Improving Musgraves ratio

STS-61 was launched on 2 December 1993. The crew aboard orbiter Endeavour successfully grappled the HST into the payload bay as planned during FD 3 and the following day began their extensive EVA programme with Musgrave and Hoffman completing the first of the mission's five EVAs.

EVA 1-4 Dec: Musgrave and Hoffman complete a 7 hour 54 minute EVA to successfully change the rate sensing units, the electronic control unit and eight fuse plugs that protect the telescope's electrical circuits, restoring the telescope to a set of six fully-functioning gyros.

EVA 3-6 Dec: Musgrave and Hoffman conduct the third EVA of the mission in 6 hours 47 minutes, completing a flawless installation of the WFPCII after removing the original instrument from Hubble and stowing it in the payload bay of Endeavour for the return to Earth. They also installed two magnetometers.

EVA 5-8 Dec: Musgrave and Hoffman complete a 7 hour 21 minute EVA to install replacements for the solar array drive electronics that control the pointing of the solar arrays, which in turn provide power for the telescope. Shortly after

Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman during the first of five STS-61 EVAs. Musgrave is in the foreground whilst Hoffman works at the space telescope on the end of the RMS.

installation, Musgrave gently pushed on each array to help unfold the primary deployment mechanism, which had become stuck. They then installed the Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph Redundancy Kit and placed two Mylar covers over the original magnetometers to contain any contamination or debris that might come off the instrument and protect it from UV degradation.

At the end of their third and final EVA, and the final excursion of the mission, Musgrave perched on top of the RMS and paid tribute to the team that had assisted in the preparation of the EVAs: "You're in our hearts ... you're in our heads. What we've done and what we're going to do is simply a reflection on what you have given us.''

Hoffman is reflected in the helmet visor of Musgrave as he photographs the veteran astronaut during one of their EVAs.

The telescope was successfully released into orbit by Nicollier using the RMS on 10 December, ending a highly successful STS-61 mission. Endeavour landed on 13 December at the Shuttle Landing Facility at KSC, after a flight of 10 days 19 hours 58 minutes 37 seconds and 163 orbits.

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