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One common characteristic for all epochs (published, and those shown in the Plate still unpublished), is that the emission in the central part of the shell is much lower than that corresponding to a spherical optically thin shell with uniform emissivity. This indicates the existence of an important absorption in the central part of the source 4, 14 , likely due to intervening ionized ejecta 7 .
The claim that a particular theory in science had its true origins at this or that moment of time, in the emergence of this or that fundamental insight, is almost bound to be contentious. But there are developments, sometimes in the unpublished writings of a key figure, which deserve more recognition and fanfare in the literature for being truly seminal moments in the path to a given theory. In my opinion such a moment occurred in 1889. In the early part of that year George Francis FitzGerald, Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy at Trinity College Dublin, wrote a letter to the remarkable English auto-didact, Oliver Heaviside, concerning a result the latter had just obtained in the field of Maxwellian electrodynamics.1 Heaviside had shown that the electric field surrounding a spherical distribution of charge should cease to have spherical symmetry once the charge is in motion relative to the ether. In this letter, FitzGerald asked whether Heaviside's distortion result...
The ionization correction factors that are used are based either on ionization potential considerations or on formulae obtained from grids of photoionization models. For HII galaxies, a set of ICFs is given by Izotov et al. (2006). For planetary nebulae, a popular set of ionization correction factors is that from Kingsburgh & Barlow (1994), which is based on a handful of unpublished photoionization models. Stasinska (2007, in preparation) gives a set of ICFs for planetary nebulae based on a full grid of photoion-ization models. It must be noted, however, that theoretical ICFs depend on the model stellar atmospheres that are used in the photoionization models. Despite the tremendous progress in the modelling of stellar atmospheres in recent years, it is not yet clear whether predicted spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the Lyman continuum are correct.
During the time he spent teaching at Pisa, Galileo wrote a series of unpublished essays titled De motu (On motion), in which he describes the theory of motion. He did not view the series as a complete work, which is perhaps why he never had it published. Many of the ideas it held were not correct, but it did address the important issue that through experiments one could come to relative conclusions. The Greeks were responsible for cementing the practice of arriving at conclusions purely through debate. That is to say,
Two approaches have appeared that try to further improve on the performance of the PM3 method. The PM5 (PM4 being an unpublished experimental version) method re-introduces diatomic parameters for the core-core repulsion, and the published results suggest that PM5 represent a slight improvement on the PM3 results.54 No details of the methodology and parameterization have been published so far.
Goddard was one of the few scientists of the early twentieth century to tie rocketry to space travel. In January 1918, he boldly explored the far-reaching consequences of space technology in the article The Ultimate Migration. In this work, Goddard postulated that an atomic-propelled space ark, possibly constructed using a small moon or asteroid, might someday carry human civilization away from a dying Sun to the safety of a new star system. However, fearing ridicule, he sealed the manuscript in an envelope, where it remained undiscovered and unpublished until 1972.
Tanguay, The Double Star Observer's Handbook, self-published, 2003. An amazingly comprehensive and useful text covering all aspects of serious double star observing by both amateur and professional astronomers. It's been compared to a much-needed, modern version of Aiken's classic work, The Binary Stars. T.W. Webb, Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes, Volume 2, Dover Publications, 1962. First published in 1859 as a single volume, this charming classic quickly became the most loved and used guidebook of its day -a popularity that has continued right up to the present time. Later editions contain nearly 4,000 objects, some 90 percent of which are double and multiple stars
Type II plateau Supernovae (SNe II-P) are considered a heterogeneous group of core-collapse events sharing a very wide range of physical properties. Despite their variety of observational parameters (e.g. early- and late-time luminosity, expansion velocity, continuum temperature), recent studies highlight tight correlations among their physical parameters 6, 10 . However, in these works the low-luminosity tail of the SNe II-P distribution was poorly sampled. Zampieri et al. these Proceedings have recently investigated such correlations, including also low-luminosity events. Our sample was selected in such a way to cover a large range in luminosity and line velocity, preferably among SNe II-P discovered at very early stages. We selected a few well studied SNe from literature and unpublished data from the Padova-Asiago SN Archive. Most of them have long-duration plateaux, but also events with relatively short plateaux (SNe 1992H and 1995ad) and spectroscopic evolution of a normal SN...
