C

365, 390, 407 Caine, Michael, 210 Calendarium (Regiomontanus), 96, 97

Calendar(s), 103

Babylonians on, 83 calibrating, 16, 17—18 ecclesiastical, 44 Egyptian, 71—72 Gregorian, 39, 173, 390, 392394, 406-407 Hebrew, xiii, 39, 44, 85 Julian, 88-89, 173, 364, 365, 367,

406-407 Metonic, 43-44 Moon's influence on, 38-40, 41 predictions of eclipses and, 78 Western, 28, 39, 386-387, 393, 406 Callippus, 81 Callisto, 384

Cambridge University, 21, 165, 269

Cancer, 204, 307

Canterbury, Archbishop of, 163,

363, 370 Capella, 335 Capitana (ship), 97 Capone, Al, 221

Carret, Philip L., 226 Carthage, Carthaginians, 23 Cassini, Giovanni, 138 Cassini, Jacques, 294 Castor, 209, 335 Catholic Church, 368, 407 Celestial equator, 391—392 Celestial mechanics, 68, 75, 380 Celtic Church, 38, 357-358, 363,

366,368-375 Ceres (asteroid), 254, 259, 311 Cesium, 147, 149 Chaldeans, 83 Chaplin, Charlie, 104, 119 Chappe d'Autoroche, Jean, 296-297 Charlemagne, 23-24 Charon, 313-317, 323-324, 384 Chaucer, Geoffrey, 31 China, Chinese on comet of 5 B.C., 21 cycles of eclipses and, 80 day length and, 148 during 1878 eclipse, 209 during 1925 eclipse, 224-225 New Year, 39 on predicting eclipses, ix recording of eclipses by, 16, 155156

on sunspots, 169 superstition in, 26-27, 175 on thirteenth century eclipse, 206

Chippewa, 175 Chord(s), 283, 290-291, 436 Chorus of Clouds, The (Aristophanes), 37

Christianity, xiii, 241, 357-380, 407 Chromosphere, 128

definition of, 130, 436 during 1878 eclipse, 209 hydrogen in, 130, 142, 143, 146 Mercury and, 281 rain and, 349

spectrum of, 142, 143, 146, 181182

during totality, 337 Venus and, 281 Chronometer(s), 289, 299, 300 Churchill, Sir Winston, 105 Civil War, 293 Clarke, John, 179 Claudius, emperor of Rome, 68, 359

Clavius, Christopher, 186 Clementine satellite, 134 Cleopatra, 86, 367 Clock(s)

atomic, 151-152 Cook, James and, 286, 289, 290 Earth's rotation rate and, 147 for 1780 eclipse, 178 general theory of relativity and, 110-111 Harrison, John and, 93 leap seconds and, 219 longitude and, 91, 95 transits and, 299 Coast Guard, U.S., 231 Coelfrid, 377, 378 Colorado, University of, 257 Columba, Saint, 361 Columban Church, 361

Columbus, Christopher, 96—98, 99,

104, 176, ill, 188 Coma, cometary, 260, 261, 436 Comet(s), xiv of 1532 B.C., 19

of 418, 308

of 1847, 231-232, 234

of 1882, 307

of 1948, 308

of 1998, 132

ancients on, 14, 15

Butler on, 25

Hale-Bopp, 335

170-172, 259, 260, 285 masses of, 259-261 occultation of, 261, 272 as omens, 84, 104 orbit of, 68, 260 recording of, 72 Sun and, 134, 260-261 from telescopes, 260, 262, 263 TNOs and, 311 Comets (rock and roll group), 161 Commensurability, 276 Computers, 68, 70, 73-74, 124 Computus, 363-364, 367, 370, 375 Conduction, 128 Congress, United States, 180 Conjunction definition of, 436 Mars-Jupiter, 303 in Metonic cycle, 416 Moon near, 42, 43, 92, 211, 224, 404

in saronic cycle, 46, 411, 418 solar eclipse and, 376, 401, 402,

403, 405, 430 Venus near, 276

Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, A (Twain), 98, 100101

Constantine the Great, 174, 359, 364

Contact points, 59-61 definition of, 436-437 of 2003 eclipse, 57 during lunar eclipse, 95, 427428

during solar eclipse, 427-428 of transits, 282, 283, 290-291 Continental drift, 94, 253 Convection, convection zone, 128129

291, 296, 298, 299, 300 Coolidge, Calvin, 226 Coolidge, William, 207 Cooper, James Fenimore, 185-186 Copernicus, Nicolaus, xiv, 29, 87 Corona, viii, 134, 137-146, 186, 203-205 coronagraph for, 131-133 definition of, 8, 130, 437 during 1878 eclipse, 209 Halley on, 125, 186 Mercury and, 281 during nineteenth century, 142 rain and, 349 Regulus through, 346 solar atmosphere and, 196

during totality, 337 Coronagraph, 131—133 Coronal mass ejections, 133 Coronium, 144—145 Cotes, Roger, 165 Crabtree, William, 275, 277 Crater(s), 64, 135, 234, 247 Crosby, Bing, 98 Crux, 320-321

Cycles, heavenly, 37-66, 74-75, 78. See also specific heavenly cycles astrology and, 84 eclipse grid and, 80-83 Hipparchus on, 86 11-year solar, 131

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