In the transition to the twenty-first century, many of the seventeen men selected in NASA's two scientist-astronaut groups in 1965 and 1967 are still actively pursuing many other goals, while their ongoing work in science and medicine is both prodigious and worthwhile.
Allen IV, Joseph P., completed his second space mission in 1984, and released his book, Entering Space: An Astronaut's Odyssey (co-authored with Russell Martin) the same year. The following year, he announced his retirement from NASA. Allen then began his educational and business career, serving as a guest research assistant at Brookhaven National Laboratory and as a member of the physics faculty at the University of Washington in Seattle. In 1994, he became president and CEO of Space Industries, where he worked alongside such innovative people as Max Faget to design and develop modest but powerful spacecraft, including the bus-sized International Space Facility. The following year, he was elected chairman of Calspan SRL, which merged with Veda International in 1997 to form Veridian, a provider of advanced information-based technology systems, with Allen remaining as chairman of the new corporation. Veridian became part of the Advanced Information Systems Division of General Dynamics Corporation in 2003. Allen retired from the company in 2004. He is also the Chairman of the Challenger Center for Space Science Education and a director of the United Space Alliance in Houston. He resides in Washington DC with his wife Bonnie, and they have two grown-up children.
Chapman, Philip K., took a position with AVCO Everett Research Laboratory as a senior research associate following his resignation from NASA in July 1972. Five years later, he left AVCO and joined the Arthur D. Little Company in Massachusetts, where he spent the next four years working on the Solar Powered Satellite (SPS). He was also elected President of the L5 Society Space Advocacy Group in 1977. In the early 1980s, he worked as a freelance consultant to industry and government, and he married Maria Tseng in 1984. More recently, he was involved in the Rotary Rocket Company, working to develop a single-stage manned launch vehicle called the Roton. However, the company failed, and Chapman is currently devoting himself to full-time novel writing.
England, Anthony W., retired from NASA on 31 August 1988, after a nine-year appointment as Senior Scientist-Astronaut. He then joined the faculty of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, where he is currently a professor in both the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (1988-present) and the Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences (1994-present), and is also the Director of the Center for Spatial Analysis. In 1995, he was also appointed the university's Associate Dean of the Rackham School of Graduate Studies. England is a member of the National Research Council's Space Studies Board and chair of their Committee on Research and Analysis. He still enjoys cross-country skiing, sailing and flying, with his wife Kathi, who is also a pilot.
Garriott, Owen K., left NASA in June 1986 and became a consultant for a number of aerospace companies. He also served as a member of several NASA and National Research Council committees. In January 1988, he became Vice President of Space Programs at Teledyne Brown Engineering, a position he held until his resignation in 1993. He also remarried, and his new wife Eve brought three grown-up children into their family. More recently, he has accepted the post of Adjunct Professor in the Biological Sciences Department at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and works on the collection of extremophilic microbes from various corners of the globe. He devotes considerable effort to various charitable activities, including the Astronaut Scholarship Foundation (Chairman) and is co-founder of the Enid (Oklahoma) Arts and Sciences Foundation. He and Eve still live in Huntsville, and travel extensively.
Gibson, Edward G., resigned from NASA in December 1974 to conduct research on Skylab solar physics data as a senior staff scientist with the Aerospace Corporation in Los Angeles. Beginning in March 1976, he served for one year as a consultant to the German company ERNO Raumfahrttechnik GmbH, to help integrate NASA operational concerns into the Spacelab design. The following March, he returned to the Astronaut Office, where he was involved in the selection (and led the training) of a new astronaut class. Post-NASA, he took up management roles with TRW and Booz, Allen & Hamilton, in energy development, space station development, and planning for the Space Exploration Initiative. In 1990, he formed his own consultancy firm, the Gibson International Corporation. Currently, he is a Senior Vice President with the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and resides part-time in Scottsdale, Arizona. He is the author of several fiction and non-fiction books.
