Mars 204

Basic Astronomical Data 206 Planetary Data for Mars 207 Early Telescopic Observations 208 The Canals of Mars 209 Mars as Seen from Earth 210 Surface Features 210 Polar Regions 210

Transient Atmospheric Phenomena 211 The Atmosphere 212 Basic Atmospheric Data 212 Composition and Surface Pressure 213 Composition of the Martian Atmosphere 213

Atmospheric Structure 215 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics 216 Character of the Surface 217 Southern Cratered Highlands 219 Sparsely Cratered Plains 222 Surface Composition 222 Valleys and Lakes 223 Outflow Channels and Oceans 223 Valles Marineris 224 Tharsis and Elysium 225 Olympus Mons 226

Polar Sediments, Ground Ice, and Glaciers 227 Notable Surface Features 228 Chryse Planitia 228 Hellas 229 Nirgal Vallis 229 Syrtis Major 229 Utopia Planitia 230 Vastitas Borealis 230 The Interior 230 Meteorites from Mars 231 Martian Moons 232 Phobos 233 Moons of Mars 233 Deimos 234 Spacecraft Exploration 235 The Question of Life on Mars 237

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