Do It Yourself Solar Energy

DIY Home Energy System

This ebook guide teaches you how to escape complete dependence the power grid and learn how to live mostly on your own power and make sure that you are dependent on Yourself. You will be able to slash your energy bill by over 75% and not have to depend on greedy energy companies. The largest energy corporations are a monopoly for a given area, so they do not need to care about customer service or doing right by the people they service. You will learn how to break this monopoly and depend on yourself. Make your home immune to power shortages, blackouts, and energy failures; live free of any worry that the grid will totally fail you! You will learn practical steps such as how to build your own solar panel for less than $60! Once you start relying more on solar power you will be able to easily protect your family from dangerous power outages, and live free! Read more here...

DIY Home Energy System Overview


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Author: Jeff Davis
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My DIY Home Energy System Review

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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Solar power satellites

Solar power satellites are space-based power supply systems. They are composed of arrays of solar panels that convert sunlight (or photons from other sources such as lasers) into power and then beam that power by microwave (or laser beam) to a distant site, such as a receiving station on Earth or Mars. Considerable literature has been written about solar power satellites they promise to deliver large amounts of electric power to distant sites at low cost. The lunar industrial base will be used to build the solar panels and other structural components of solar power satellites. The separate components of the solar power satellites will then be launched by mass driver from the Moon to their destination in space. They will be maneuvered into their final orbit (by tethers, rockets, etc.) and assembled by means of autonomous or tele-operated robotic devices. Large orbiting solar power satellites can then provide continuous power in the 100-200 (or more) megawatt range11 - for example, for...

Flux And Solar Panels

This calculation shows that solar power is a potentially potent power source on Earth. If it were possible to build a solar panel that could operate at 80 efficiency, then a 1-meter square panel would generate about 1000 watts of free electricity. In fact, solar cell engineers define a unit of illumination called the sun one sun is defined as 1000 watt m2. Since a single lamp is about 75 watts, the flux of one sun incident on a 1-meter square panel would power all of the lights in a house, together with an array of smaller appliances at the same time. Actual solar panels work at roughly 15 efficiency, and that's not even considering the difficulties of getting light to the panel. Our atmosphere is not transparent, there are frequent clouds, and it is night half the time. While these atmospheric factors will not go away, at least for Earth-based solar cells, it is possible that new advances in fundamental science could improve the efficiency of solar panels, which would be a great...

B3 Lunar Solar Power System Proposal

The Criswell Waldron concept as reviewed at numerous scientific gatherings worldwide utilizes solar power for the benefit of earthlings, as illustrated in Exhibit 148. A mature system would channel tens of terawatts of free and pure energy, using proven basic technology with passive and low-mass equipment. Further details are presented below in Exhibit 149 on lunar solar power in terms of the major elements involved, their function and advantages, as well as the specific challenges related to each. The transmissions would be at the speed of light over great distances for use where and when needed without physical connections. Essentially, the system involves the use of solar reflectors in lunar orbit to collect sunlight by thin-film photovoltaics which are then converted into thousands of low-intensity microwave beams at power stations on the Moon. From large-diameter, shared synthetic apertures on the lunar surface, these microwaves are beamed to receivers located anywhere on the...

Dll Solar power cells for electricity

As discussed in Appendix A, concepts for paving the Moon with solar power cells are being developed, because most alternative sources of power are either more expensive, more complex, or both. Fuel cells are another emerging possibility, especially for rovers that must operate during the lunar night, but they require replenishment of their constituents - converting the output water back into oxygen and hydrogen. Solar power cells are likely to be the primary method of obtaining electrical power on the Moon. Electrical power can be used directly for many operations, and can be the power source for converting the output water of fuel cells back into hydrogen and oxygen. available, they were used in solar-powered calculators and other low-power applications. As their efficiency improved, they began to be used in remote areas where electrical power from transmission lines (the grid) is unavailable. They are now becoming increasingly popular as a method of reducing our dependence on...