Graveline, Duane E., returned to practising medicine, as a family doctor in Burlington, Vermont, following his enforced return to civilian life. During this time, he also served as a flight surgeon for the Vermont Army National Guard. Prior to the first Space
Shuttle flight in 1981, he made a temporary return to NASA as Director of Medical Operations, subsequently assisting on the first four Shuttle missions. Following his retirement from medical practice at the age of sixty, Graveline became a prolific author of medical and science-fiction thrillers, with nine published novels to his credit. In late 2003, following the publication of his latest non-fiction book, Lipitor, Thief of Memories: Statin Drugs and the Misguided War on Cholesterol, he began working with Kennedy Space Center medical personnel to establish liaison biomedical research projects at a hospital located near Merritt Island in Florida. The outcome of this endeavour was a KSC funding package that was submitted to NASA Headquarters. It contained four proposals, uniquely his, for which he will be principal investigator. Pleased to be involved once again in space research, he and his second wife Suzanne (nee Gamache) now happily reside in Merritt Island.
Henize, Karl G., retired from the astronaut corps in 1986, and took on a role as a senior scientist with NASA's Orbital Debris Group, involved in exploring the hazards posed by space debris. Late in 1993, realising a long-held dream, he joined a British expedition attempting to climb the north face of Mount Everest. At 22,000 feet, two days after the team set out, he began suffering worsening symptoms of extreme high altitude sickness at an advance camp. Despite a valiant rescue attempt, he died of high-altitude pulmonary oedema at the 18,000 feet level. He is buried nearby, above the Changste Glacier. Henize died on 5 October 1993, twelve days short of his 67th birthday, and is survived by his wife, Caroline, children Kurt, Marcia, Skye and Vance, and four grandchildren.
Holmquest, Donald L., took a leave of absence from NASA in May 1971, in order to take up a position as Assistant Professor of Radiology and Physiology with the Baylor College of Medicine, taking additional training in nuclear medicine. He held this position until 1973, concurrently serving as the Director of Nuclear Medicine in the Nuclear Medicine Laboratory at the Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston. He officially resigned from NASA in September 1973 to become Director of Nuclear Medicine at Eisenhower Medical Center in Palm Desert, California. In 1974, he was appointed Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the new College of Medicine at Texas A&M University. Two years later, he became Director of Nuclear Medicine at the Navasota Medical Center, also in Texas, and the following year took on the same position at the Medical Arts Hospital in Houston, while at the same time studying for a law degree. He then took on a whole new career as an associate, and then senior partner, at the law firm of Wood, Lucksinger & Epstein. Following the firm's dissolution, he became a principal in his own firm of Holmquest & Associates, where he practised general health law with an emphasis on the complex regulatory and organisational interface between physicians and health care institutions. He is currently the Chief Technical Officer for eMedicalResearch Inc., a Houston-based developer of software applications for the medical industry.
Kerwin, Joseph P., served in various NASA management positions after Skylab, including NASA Representative in Australia (1982-83) and Director of Space and
Life Sciences at the Johnson Space Center (1984—87). He retired from the Navy, left NASA, and joined Lockheed in 1987, where he managed the Extravehicular Systems Project, providing hardware for Space Station Freedom, from 1988 to 1990. With two other Lockheed employees, he invented the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER), recently tested for use by space walking astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS). He then served on the Assured Crew Return Vehicle team and served as Study Manager on the Human Transportation Study, a NASA review of future space transportation architectures. In 1994—95, he led the Houston liaison group for Lockheed Martin's FGB contract, the procurement of the Russian "space tug" which became the first element of the ISS.
He joined Systems Research Laboratories (SRL) in June 1996, serving as Program Manager of the SRL team which bid for the Medical Support and Integration Contract at the Johnson Space Center. The incumbent, KRUG Life Sciences, was selected, and they recruited him to replace its retiring President, T. Wayne Holt. He joined KRUG on 1 April 1997. The following March, KRUG Life Sciences became the Life Sciences Special Business Unit of Wyle Laboratories of El Segundo, California. In 2003, Wyle was awarded the ten-year, billion-dollar bioastronautics contract by NASA to manage its future medical work in support of human space flight. After managing that program, Kerwin resigned from Wyle in July 2004. He still serves on the Board of Directors of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as an industry representative. He and his wife have three daughters and five grandsons.
