

Science and manned orbital space flight 1961-76 19

Salyut, Skylab and Spacelab - orbital research labs for scientists? 22

References 23

2 Scientists as Astronauts 25

An essential part of future exploration 26

Under careful study 27

Taking immediate steps 29

Reasonably strong case for immediate selection 30

Selecting the selection board 32

A change in selection criteria 34

A new breed of astronaut 35

Going through the process 36

NASA's astronaut selection process 37

Scientists as cosmonauts 39

Voskhod - the first opportunities 40

Academy of Sciences Cosmonaut Group 42

Lack of assignments 43

Demise of the scientist-cosmonaut group 43

Waiting for the call 44

Military scientists 44

Physician cosmonauts 45

Other selections 46

Science not a priority 46

Changes in selection 48

A good career move? 48

References 48

3 The Scientific Six 51

A gamble for glory 51

A propaganda machine 52

Testing the candidates 52

Garriott's diary 54

The chosen few 57

Owen K. Garriott 57

In the footsteps of pioneers 58

An interesting proposition 61

Edward G. Gibson 62

An inauspicious start 63

Changing careers 65

Joseph P. Kerwin 66

Just like Copernicus 67

Flight surgeon school 70

F. Curtis Michel 71

A career in science 72

Rice University 73

Harrison H. Schmitt 76

Hereditary interest in geology 76

Looking at the Moon 79

Duane E. Graveline 80

Early influences 80

Flight surgeon 81

A time of devastation 84

Other roads to travel 86

The "almost" scientist-astronauts (1965) 88

References 91

4 School for Scientists 93

Flight training 93

Screaming Purvis 97

Technical assignments and the AAP Office 99

Work begins in earnest 100

General training 102

General training plan - 1966 102

General training overview 102

Science and technology summary courses 103

Operational briefings 105

Spacecraft systems training 106

Wilderness and survival training 109

Control task training 111

Launch vehicle abort training 114

Aircraft flight programme 115

A hectic diary 115

References 116

5 The Excess Eleven 117

A second selection 117

The screening process 118

The Group Six selection 121

Joseph P. Allen IV 122

A distinguished heritage 122

Deciding on a future 124

Philip K. Chapman 126

Growing up in Australia 126

International Geophysical Year 128

Anthony W. England 130

A family on the move 131

A real turning point 133

Karl G. Henize 135

Just like Daniel Boone 135

The skies and a thesis 137

Donald L. Holmquest 139

A strong educational discipline 139

Applying to NASA 142

William B. Lenoir 142

A natural-born engineer 143

Research for Apollo 145

John A. Llewellyn 146

Early influences 148

Working in Ottawa 149

F. Story Musgrave 150

A childhood filled with despair 150

Settling into the Marine Corps 152

Brian T. O'Leary 154

The influence of the heavens 154

Overcoming the obstacles 157

Robert A.R. Parker 157

Astronomy beckons 159

Reasons against selection 160

William E. Thornton 161

A fascination with anything aeronautical 162

Introducing electronics into medicine 164

The other "almost" scientist-astronauts (1967) 165

References 168

6 "Flying Is Just Not My Cup of Tea'' 171

Knuckling down to the task 173

Back to school 174

Flight training 177

Strapping on the jets 181

Eleven becomes ten, then nine 183

Looking to the future 189

Jobs on the line 189

Losing the Moon 194

Putting things in perspective 196

References 197

7 A Geologist on the Moon 199

Supporting Apollo 199

Vacuum testing Apollo 201

Chamber testing the Block I CSM 202

Chamber testing the Block II CSM 202

Qualifying the Lunar Receiving Laboratory 204

An experiment package for the Moon 205

After Apollo? 206

Apollo or Skylab 206

Supporting the landings 207

Mission scientist for the Moon 210

A stroll or a ride? 212

Lost missions and a crew change 212

An uncertain future 213

Juggling the rockets 214

A difficult decision is made 215

Selecting the last landing site 215

A place called Taurus-Littrow 216

A crew is formed 217

Setting off for the final time 219

The Moon looms larger 221

A "go" for landing 223

A geologist walks on the Moon 224

Preparing for the task 224

The proudest moment 225

Finding orange soil 226

Last steps on the lunar surface 230

Heading home 230

Deep-space EVA 233

Journey's end 235

What the future may hold 238

The end of the beginning 240

References 241

8 Laboratories in the Sky 243

Michel resigns 243

A dissatisfied customer 244

Turning to Apollo Applications 245

Possibilities fade 245

Looking back 247

Skylab - A space station for America 248

Applying Apollo to other goals 248

Mercury-Gemini-Apollo-the Moon 249

Applying skills to AAP 250

Supporting AAP 250

Science pilots for Skylab 253

Skylab assignments 256

Supporting Skylab 258

Skylab support roles 258

Dr. Bill and SMEAT 261

Science pilot training 264

Reviewing the Skylab training programme 265

Skylab - Human experience 266