B2 Rationale For A Lunar Solar Power System Lsps

The advantages of this innovative solar energy system over conventional power are summarized in Exhibit 144. Looking along its last row, the case for lunar power is highlighted as follows 10 Exhibit 144. Comparison of 21st-century energy systems. This analysis shows the advantage of setting a goal by 2040 to obtain 20,000 GW of electricity from lunar solar power. Exhibit 144. Comparison of 21st-century energy systems. This analysis shows the advantage of setting a goal by 2040 to obtain 20,000 GW of electricity from lunar solar power. Terrestrial solar power Solar power satellites Exhibit 145. 21st-century power crisis. Further comparison of growing world population and the energy needs of individuals and how these could best be met by lunar solar power. Source David R. Criswell and Robert D. Waldron 12 . Exhibit 145. 21st-century power crisis. Further comparison of growing world population and the energy needs of individuals and how these could best be met by lunar solar power....

Solar power

The design of solar power systems for landers has significantly different constraints from those for conventional satellites. First, environmental disturbances such as gravity mean the gossamer structures used on the large arrays (which often cannot bear their own weight), now common for satellites, cannot be used - there are therefore severe mass penalties for solar arrays with dimensions much larger than the body of the vehicle itself. Secondly, the orientation of the arrays with respect to the Sun is likely to be controlled by the Figure 9.4. Solar power available on an airless planet at 1 AU from the Sun (S 1340 Wm 2) as a function of time, spacecraft latitude (0) and solar declination (< 5, i.e. latitude of the subsolar point). Solid line is for both the Sun and the lander at the equator giving a 12 hour day. The dotted line shows a lander on the equator during summer or winter, with the Sun 25 away from the equator. With a polar lander (0 76 ) the power can be zero all day...

Free Energy Methods

As noted in Section 13.6, it is difficult to calculate entropic quantities with any reasonable accuracy within a finite simulation time. It is, however, possible to calculate differences in such quantities.50 Of special importance is the Gibbs free energy, since it is the natural thermodynamic quantity under normal experimental conditions (constant temperature and pressure, Table 14.1), but we will illustrate the principle with Helmholtz free energy instead (constant temperature and volume). As indicated in eq. (13.6) the fundamental problem is the same. There are two commonly used methods for calculating differences in free energy Thermodynamic Perturbation and Thermo-dynamic Integration.51 Since the energy difference must be small compared with kT, the transformation from A to B must usually be broken into several intermediate steps described by a 1 parameter, and the total free energy change is given as the sum of changes in each step. statistically converged. It should be noted...

Specifying and Forecasting Space Weather Threats to Human Technology

Abstract Adverse space weather is one of the principal threats to modern human technology. Solar coronal mass ejections, large solar flares, and high-speed solar wind streams often lead to sequences of damaging disturbances within the Earth's magnetosphere, in the atmosphere, and even on the Earth's surface. Powerful geomagnetic storms can develop following solar disturbances and enhancements of energetic particle populations throughout the outer terrestrial radiation zone can subsequently result. High-energy particles can damage satellite solar power panels, confuse optical trackers, and deposit harmful charges into sensitive electronic components. Extreme solar, geomagnetic and solar wind conditions are often observed by a large array of international satellites and ground-based sensors. We discuss several of the types of space weather-related problems that have been identified in recent years. We present examples of space weather-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures. Recently...

Preface to the second edition

Astronomy is not an experimental science like physics it is a natural science like geology or meteorology. We must take the Universe as we find it, and deduce how the basic properties of matter have constrained the galaxies that happened to form. Sometimes our understanding is general but not detailed. We can estimate how much water the Sun's heat can evaporate from Earth's oceans, and indeed this is roughly the amount that falls as rain each day wind speeds are approximately what is required to dissipate the solar power absorbed by the ground and the air. But we cannot predict from physical principles when the wind will blow or the rain fall. Similarly, we know why stellar masses cannot be far larger or smaller than they are, but we cannot predict the relative numbers of stars that are born with each mass. Other obvious regularities, such as the rather tight relations between a galaxy's luminosity and the stellar orbital speeds within it, are not yet properly understood. But we trust...

