Eclipses 172

Phenomena Observed During Eclipses 173 Lunar Eclipse Phenomena 173 Solar Eclipse Phenomena 173 Occultations 175 Transits of Mercury and Venus 176

166

The Geometry of Eclipses, Occultations, and Transits 177 Eclipses of the Sun 177 Eclipses of the Moon 178 The Frequency of Solar and Lunar Eclipses 178 Cycles of Eclipses 179 Prediction and Calculation of Solar and Lunar Eclipses 180 Eclipse Research Activities 182 Solar Research 182

Discovery of Helium 183 Support for the General Theory of Relativity 183

Temperature of the Corona 184 Lunar Research 185 Eclipses in History 185 Literary and Historical References 187 Chinese 187 Assyrian 190 Babylonian 191 Jewish 192 Greek 192 Roman 194 Medieval European 195 Medieval Islamic 197 Uses of Eclipses for Chronological Purposes 199 Uses of Eclipses for Astronomical Purposes 201

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