S

Sabbath, 28, 29, 85, 365 Sabbatical, 28 Santa Fe railroad, 200 Saros, saronic cycle, 411-413, 414422

Babylonians on, 46, 85-86, 89 definition of, 46, 439 1878 eclipse and, 199-200 1999 eclipse and, 346 2017 eclipse and, 346

Hipparchus on, 88 latitude and, 227 leap years and, 46, 393, 411 Metonic cycle and, 79 predictions from, 49-51, 66 recording of, 86-87 total solar eclipses in, 65, 433 Satellite(s). See also specific satellites artificial, 301

artificial eclipses and, 119, 137 Earth's rotation rate and, 147 Galilean, 302, 303, 314 on Moon's far side, 400 orbits of, 68 of Uranus, 266 Saturn energy of, 108 Jupiter and, 21 Mars and, 21 Mercury and, 305 moon of, 314, 384 Neptune and, 269 rings around, 270-271 seven-day week and, 85 during total solar eclipse, 335 Uranus and, 265 Saxons, 360, 361, 363 Schiaparelli, Giovanni, 312 Science, 119 Scotti, 360

Seconds, leap, 149, 150-151, 218, 219

Seeing, 249-250, 439 Selenelion, 55, 57-59, 60

Seleucid Empire, 86 Shadow bands, 181, 335-336, 439440

Shakerley, Jeremiah, 281 Shakers, 190, 193 Shakespeare, William, 24, 147, 247, 332

233-234 Shelley, Percy Bysshe, 331-332 Shenandoah (airship), 226 Sherman, William, 203 Short, James, 294 Sinton, William, 58 Sirius, 71, 72, 80, 321, 335 Sodium, 140, 143 SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) satellite, 10, 132, 133 Sol, 141

Solander, Daniel, 286, 298, 299 Solar eclipse(s), 43, 80-81, 301, 414. See also total solar eclipse(s) of 1533 B.C., 19 of 763 B.C., 20 of 190 B.C., 18 of A.D. 45, 68 of 807-810, 24 of 1764, 2 of 1842, 32 of 1870, 32, 135 of 1905, 32, 214 ancient cultures and, vii in Bible, 22-23 at conjunction, 405, 418 contact points of, 95

definition of, 47 eclipse year and, 411 frequency of, 54, 131, 429-431 Hergé on, 103 occultation and, 272, 273 orbits and, 273 paths of, 49-51 predictions of, 65-66 stock market and, 226 superstition and, 26-27 total number of, 432 Twain on, 98, 100-101 types of, 47-48 Solar glare, 71, 80, 92, 113 Solar System, 121. See also specific components of Solar System age of, 109 binaries in, 319-325 commensurability in, 276 movement in, 246 nodes in, 403

planetary masses in, 318-319 Pluto in, 310 radiation in, 108 scale of, 285

suspension above, 396-397 transits in, 272 Uranus in, 265 Solar wind, 6

Solomon, Temple of, 20, 85 Solstice(s), 241, 396-399 blue moon and, 242 summer, 296, 350, 352, 386, 391,

392 sunrises at, 79 tides and, 41

winter, 39, 71, 359, 367, 390391, 394-395 year length and, 79 Sothic cycle, 72, 78 Sothis. See Sirius

South, Sir James, 262-265, 266, 269, 321

Southern Cross, 320-321 Space Age, 135, 136, 147, 301 Space shuttle, 301 Space station, 301 Sparta, Spartans, 23 Spectrometer, 140, 144 Spectroscope(s), 140, 142, 200, 202 Spectroscopy, 139 Spectrum, 62-63, 139-146 of binary stars, 321 of chromosphere, 181-182 Moon and, 264 photons in, 129 rain and, 349 Sphere, 253-254 Spicules, 130, 440 St. Louis Evening Post, 197 Stars, starlight. See also specific stars asteroids and, 258 binary, 251, 263, 272, 320, 324, 384

in Cancer, 204, 307 Coast Guard, U.S. and, 231 color of, 129 coma and, 261 during daytime, 334 during 1806 eclipse, 192, 194 during 1878 eclipse, 209 Einstein on, x energy of, 170-171

gravitational deviation of, 308

gravitational lenses and, 119-124

Hipparchus on, 81

latitude and, 91

Mars and, 264-265, 266, 290

Moon and, 245-252, 399

navigation and, 187

number of, 125, 126

occultation and, 272

orbits of, 68, 395

Pluto and, 316

precession of equinoxes and,

396, 398 Saturn and, 271 shooting, 3, 84 sidereal month and, 401 sidereal year and, 396 size of, 160

total solar eclipse and, 112, 113, 335

transit of 1769 and, 297 twinkling of, 118-119, 120, 249, 335

Stephenson, Richard, 155, 172 Stock market, 226 Stonehenge, 44, 399 Stopwatch, 257 Streamers, coronal, 131, 132 Sulpicius Gallus, 17 Sumeria, Sumerians, ix, 83 Summer, 65, 296, 350, 352, 386,

391, 392 Sun, 125-146. See also transit(s); specific types of eclipses appearance of, 12, 129

artificial eclipse and, 120 asteroids and, 254, 308 comets and, 260—261 Earth's distance from, 285, 286, 289-291, 298, 299-300, 387 Earth's orbit around, 36, 239,

273, 379, 384, 401, 404 ecclesiastical, 364 energy from, 105-108, 170-171 equinoxes and, 392 glare of, x as gravitational lens, 119 Gregorian calendar and, 407 Hebrew calendar and, 85 latitude and, 91 during lunar eclipse, 47, 424425, 429 lunar nodes and, 44-45, 410, 428 lunar perigee and, 403 Mercury and, xii, 272, 273, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 288, 306, 308, 317, 334-335 Metonic cycle and, 417 Moon's orbit and, 49-50, 69, 70, 327, 375, 387, 402, 409-410, 424

navigation and, 285 orbit of, 71, 432 planets around, 302 Pluto-Charon's orbit around, 317

precession of perihelion and, 400

Romans and, 359 rotation rate of, 169 satellites and, 301

setting of, 62, 266 Sirius and, 80

size of, viii, 4, 43, 62, 126, 160, 171-172, 250, 389, 413, 414, 422-423, 424, 433 during solar eclipse, 47 at solstices, 399 speed of, 423 sunspots on, 5-6 synodic month and, 401 tides and, 40 transits and, 207 Uranus and, 266, 267-268 Venus and, 167, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277-278, 282, 283, 287, 334 Sunspots, 5, 6, 129-130, 138, 167,

169, 306, 440 Superstition, 25-27 Syracuse, Battle of, 23 Syzygy, 42, 401, 402, 411, 440

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