Preface to the First Edition

Smaller, more frequent climate fluctuations are superimposed on the grand swings of the glacial interglacial cycles these minor ice ages may result from variations in the activity of the Sun itself. For instance, during the latter half of the seventeenth century the sunspot cycle effectively disappeared this long period of solar inactivity coincided with unusually cold spells in the Earth's northern hemisphere. Observations of Sunlike variable stars indicate that small, persistent variations in the solar energy output could produce extended periods of global cooling or warming. So, a prudent society will benefit by keeping a close watch on the Sun, the ultimate source of all light and heat on the Earth.

Availability of energy and material resources

The Moon, which lacks an atmosphere, receives abundant, energy from the Sun. Sunlight can be converted into electricity with lunar-made solar panels to supply the Moon with all of the power needed for global exploration and development. Sunlight could also be used for operating solar ovens, heat engines, and thermal management systems.

The Appearance Of Eclipses

The Sun is not simply a bright yellow disk in the sky. Actually, it is a hugely complicated heat-generating engine that solar physicists are still a long way from understanding completely. Car bumper stickers say Solar Power Not Nuclear Power, but solar power is nuclear power. The Sun is a gigantic nuclear reactor, fusing hydrogen nuclei together to produce helium and liberating vast amounts of energy in consequence.

The wind from the Sun an introduction

Not only does the Sun radiate the light we see - and that we do not see - but it also continually ejects into space 1 million tonnes of hydrogen per second. This wind is minute by astronomical standards it carries a very small fraction of the solar energy output, and compared to the violent explosions pervading the universe it blows rather gently. Yet it has amazing effects on the solar surroundings. It blows a huge bubble of supersonic plasma - the heliosphere - which engulfs the planets and a host of smaller bodies, shaping their environments. It also conveys perturbations that can be seen in our daily life.

Concept of Instability

In plasma physics the potential troughs and wells are replaced by sources of free energy, and the heavy sphere corresponds to a certain wave mode, in most cases an eigenmode of the plasma. There is a multitude of free energy sources in the Earth's environment. Neither the ionosphere nor the magnetosphere are closed systems in thermal equilibrium, but are driven by energy, momentum and mass input from outside, e.g., from the solar wind. On the macroscopic scale this input produces spatial gradients and inhomogeneities. On the microscopic scale it leads to deformation and distortions of the local distribution functions. The former free energy sources are the causes of the large-scale macroinstabilities, while the latter cause small-scale microinstabilities.

Space Processing Payloads

In the longer term, the high-energy aspects of the space environment may be as significant as the availability of hard vacuum and Og. The sun produces about 1400 W m2 at Earth, and this power is essentially uninterrupted for many orbits of possible future interest. The advance of solar energy collection and storage technology cannot fail to have an impact on the economic feasibility of orbital manufacturing operations. In this same vein, it is also clear that the requirement to supply raw material from Earth for space manufacturing processes is a tremendous economic burden on the viability of the total system. Again, it seems certain that, in the long term, development of unmanned freighter vehicles capable of returning lunar or asteroid materials to Earth orbit will be undertaken. With the advent of this technology, and the use of solar energy, the economic advantage in many manufacturing operations could fall to products manufactured in geosynchronous or other high Earth orbits.

The Mariner 10 Spacecraft

The Mariner 10 bus structure (Figure 2-2) was eight-sided and measured approximately 1.4 meters across and 0.5 meters in depth. The weight of the spacecraft was 504 kg, including 80 kg of scientific instrumentation (see Table 2.1) and 20 kg of hydrazine. With its two 2.7 meter by 1 meter solar panels deployed, the span of the spacecraft was 8.0 m. Each panel supported an area of 2.5 m2 of solar cells attached to the top of the octagonal bus. Figure 2-2. Mariner 10 spacecraft, illustrating the spacecraft design described in the text The instrument package, including cameras boom mounted instruments, including the magnetometer, can be seen, along with the solar panels, later used in the first demonstration of 'solar sailing'. Figure 2-2. Mariner 10 spacecraft, illustrating the spacecraft design described in the text The instrument package, including cameras boom mounted instruments, including the magnetometer, can be seen, along with the solar panels, later used in the first...