Lenoir, William B., took on responsibility for the direction and management of mission development within the Astronaut Office following his November 1982 flight on the STS-5 mission. He resigned from NASA in September 1984 and took on a position with the management and technology consulting firm of Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc., in Arlington, Virginia, in their Space Systems Division. Lenoir returned to NASA in June 1989 as the Associate Administrator for Space Flight, responsible for the development, procurement and operation of the Space Shuttle and Space Station; management of all US government civil launch capabilities; US Spacelab operation; and planning for future space flight, transportation and system engineering programs. He resigned from NASA a second time in April 1992 in order to take on the position of Vice President and member of the board at Booz, Allen & Hamilton (this time in Bethesda, Maryland). He served as Vice President of the Applied Systems Division until retiring on 1 April 2000 but continued to work for the company on a part-time basis until 2003.
Llewellyn, J. Anthony, withdrew from the scientist-astronaut programme, having completed the initial academic training, on 23 August 1968, for what NASA says were "personal reasons.'' However, the NASA news release from that date cited Llewellyn's "trouble learning to fly jets," and his inability to qualify as a jet pilot. He returned to Florida State University, and was an associate professor until 1972 (in the latter two years, he was also Dean of the School of Engineering Science). Following this, he moved to Tampa and joined the College of Engineering faculty at the University of South Florida (USF), where he was a professor in the Department of Energy Conversion and Mechanical Design. Since 1981, he has been a professor in the university's departments of Chemistry and Mechanical Engineering, and is currently USF's director of Academic Computing Technologies.
Underwater exploration always held a fascination for Llewellyn, and he was involved in several underwater projects in the 1970s, including the role of coordinator for the Racon Corporation's "Scientist in the Sea'' project in 1973. Three years later, he was an aquanaut with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and he currently serves as a scientific consultant on the marine environment and on energy issues.
Michel, F. Curtis, resigned from NASA in August 1969, soon after the first manned lunar landing, and returned to teaching and research. He accepted a full-time position as Associate Professor of Space Science at Houston's Rice University, and in 1970 was appointed Professor of Space Physics and Astronomy, and of Physics. The following year, he took a twelve-month sabbatical at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Princeton University in New Jersey, and in 1974 was elected chairman of Rice University's Space Physics and Astronomy Department. In 1979, Dr. Michel took on advanced studies as a Guggenheim Fellow at the University of Paris Polytechnic School in France, and then spent two years at the Max-Planck Institute of the University of Heidelberg in Germany, having also been granted an Alexander von Humboldt Foundation research award. He returned to Rice University in 1984 and is currently the Andrew Hays Buchanan Professor of Astrophysics in the Departments of Space Physics and Astronomy, and of Physics (Emeritus), a position he has held for more than thirty years. He works largely on relativistic astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the functioning of radio pulsars. In 1994, he revisited the MaxPlanck Institute in Germany with the Humboldt Foundation, studying Extraterrestrial Physics. More recently at Rice University, he directed and taught a challenging Natural Science foundation course directed at non-science undergraduates. Michel is the author of numerous papers and publications on space physics. On the home front, he and his second wife Bonnie are now proud grandparents to Greg, Brent and Dexter.
Musgrave, F. Story, spent a total of just under 1,282 hours in space on six space flights. In August 1997, at the age of 62, Musgrave reluctantly left NASA to pursue other interests after he was told he wouldn't be flying any more missions. He moved to central Florida and became a consultant to Walt Disney Imagineering, working on ideas for new resorts, parks and pavilions, films, television shows and other forms of media. He also works with California-based Applied Minds Inc., again in a technical and creative capacity. In recent years, he has travelled abroad showing and commentating on images of our planet from space. He also enjoyed a cameo appearance as a Capcom in the Brian DePalma film, Mission to Mars, for which he was a consultant. Having re-married in 2006, and now the father of seven children, Musgrave remains a staunch advocate and visionary for the continuing exploration of space. His recreational interests include flying, photography, scuba diving, parachuting, gardening and running. His biography, Story: The Way of Water, by Anne Lenehan, was published in 2004.