Several attempts have been made to reproduce the culturing and DNA amplification experiments and tests by performing corresponding tests on the accreted ice samples from Vostok. The decontamination procedure was the same as used for chemical analysis and was performed under a sterile hood. All the platings, under various environmental conditions, including those specific to psy-chrophiles, were unsuccessful (A.M. Gounot, unpublished and personal communication, S. Rogers, personal communication). For DNA, a series of amplifications were also nonconclusive and or the false samples were positive (M. Blot, D. Faure, unpublished). From filter and microscopic preparations, we observed micro-organisms only once (Fig. 7.17), but for an ice sample that was too small to apply the decontamination procedure in full.
The recent studies attempting to estimate the microbial contents of Lake Vos-tok accretion ice clearly show that, in the case of low biomass, the forward-contamination of samples represents a very difficult problem. It seems that Lake Vostok accretion ice as a whole is essentially germ free, indicating that the water body itself probably hosts only highly sparse life, if any, unless the lake water loses its biological content during the accretion process. An intercomparison recently performed in two independent laboratories indicates no reliable findings in several samples from deepest accretion ice II (Bulat, unpublished S. Rogers, personal communication). It may seem very surprising that a giant water body such as Lake Vostok could be sterile, however, some desert areas without any apparent traces of life have already been found (Navarro-Gonzales et al., 2003).
From a theoretical point of view, the stability of the Lagrange points is well known in the ER3BP (see Section 2.2). The question of the extension is a more interesting one for TPs in EPSs and not yet answered in a satisfying way. Nevertheless, for special mass ratios, close to the earth-moon system there do exist numerical studies to establish such regions (e.g., 39, 40 ). The interesting question for G4 types is the following one how does the extension of the stable region depend on the mass ratio of the primaries and of the eccentricity of the orbit of the GG This means that a two-parameter study should be done. A numerical study (yet unpublished) provided the results which are shown in Figs. 2.5 and 2.6. It is quite obvious in Fig. 2.5 that - for a Jupiter mass GG (a) and a GG with five times the mass of Jupiter (b) - this stability region diminishes with a larger eccentricity of the primary's orbit.
In the present analysis the physical parameters of the selected sample of SNe are derived comparing the observational data to model calculations. The adopted model is a semi-analytic code that solves the energy balance equation for a spherically symmetric, homologously expanding envelope at constant density 8 . The initial conditions are rather idealized and provide an approximate description of the ejected material after shock (and possible reverse shock) passage, as derived from hydrodynamical calculations. In particular, elements are assumed to be completely mixed throughout the envelope and their distribution depends only on the coordinate mass. Hydrogen, helium, carbon and oxygen are assumed to be uniformly distributed, whereas 56Ni is more centrally peaked. The evolution of the expanding envelope is computed including all the relevant energy sources powering the SN and is schematically divided in 3 phases from the photospheric up to the late nebular stages (for more details see...
When he was writing the Principia, Newton was anxious to convince Hal-ley that he had learnt nothing from Hooke. In a letter to Halley dated 20 June 1686, Newton claimed that the inverse square law for the attraction was implied in his unpublished essay, 'An Hypothesis explaining the Properties of Light discoursed of in my severall Papers',* communicated to Oldenburg in 1675 and registered in the Royal Society. See A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall, Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac Newton, London, 1962, p.
Temporal correlations have been first made for type III bursts. Only 3 of meter wave type III bursts are correlated with impulsive HXR emission (Kane 1981), however the correlation increases with increasing type III start frequency and with intensity. Since metric type III bursts originate high above active regions and propagate mostly upwards, it is perhaps not surprising that they are poorly correlated with HXR events. Aschwanden et al. (1985) show that 48 of reverse-drift type III bursts at decimeter wavelengths are correlated with HXR bursts, consistent with the expectation that downward-directed electron beams should correlate better with thick target HXR emission than upward-directed beams. However, not every HXR peak is associated with a radio burst. Aschwanden et al. (1995) find an associated type III burst in 31 of individual HXR pulses. In a more recent study of C-class flares in active region 9830, out of 11 only 7 events showed radio emission recorded by the Phoenix-2...