Basic solar properties

The solar distance is called the astronomical unit (AU) it is used as a basic unit in the Solar System and beyond. So is the solar mass, which is negligibly altered by the solar wind ejection. Indeed, the solar wind pours out in space roughly 109 kgs-1, which amounts to only 1O 4M0 over the Sun's age of a few 109 years. Note that the wind is not the only source of solar mass loss the mass-energy equivalence tells us that the luminosity L0 - the energy lost by the Sun per second via electromagnetic waves - yields a mass loss of L0 c2 4.3 x 109 kgs-1 this amounts to about four times the mass carried away by the solar wind, and thus barely alters the Sun's mass either we will return later to the solar energy source.

Electron Stream Modes

Let us construct the simplest electrostatic dispersion relation leading to instability. We consider a cold plasma in order to dismiss any complications due to thermal effects. And we assume sufficiently high frequencies so that ion effects can be neglected. To provide a free-energy source we assume that a cold electron beam of density nb and velocity vb streams across the electron background of density n0 and velocity v0 0. It is clear that this system is not at equilibrium and that the electrostatic interaction between the two plasmas should ultimately lead to dissipation of the extra energy stored in the streaming motion of the beam. The beam will be decelerated and the beam electrons will mix into the background plasma. During this process the plasma will be heated. The ignition of this complicated process leading to thermodynamic equilibrium will be caused by an instability.

The requirements for remote sensing of the climate system

The Earth's climate system (Figure 2.1) is complex and dynamic, involving the mutual interaction of the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, biosphere and land surface, as they exchange energy, momentum, moisture, and other substances such as carbon dioxide or aerosols (suspensions of tiny solid or liquid particles in the atmosphere). Solar energy (mostly visible light) drives the whole system, mainly by heating the surface of the Earth, the majority of which is ocean. This heated surface then warms the atmosphere by various processes. Of particular importance is the greenhouse effect, whereby greenhouse gases such as water vapour and carbon dioxide absorb most of the radiant heat from the surface. These in turn radiate heat back and warm the surface further, the amount of warming depending on their concentration. The difference in solar heating between low and high latitudes causes the general circulation of the atmosphere, which in turn, by the action of wind on

Inner Planetary Missions

The target bodies included in this category are those from Mercury to the inner reaches of the asteroid belt. The energy required to reach these extremes from Earth is roughly the same, a vis-viva energy of 30-40 km2 s2 (see Chapter 4). Even though the region encompasses a variation in solar radiative and gravitational intensity of about 60, it can be said to be dominated by the sun. Within this range, it is feasible to design solar-powered spacecraft and to use solar orientation as a factor in thermal control. Flight times to the various targets are measured in months, rather than years, for most trajectory designs of interest.

The Difficulty Of Telescopic Exploration Of Neos Near Their Point Of Origin

Since the amount of solar energy reaching the Earth per second per unit area (the solar constant) is about 1,400 Wm 2, the solar energy per second per square metre reaching a celestial object Rau from the Sun is about 1,400 R 2. If the object is spherical and has a fractional reflectivity of REF and radius of RAD metres, the amount of solar energy reflected from the object is (REF) (kRAD2) 1,400 R 2. If the object is a hemispherically symmetric isotropic reflector and it is Reau from the Earth, the reflected light energy per second from the object entering a near-Earth telescope of radius Rtele metres is calculated as From equation (1.4) we estimate the light energy per second entering a 10-m aperture telescope situated on or near the Earth from a 10 reflective, 1-km radius celestial body situated 5 AU from both the Sun and telescope as 1.57 x 10 15W. If the 10-m telescope is located outside the Earth's atmosphere - allowing extinction effects to be ignored - the reflected solar...