O'Leary, Brian T., became a research associate at Cornell University in New York State, following his resignation from NASA in April 1968. He held the position of Assistant Professor of Astronomy for two years, during which time he was also a visiting associate at the California Institute of Technology. In the interim, he had also penned a controversial book called The Making of an Ex-Astronaut which expressed his dissatisfaction with the treatment of the scientist-astronauts in the Astronaut Office. In 1971, he took on duties as a teacher, researcher and lecturer at California State University and taught technology assessment and energy policy at the University of California's Berkeley School of Law. For three years from 1972, he was Assistant Professor of Astronomy and Science Policy Development at Hampshire College in Massachusetts. In 1973, he took on additional duties as an experimenter with the Mariner Venus-Mercury Television Science team, and in 1975 served as a special consultant on nuclear energy matters to the House Interior Committee in Washington DC. Over the next five years, he was a member of the research faculty in the physics department at Princeton University in New Jersey. For two years from 1980, he became a freelance writer, consultant and lecturer, before becoming senior scientist at Science Applications International Corporation in Redondo Beach, California. In 1987, he left that position and served for a year as chairman of the board of directors of the Institute for Security and Cooperation in Outer Space.
O'Leary has been a special consultant to the US House of Representatives Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, and was senior advisor to presidential candidate Morris Udall. He has also assisted presidential candidates George McGovern, Walter Mondale and Jesse Jackson on economic and environmental issues and policies. In 1987, he once again took up full-time study, writing and lecturing, and became widely recognised for his many books and articles on the frontiers of science, space, energy and culture. He moved from Phoenix, Arizona to Hawaii in 1995, but now resides in Ecuador.
Parker, Robert A.R., resigned from active astronaut status on 30 November 1992. Subsequent to his flying career, he took up the position of Director of the Spacelab Operations Program, and then held several senior management positions in NASA's Office of Space Flight in Washington DC, eventually becoming Director of Space Operations and Utilization. In 1997, he was appointed Director of NASA's Management Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, a position in which he not only provided leadership, but was responsible for negotiations of the NASA contract requirements with JPL and the California Institute of Technology (CalTech), the organisation that operates JPL. Parker resigned his position at JPL on 31 August 2005 and has now retired from NASA. He is married to the former Judy Woodruff of San Marino, California. They have five children and seven grandchildren.
Schmitt, Harrison H., became NASA's Chief of Scientist-Astronauts in February 1974, and also managed their Energy Programs office. He resigned from NASA in August 1975 and successfully sought election as a US senator in his home state of New Mexico, subsequently serving a six-year term from November 1976. In his last two years in the Senate, among other appointments, he held the position of Chairman of the Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space. Since 1982, he has worked as an aerospace consultant, company director, and lecturer on matters related to space, science, technology and public policy. In 1985, he married Teresa Fitzgibbon.
Schmitt was appointed Adjutant Professor of Engineering at the University of Wisconsin in 1994, a position he still holds. Today, he continues to speak on business, public and governmental initiatives, particularly in the fields of space, risk, geology, energy, technology and policy issues of the future. He is also a freelance writer, contributing non-fiction articles on space and the American Southwest to numerous books and magazines. He is a member of the Independent Strategic Assessment Group for the US Air Force Phillips Laboratory. His corporate board memberships include Orbital Sciences Corporation and the Draper Laboratory. Schmitt is also a founder and the chairman of Interlune-Intermars Initiative, Inc., advancing the private sector's acquisition of lunar resources and He-3 fusion power. In 2006, his book Return to the Moon was published by Copernicus Books, an imprint of Springer Science in association with Praxis Publishing Ltd. The book reviews the exploration, enterprise, and energy in the human settlement of space with emphasis of the colonisation of the Moon.
Thornton, William E., took medical retirement from NASA on 31 May 1994 having flown twice as a mission specialist aboard Space Shuttle Challenger. The following year, he became a clinical professor of medicine in cardiology at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston. After four years of teaching at UTMB, he developed a computer-based, self-teaching system that could provide hands-on training for seeing, hearing and feeling patient signs. It is now in extensive and expanding use. In 2003, Dr. Thornton left UTMB in order to complete some interrupted work and a publication in space medicine. He also wanted to pursue the development of a new clinical system with the University of North Carolina. Today, he remains active in the world of space medicine and associated research. He is also involved in preservation efforts concerning his birthplace of Faison in North Carolina, including his family's home and woodlands, and the development of a youth library named after his parents, Will and Rosa Thornton. In 2003, among his numerous awards, publications and more than fifty patents, Bill Thornton proudly received the North Carolina Award for Science. He and Jennifer, who have two grown-up sons and seven grandchildren, live in Fair Oaks Ranch, Texas.
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