It has been clear for some time that the reported results of broadband photometric studies of Kuiper Belt Objects by different authors have been discrepant, with colour differences exceeding the quoted error bounds by a considerable margin. This was highlighted during the sessions on physical properties where new results were presented and compared by the observers present. Figure 1 illustrates the published and unpublished results for two 'well observed' objects and highlights the problem. How can such differences arise and can the photometry be trusted by those trying to interpret the results It is possible that there are real magnitude changes for some objects (due to activity or rotational lightcurves) but colour variations are likely to be second order effects. In addition most observers adopt an observing strategy to avoid or average out such changes. A splinter session was hastily arranged in suitably relaxed surroundings (the Hotel Am-Park bar), to discuss each participant's...
The first attempt to do a formal statistical study of astronomical references in the Mayan inscriptions was done only recently by Aveni and Hotaling (1994, 1996). They used a carefully selected list of 98 dates, with the context of the dates described. This work relied partly on an unpublished list prepared by Bryan Wells, later substantially expanded. Unfortunately, they examined the data only in the framework of the astronomical information about the dates using the 584,283 (Thompson) correlation constant, which they regard (1994, p. S 25) as the only one that fits both astronomical and ethnohistoric data. They certainly show that there are peaks in Venus statements (their figure 3, p. S 36). They analyzed in terms of temporal bins of 20 days and 40 days, within the 584-day mean cycle, which give somewhat different results. Substantially smaller bins might have changed the results again. These distributional peaks would remain in any correlation, but in many correlations, they would...
Since in the most recent work on this subject (De Pontieu et al., 2001) the subject of plage heating by high-frequency waves is not treated explicitly, I refer in the following to a preceding, still unpublished work by De Pontieu and myself. Here we investigated, in a one-dimensional model, the damping of a flux, Fw, of monochromatic Alfven waves guided along the magnetic field and calculated the
204 Findings of the Moon-Mars Science Linkage Science Steering Group,'' C. Shearer, D. W. Beaty, A. D. Anbar, B. Banerdt, D. Bogard, B. A. Campbell, M. Duke, L. Gaddis, B. Jolliff, R. C. F. Lentz et al., Unpublished White Paper, 29 pp., posted October 2004 by the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) at http mepag reports index.html
2000), and SN 2002ap (using our own as yet unpublished spectra, but see, e.g., Kinugasa et al. 2002 Foley et al. 2003). We had 62 spectra of these three SNe, spanning the epochs of seven days before maximum to several weeks past. For the power-law continuum, we chose to use one of our early spectra to represent the afterglow of the GRB. The spectrum at time AT 5.80 days was of high signal-to-noise ratio (S N), and suffers from little fringing at the red end. Therefore, we smoothed this spectrum to provide the fiducial power-law continuum of the OT for our model.
The orbital dynamics is based on the variation-of-parameters method, invention whereof is attributed to Euler 3, 4 and Lagrange 5-9 . Though both greatly contributed to this approach, its initial sketch was offered circa 1687 by Newton in his unpublished Portsmouth Papers. Very succinctly, Newton brought up this issue also in Cor. 3 and 4 of Prop. 17 in the first book of his Principia.
TAU analysts concluded that only two propulsion systems are currently capable of performing the mission. The favoured approach was the nuclear-electric or ion drive. Uphoff proposed as a back-up a hyperthin (less than 1 micron) solar photon sail unfurled within the orbit of Venus. Although Uphoff was merely credited with 'unpublished calculations' in the final TAU report, his predictions compare well with those of the second group, whose results are in the literature.
Spectrum of Mercury Showing Sodium Lines almost hidden in the solar absorption (from unpublished results of Killen and Potter). Figure 5-2. Sodium Emission from Mercury. Typical emission showing bright spots from unpublished measurements of Killen and Potter. See Color Plate 2. Figure 5-2. Sodium Emission from Mercury. Typical emission showing bright spots from unpublished measurements of Killen and Potter. See Color Plate 2.
C., Lipes, R., Norton, H. N., Sterns, J. W., Stimpson, L. D. and Weissman, P., 'An interstellar Precursor Mission', Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 33, 3-26 (1980). (Included in this text are the results of C. Uphoffs unpublished consideration of extrasolar travel by solar sail.)
Novice to view previously unpublished images from this material. Other sources of raw astronomical image data exist on the Internet, and this material can be analyzed and processed by anyone willing to take the time to download the material. While several of the Swiss Army Knife planetarium software programs include limited image processing facilities, none offer the depth of features and capabilities of the stand-alone applications discussed here.