Advanced Mission Concepts

This is not true of missions that are very advanced by today's standards. Such missions include the development of large structures for solar power satellites or antenna farms, construction of permanent space stations, lunar and asteroid mining, propellant manufacture on other planets, and many other activities that cannot be accurately envisioned at present. For these advanced concepts, the designer's imagination is still free to roam, limited only by established principles of sound engineering practice. In this section, we examine some of the possibilities for future space missions that have been advocated in recent years, with attention given to the mission and spacecraft design requirements they will pose.

Large Space Structures

Many of the advanced mission concepts that have surfaced have in common the element of requiring the deployment in Earth orbit of what are, by present standards, extremely large structures. Examples of such systems include solar power satellites, first conceived by Dr. Peter Glaser, and the large, centralized antenna platforms alluded to previously in connection with communications satellites. These structures will have one outstanding difference from Earth-based structures of similar size, and that is their extremely low mass. If erected in a 0-g environment, these platforms need not cope with the stresses of Earth's gravitational field, and need only be designed to offer sufficient rigidity for the task at hand. This fact alone will offer many opportunities for both success and failure in exploiting the capabilities of large space platforms. Other characteristics of expected large space systems have also received considerable analytical attention. As mentioned, structures such as...

Use of Lunar and Asteroid Materials

With the accumulation in orbit of sufficient capital equipment to allow large-scale use of lunar or other extraterrestrial materials, and the development of effective solar energy collection methods, the growth of heavy manufacturing must follow. As noted, the surface of the moon is much closer to either GEO or LEO in terms of energy expenditure than is the surface of Earth. Any really large projects will probably be more economical with lunar material, even considering the necessary investment in lunar mining bases. Further, some resources are more readily used than others even relatively modest traffic from LEO to GEO, the moon, or deep space will probably benefit from oxygen generated on the moon and sent down to Earth orbit.

Propellant Manufacturing

In all propellant manufacturing processes, the key is power. Regardless of the availability of raw materials, substantial energy is required to decompose the water or carbon dioxide. Compression and liquefaction of the products also require energy. The possible sources of energy are solar arrays, nuclear systems using radioisotopic decay, and critical assemblies (reactors). The use of solar energy is only practical in the inner solar system, and then probably only for small production rates.

Nasas Ongoing Messenger Mission

MESSENGER spacecraft, illustrating the spacecraft design with the solar panels and sunshade described in the text The instrument package, including the boom mounted magnetometer, are labeled. The spacecraft is based on a modified NEAR spacecraft design and will use a similar chemical propulsion system. (Found at NSSDC Web site courtesy of NSSDC.) Figure 2-6. MESSENGER spacecraft, illustrating the spacecraft design with the solar panels and sunshade described in the text The instrument package, including the boom mounted magnetometer, are labeled. The spacecraft is based on a modified NEAR spacecraft design and will use a similar chemical propulsion system. (Found at NSSDC Web site courtesy of NSSDC.)

Understanding the

This time span as well as the projected age for the Earth's existence of billions of years ascertained from geological formations, were in stark contrast with estimates of the Sun's age put forth by theories explaining the origins of solar energy. These theories evolved at a time when physicists like S. Carnot, R. Mayer, J.P. Joule, H. von Helmholtz, R. Clausius and W. Thomson formulated the laws of thermodynamics, and the concept of conservation of energy emerged 633 . Concepts like a meteoric bombardment or chemical reactions were dismissed on the basis of either problems with celestial mechanics or of the projection that the Sun could not have been radiating for more than 3,000 years. By the middle of the 19th century von Helmholtz suggested that the Sun's heat budget was derived from contraction of an originally larger cloud. This theory had two advantages. First, it would provide tens of millions of years of energy. Second, the contraction rate of the Sun would be too small to...