The first manned mission (Skylab 2-25 May-22 Jun 1973) . . . 267

The second manned mission (Skylab 3-28 Jul-25 Sep 1973) . . 270

The third manned mission (Skylab 4-16 Nov 1973-18 Feb 1974) 272

Skylab Rescue - a fifth mission? 276

Skylab B 279

References 281

9 Shuttling into Space 283

Space Shuttle - A Reliable Access to Space? 283

"An entirely new type of space transportation system" 284

Reorganising the scientist-astronaut office 286

Simulating Spacelab 288

Shuttle's laboratory 288

Ground and airborne simulations 291

Airborne Science/Spacelab Experiment System Simulation (ASSESS). . 294

Learjet simulation programme 1972-4 294

Learjet 4 simulation mission 294

Origins of ASSESS 295

Scientist-astronauts' role on Space Shuttle missions 296

ASSESS-I 298

ASSESS-II 299

Defining the role of mission specialist 299

ASSESS-II crew assignments 303

Training for ASSESS-II 305

ASSESS-II in flight 307

Spacelab medical simulations 309

Spacelab Medical Development Test I 310

Spacelab Medical Development Test II 315

Spacelab Medical Development Test III 316

SMD-III - an overview 321

The value of participation 327

Mission specialists for the Shuttle 328

Other early Spacelab assignments 329

Selecting the first Spacelab crew 329

References 329

10 The Long Wait 333

Supporting the Shuttle 333

Thirty-five new guys 334

"America's greatest flying machine'' 336

STS-5: we deliver 340

Assigning the first mission specialists 340

The challenge and the responsibility 342

The first operational Shuttle mission 342

Upgrading the Columbia 344

A laid-back approach to launch 345

Welcome to space 346

We deliver! 348

No EVA this time 349

Flying for work, not comfort 352

Experiments and hardware 353

STS-6: the challenge of EVA 356

Musgrave's STS-6 training load 358

Challenger flies 358

Story's story 361

Medicine takes precedence over Earth science 363

STS-8: Dr. Bill flies 366

A workaholic astronaut 366

Dr. Bill's orbital clinic 368

First Shuttle night launch and night landing 370

Thornton's "chamber of horrors'' 371

Reality of space flight 374

A long wait and a short wait 375

STS-9/Spacelab 1 375

Occupying the Spacelab module 376

More doctors than pilots 377

A busy schedule 380

Problems and progress 387

Monkeying around with the media 391

A fire on landing 393

STS 51-A: we deliver and pick up - twice 396

Deployment and retrieval 397

Flight-specific EVA training 398

Satellites for sale - the fourteenth Shuttle mission 400

"Mighty Joe'' returns to space 401

A bone-rattling lift-off 401

A butter cookie for good luck 403

Flying free 404

Having your hands full 405

Fun in space 407

STS 51-B: Spacelab 3 and those monkeys 407

The second Spacelab mission 408

Thornton's return 409

Monkeys and men 410

Problem after problem 412

Running around the world 413

Back on the ground 413

STS 51-F: Spacelab 2 and three scientist-astronauts 414

False starts but a fine mission 416

A long preparation 416

Spain or Earth orbit? 419

Karl flying high 421

Taking the last chance to fly 422

Another trip into space? 427

References 428

11 Ending of Eras 431

Moving on - life after space flight 431

Joe Kerwin - Skylab-Shuttle-Space Station 432

Astronaut Office - circa spring 1984 433

After Spacelab 1 433

Lenoir departs - and comes back 434

Joe Allen and the ISF 435

CB points of contact for Flight Data File - November 1985 . . . 438

After Challenger 439

Tony England - Losing Sunlab and back to teaching 439

Karl Henize - new mountains to climb 440

Owen Garriott - EOM and SPEDO 442

Return-to-flight and a return to space 444

Bill Thornton 444

An astronomer for Astro 448

Forty days from Halley's Comet 448

Temporary duty in Washington 449

Astro-1 flies - eventually 449

Parker's role on Astro-1 451

Back to Washington 453

Six missions and thirty years 456

Education and mission support 456

Military Musgrave 458

Servicing Hubble 462

Back in the pool 464

Improving Musgrave's ratio 466

The last flight 468

"You can't fly anymore!" 472

All good things come to an end 474

References 475

12 Science Officers on ISS 477

Building a dream 478

From imagination to reality 479

Science on ISS 482

ISS science officer 482

Science officer - a job description 482

NASA's first ISS science officer 484

Saturday morning science - ISS Science Officer Two 486

A reduced role - ISS science officers 2003-5 486

Is the "science officer'' really a science officer? 487

Future roles? 489

Are science officers today's scientist-astronauts? 489

Memories from orbit 494

References 495

Appendix 1 - Chronology of the NASA Scientist-Astronaut Programme . . 497

Appendix 2 - Scientist-Astronaut Careers and Experience 505

Appendix 3 - Spaceflight Records and EVA Experience 507

Appendix 4 - Profiles of the Seventeen 511

Appendix 5 - Where Are They Now? 519

Bibliography 527

Index 533

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