6 See FitzGerald (1902) the essay was published in Larmor's edition of FitzGerald's collected papers, with the editorial comment 'Hitherto unpublished apparently the introduction to a projected treatise on physical measurement.' The mention on p. 536 of advances in the science of heat 'during the present century' is a clear indication that it was written before 1900.
Reference 1 contains facsimiles and English translations of all relevant papers by Fabricius, Galileo, and Scheiner it also presents a brief account of Harriot's unpublished work. See also References 21 and 30, which contain detailed citations to many original papers on helioseismology and stellar rotation.
So far, we have been concerned with direct summation methods. This approach inevitably leads to a restriction in the particle number that can be considered. One of the biggest technical challenges is concerned with the simulation of star clusters. Such systems usually develop a core-halo structure with a large range in dynamical time-scale. Thus in the simple theory of relaxation due to stellar encounters, the orbital energy of each star changes at a rate that is related to the inverse square root of the local density. Hence more distant stars move in essentially collisionless orbits as far as nearest neighbour interactions are concerned. This behaviour can be modelled by representing the cluster potential in terms of a multipole expansion based on Legendre polynomials. First the basic formulation as applied to the whole system is given Aarseth, 1967 . This approach is also relevant for other developments in stellar dynamics, such as tree codes Barnes & Hut, 1986 and several related...
Was a reasonable par of the Lowell Observatory's mission. In the new spirit of astrophysics, Slipher undertook heroic efforts with his small telescopes and inefficient photographic plates to obtain spectra of these spiral nebulae. In 1912, he succeeded in getting a spectrum of M31, the Andromeda nebula, and then worked diligently to compile spectra of several more of these enigmatic objects. His spectra of some spiral nebulae resembled the spectra of stars, with the same absorption lines that mark the spectrum of the sun. This identification allowed Slipher to measure the velocity of each nebula from the shift in its spectrum lines. Except, for M31 and its satellite M32, almost all the spirals he measured were moving away from us, and many were moving at velocities that were much higher than had been measured for any Milky Way star. Slipher may have thought his measurements were part of learning whether the spiral nebulae are little solar systems in formation. But Arthur Stanley...
Recently, Woolf and Wallerstein W1 have determined metallicities for a sample of 35 K and M dwarfs and subdwarfs. They use improved, though as yet unpublished, NextGen atmospheres to analyse a large number of Fe I and Ti I lines, measured from R 33,000 echelle spectra, in regions of minimal molecular
SN 2000cx had peak light curves that challenged the luminosity-width relation by crossing the templates and defying categorization 6 . This fact, combined with the nearness and isolated nature of the SN, made it an ideal target for late-epoch observations. Although the light curves and spectra were unique, they exhibited characteristics spanned by N SP SNe Ia. Based on that logic, we would expect SN 2000cx's light curves to match the light curves from the 16 N SP SNe studied in MTL01. However, Candia et al. 2 list a SPF distance to NGC 524 (2000cx's host galaxy) that would make SN 2000cx a slightly sub-luminous SN Ia, thus the luminosity of SN 2000cx is currently debatable. Shown in Fig. 2 are BVRI light curves of SN 2000cx compared with the 16 N SP SNe Ia. But for an anomaly in the B band from 50-150 days (see also 6 ), the shape of the light curves are very similar to the other SNe. The data for SN 2000cx is from Li et al. 6 and Candia et al. 2 . The late data is from Sollerman et...
We are preparing two papers based on the work presented here - one on the full data set obtained for SN 2001ay, and one on the properties of broad lightcurve SNe. Anyone with unpublished data on broad lightcurve or SN1991T-like SNe Ia is encouraged to contact the first author to join the collaboration.
This is apparent in unpublished comments which Lexell wrote in connection of the calculation of the orbit of Lexell's comet. It is interesting that in late eighteenth century the nondeterministic nature of Newtonian mechanics was already known even though it was totally overshadowed by deterministic successes of d'Alembert, Clairot, and others.
The author's own 1998 self-published work, Celestial Harvest 300-Plus Showpieces of the Heavens for Telescope Viewing & Contemplation (a 40-year labor of love ) was reprinted by Dover Publications in New York in 2002 and is now widely available. Nearly half of its entries are spectacular double and multiple stars suitable for viewing with backyard instruments. Dover is also the publisher of Burnham's Celestial Handbook by the late Robert Burnham, Jr., which contains data for thousands of visual pairs and detailed descriptions for many of the brighter and better known ones.