The Age Of Reusable Craft

As the Apollo Project wound down, NASA also turned to the development of a space station, quickly producing the prefabricated Skylab. The design utilized the empty upper stage of a Saturn rocket, a space more than 15 meters in length and 6 meters in diameter. Redesigned as the orbital workshop, the empty rocket tank was fitted with solar panels and divided into two compartments, a work area and living quarters for the crew, with an airlock for leaving and returning. NASA launched Skylab in May 1973 and sent three missions to the craft during 1973-1974. The missions, which lasted 28, 59, and 84 days respectively, studied the Sun and Earth as well as gathering invaluable information about human beings' ability to work in space. But due to declining budgets and a growing emphasis on the production of the space shuttle, NASA was quickly forced to abandon Skylab. It remained unused in orbit for six years. Unable to maintain its own orbit (a fatal design omission), the huge facility became...

Energy Scale Of Nanoflares

The physical origin of nanoflares is believed to be magnetic reconnection. Energy available from magnetic reconnection may be generated by photospheric convective motion. When the magnetic free energy reaches a critical value, magnetic reconnection occurs, and releases the free energy. Here we briefly discuss the relationship between magnetic field strength and energy input by such sporadic energy release. Parker (1994) gives a very simple expression for energy release through nanoflares. We assume that magnetic reconnection occurs when the acute angle of the magnetic fields reaches a critical angle 6C. At the critical angle 9C, the free magnetic energy per unit area is where B is the magnetic field strength and L the loop length. Magnetic reconnection reduces the magnetic free energy from Ec to some fraction Ey 7Ec (0 < 7 < 1). The energy of (1 - 7)EC is released per unit area in this process. Then storage of the free magnetic energy goes on until another reconnection occurs, and...

Sunsynchronous operations and Magellan routes of discovery

The relatively slow rate of rotation of the Moon about its axis offers the opportunity for Sun-synchronous travel on the surface of the Moon (9.6 miles hr 15.4km hr at the equator and proportionately less at higher latitudes). For example, a solar-powered wheeled vehicle could move west continuously at 1.3km hr at 86 south latitude, and maintain the Sun at the same angle in the sky. This route of travel would enable the vehicle to receive sunlight for solar power continuously during its journey around the circumference of the Moon. Such pathways are referred to as Magellan routes after the explorer Ferdinand Magellan who headed the first circumnavigation expedition of the Earth.4 Similarly, Sun-synchronous railroad operations would allow solar-powered mobile factories to be transported on a lunar railroad at a speed that matches the rotation of the Moon, thus maintaining the Sun in the same position for constant solar power and the operation of solar ovens. The relatively slow rate of...

Launch and Transfer Orbit Environment

High levels of acceleration, shock, and vibration are present during lift-off and during pyro-driven deployments at various stages. The resulting stress levels, varying with the launch vehicle, have effects on the power system design, particularly on the solar panels. For example, the solar panels are required to withstand the launch acceleration of about 3g on the space shuttle Orbiter, and about 10g on the launch vehicle Saturn, where g is the acceleration due to gravity on the Earth's surface. The pyro shock levels during deployments can be extremely high for a few milliseconds. The shock spectrum is generally characterized by high-frequency components. The peak shock level in Ariane during payload separation, for example, could be about 2000g at frequencies above 1.5 kHz. In transfer orbit, the solar panel is still folded, but must withstand the accelerating force at perigee and the braking force at apogee. Thermally, the outer solar panels must withstand the Earth's heat...

Energy Generation and Transport

The process of energy generation results from the enormous pressure and density at the centre of the Sun, which makes it possible for nuclei to overcome electrostatic repulsion. (Nuclei are positive and thus repel each other.) Once in some billions of years a given proton (1H, in which the superscript represents the mass of the isotope) is close enough to another to undergo a process called inverse beta-decay, in which one proton becomes a neutron and combines with the second to form a deuteron (2D). While this is a rare event, hydrogen atoms are so numerous that it is the main solar energy source. Subsequent encounters proceed much faster the deuteron encounters one of the ubiquitous protons to produce helium-3 (3He), and these in turn form helium-4 (4He). The net result is that four hydrogen atoms are fused into one helium atom. The energy is carried off by gamma-ray photons and neutrinos. Because the nuclei must have enough energy to overcome the electrostatic barrier, the rate of...

