P

Palomar Observatory, 249 Paradise Lost (Milton), 24 Parallax, 289-291, 292, 300 Paris Observatory, 138, 171, 294, 304

Parkinson, John, 172

Partial eclipse(s), 48, 60. See also partial lunar eclipse(s); partial solar eclipse(s) of 1805, 193 of1900,237 of 1963, 238 of 1964, 417 of1981, 417 of 1983, 417

of 1997, 417

of2000, 239, 415, 417

of 2003, 350

of 2004, 341

of 2018, 415

of 2036, 415

of 2040, 417

after totality, 339

contact points of, 428

definition of, 47

duration of, 59

eclipse grid and, 80—81

ecliptic limits and, 417

frequency of, 431

on horizon, 55, 57

penumbra and, 53

saronic cycle and, 414, 415—416,

418 speed of, 336

of 2002 to 2022, 340, 341, 342 totality and, 423-424 in twentieth century, 76, 77 viewing, 330, 331 Partial lunar eclipse(s), 426, 427, 428, 429, 432 of 1780, 176-184, 183-184 of 2005, 354 of 2006, 354 Partial solar eclipse(s), 4

ecliptic limits in, 429-430 frequency of, 429 total number of, 432 Passover, 21, 22-23, 39, 365, 366 Peloponnesian War, 23 Penda, king of Mercia, 368-369

Penumbra, 52, 53, 54, 59, 331, 336, 341, 353, 424, 425-426, 427, 429, 438 Perigee anomalistic month and, 408 definition of, 47, 438 Moon near, 6, 1, 149, 387, 388,

403, 409, 422, 423, 426 opposition and, 408-409 precession of, 402, 404, 405 Perihelion definition of, 45, 438 Earth near, 149, 391, 392 Mercury near, 279, 306 Pluto near, 317 precession of, 394-397, 400 solar energy and, 386, 387 Perseids, 3 Perseus, 322

Persia, Persians, 18, 85, 86, 381, 393 Peter, Saint, 370 Phelps, William Lyon, 227 Phobos, 202, 255, 256, 314 Photons, 109, 151 Photosphere, 128, 129-130 chromosphere and, 337 corona and, 133, 204 definition of, 438 spectrum of, 139, 141-142, 146 Picts, 360

Pingre, Alexandre, 294 Plague, bubonic, 373 Plane, ecliptic, 43, 273, 278, 398399, 402, 404. See also ecliptic

Planet(s). See also asteroid(s); specific planets binary, 315, 319 formation of, 260-261 Kepler, Johann on, 274-275 magnetic fields of, 131 Moon and, 69, 245 navigation and, 285 occultations and, xiv, 266, 272,

286-287 positions of, 70 precession of perihelion and, 400

Romans and, 359 shape of, 253

solar gravitational lens and, 120 Sun and, 126, 130 transits and, 207 X, 317-319 Pliny, 17 Plutarch, 138 Pluto, 120

Algol and, 323-326 Charon and, 313-317, 319, 323324, 384 discovery of, 309, 311-313, 326 minor planets and, 318 orbit of, 268, 310 Pluto Express, 316 Polarimeters, 204 Pollution, light, 262 Pollux, 209, 335

Poor Richard's Almanac (Franklin), 188 Potassium, 143

Precession definition of, 44-45, 438-439 Earth's orbit and, 400, 401 of equinoxes, 81, 82, 403 of Mercury, 306, 308 of nodes, 403 of perigee, 403 of perihelion, 394-397 of Sun, 276 ofVenus, 276 Princeton University, 200 Printing, 94 Procyon, 209, 335 Prominence(s), 8-10, 51, 128 of 664, 373 definition of, 130, 439 during 1878 eclipse, 209 ground track and, 182 monitoring of, 133 in nineteenth century, 138 rain and, 349 spectrum of, 143 during totality, 338 Protestant Church, 368 Protons, 127 Ptolemies, 29, 78, 86 Pydna, Battle of, 17, 35 Pythagoras, 29

Quantum theory, 145 Quasar(s), 122, 123-124, 151, 251252, 272 Quasi-stellar object. See quasar(s)

Radiative zone, 128

Radio communications, 6, 131,

252-253 Rain, 349

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 95 Records, recordkeeping, 147-149 by Babylonians, 14-16, 85, 8687

m Bible, 19-20 by Chinese, 16, 155-156 of comet, 72

eclipse cycles from, 66, 74-78,

431 by Greeks, 16 in monasteries, 361 year length from, 28 Redshift, 251, 439 Reformation, 368 Refraction, 260, 439. See also telescope(s) Regiomontanus, 94, 96 Regulus, 209, 245, 346 Relativity, general theory of, x, 70,

104, 109-113, 119, 308 Rémi, Georges, 103 Retro-reflector, laser, 149, 157 Revolutionary War, 178 Rheticus, Georg Joachim, 273 Rider, Barbara, 222 Rio Grande railroad, 200 Rocky Mountain News, 202, 208, 209 Roman Catholic Church, 368, 390, 393

Roman Church, 358, 360-379, 407

Rome, Romans

Britain and, 359-361 calendar of, 16-18, 78 Easter tables from, 377, 379, 407 on eclipse etymology, 31 Greece and, 35 Mesopotamia and, 83 on Sun, 141

on total solar eclipses, 328 Western calendar and, 39 Rosh Hashanah, 39 Ross, Betsy, 180

Royal Astronomical Society, 182, 263

Royal Greenwich Observatory, 155,

166, 217, 269, 277, 304 Royal Society of London Banks and, 287 Goodricke, John and, 322 Halley and, 89-90, 162, 166, 285 Mason and Dixon and, 294 on transit of 1761, 292 Royal Veterinary College, 2

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