When he was about eight years old, Carl picked up a book by Edgar Rice Burroughs called A Princess of Mars (1912), about a hero who somehow teleported himself to Mars, where he found an entirely new civilization. Carl wanted to believe in Burroughs's Martian civilization, but by age nine he began to question Burroughs's application of science, or rather the complete lack of it. Carl was very intelligent and he longed for proof. In his young mind, the idea of life existing someplace other than Earth suddenly took shape. This idea helped to spark the flame that would kindle into a lifelong quest the scientific search for extraterrestrial life.
4 In aqueous solution it is likely that free amino acids epimerise slower than peptide residues. However, the latter may epimerise slower than some amino-acid derivatives such as CAA (recent, unpublished results of our group are consistent with this possibility), or even slower than free amino acids peptide end-residues if epimerisation catalysts are involved.
Solid curves represent mean surface temperature calculated by a one-dimensional climate model for various amounts of atmospheric CO2 and CH4. The time is 2.8 Ga, and the solar luminosity is 80 of the present value. The two dashed curves represent the freezing point of water and the upper limit on atmospheric pCO2 derived from paleosols (see text). From Pavlov et al. 2000. New unpublished calculations show that the greenhouse effect due to CH4 is overestimated here. However, some of it can be recovered by including other hydrocarbon gases, especially C2H6.
Three unpublished works, prepared at KSC, blazed a research path for the authors. Frank Jarrett and Robert Lindemann's History of the John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA (Origins through December 1965) provides a detailed, carefully researched account of early center history. Even more helpful are the unpublished manuscripts of James Covington, James Frangie, and William Lockyer (Apollo Launch Facilities) and George Bittle and John Marshall (Apollo Launch Operations). Both manuscripts are in the KSC historical archives.
Same Mg-Fe-Si diagram as Fig. 1 showing compositions of Fe-rich ufg 'FeMgSiO' PCs (solid squares Rietmeijer, unpublished data) and GEMS (triangle 10 ). These compositions are defined by mixing lines (heavy solid lines) between the (1) smectite dehydroxylate (Sm-d)-Fe(Si)0 and Fe-oxides (2) enstatite (En)-Fe(Si)0 and Fe-oxides, and (3) Mg-rich 'FeMgSi0'-Fe(Si)0 and Fe-oxides. Preferred composition occur at intersections of these mixing lines with the serpentine dehydroxylate (S-d)-(G-d) mixing line. The light solid line marks the maximum amount of ferrous iron in the silicates towards the apex only iron metal exists. Figure 2. Same Mg-Fe-Si diagram as Fig. 1 showing compositions of Fe-rich ufg 'FeMgSiO' PCs (solid squares Rietmeijer, unpublished data) and GEMS (triangle 10 ). These compositions are defined by mixing lines (heavy solid lines) between the (1) smectite dehydroxylate (Sm-d)-Fe(Si)0 and Fe-oxides (2) enstatite (En)-Fe(Si)0 and Fe-oxides, and (3) Mg-rich...
He kept an astronomical observation diary (comets, variable stars, planets) but mainly devoted his time to calculations Tables of the Sun from 1600 to 2199 Tables of the lunar phases (both unpublished) Tables of the satellites of Jupiter (for which he received a golden medal from the Mexican Astronomical Society), and many papers in Astronomische Nachrichten, Coelum, L 'Astronomie and in English and American journals.
The heliocentric system was set forth by Copernicus in 1543 in his great work On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. It was written in a technical style and was aimed at specialists as he wrote in the dedication, Mathematics is written for mathematicians. Revolutions was preceded by the unpublished Commentary of 1530, an outline of the new system that enjoyed a limited circulation and helped make his ideas known to the community of astronomers. A young Lutheran scholar named Georg Rheticus (1514-1574) studied with Copernicus for two years, from 1539 to 1541, and became an advocate for the new astronomy. In 1540 Rheticus published an expository account of the Copernican system under the title First Narrative. It was at Rheticus's instigation and with the encouragement of Copernicus's friend Bishop Giese that the Polish canon carried out the final preparations for the publication of his book.
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