Can you See Any Detail on a Large Satellite in LEO

With practice, you should be able to change eyepieces from low to high magnification while a large low-orbiting satellite is traveling through your telescope's FOV Under good lighting conditions, you may be able to see the wings of a space shuttle or the solar panels of a space station.

Global sea surface temperature measurement

The ocean is a major component of the climate system (see Section 2.1.2), and ocean heat has an important role in the global climate. Most of the solar energy falling onto the Earth is absorbed in the ocean (which covers the majority of the surface) and the ocean is, therefore, the main source of heat, as well as moisture, for the atmosphere. Latitudinal variations in solar heating of the surface (and hence of the atmosphere) give rise to the general circulation of the atmosphere, and indirectly, via surface winds and thermohaline effects, of the ocean. By means of this circulation the ocean also acts as a major transporter of heat from low to high latitudes before release into the atmosphere. (In fact, roughly as much heat is transported polewards by the ocean as by the atmosphere itself.) This is because the solar energy, mainly in the form of visible light, is absorbed down to considerable depths in the ocean, and its transport back to the surface and release into the atmosphere...

Solar electric propulsion for orbit raising

In the Dual Landers concept, a tug powered by solar electric propulsion is used to lift space vehicles from LEO to an elongated elliptical Earth orbit because transMars injection with chemical propulsion requires far less propellant from this orbit than it would from LEO. The energy that would have been used for departure from LEO using chemical propulsion is mostly replaced by solar energy that drives the electric propulsion system used to raise spacecraft to a high orbit. The documentation of the Dual Landers mission is sparse, and it is difficult to appraise the feasibility of

Bootstrapping Lunar Development

Humankind presently has the means to develop lunar commerce with minimal modification or growth of existing technologies.7 Within a few years we could place solar panels, robots, scientific instruments and other enabling components at our preferred location on the Moon. In-situ experiments can begin that will enable mining, processing, and manufacturing. Robotic mobility systems are currently available that are capable of supporting the exploration of relatively flat areas of the Moon. It may not be necessary for rovers and instruments to be capable of working throughout the complete day night cycle -the rover could land at lunar dawn, shut down for a few tens of hours during the lunar midday for cooling, work through the lunar evening, then shut down again during the lunar night. One great benefit of a new rover mission would be that the mission could be viewed by millions of people in real time via the Internet. An example of such a system is the Mars Exploration Program. Two...

Redirecting Knowledge And Workforces Upward

Fields, such as in space medicine or psychology. For example, Dr. Stewart Johnson, a professional engineer in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has begun such a re-examination with his wife, Mary Anis Johnson. The Johnsons have jointly prepared a paper, The Civil Engineer and Space'', which they have permitted us to quote below. Their thesis, the effective use of Greater Earth resources (including the Moon and intervening space, particularly solar energy), is a subject of increasing importance to the nation, the world, and the engineer. Among trends cited by this professional couple are the following 21 . o The Civil Engineering Research Foundation will fund research related to space projects in robotic construction techniques, advanced material applications, computer-integrated manufacturing at construction sites. Space exploration and exploitation, especially at a lunar base, is dependent on such developments for habitats and facilities, resource and vehicle planning, and astronomical...

Lunar surface infrastructure requirements

Development of tele-operated devices on the lunar surface requires line-of-sight communications with Earth. Continuous power for solar cells will also help by alleviating the need for batteries while taking advantage of the abundant solar power.13 In Chapter 5, we explain why the summit of Mons Malapert, in the south polar region of the Moon, offers the optimum location for direct and continuous Earth-Moon communications, long periods of continuous sunlight, and proximity to regions of scientific interest. For the first robotic lander missions to the Moon, an area near Mons Malapert should be given consideration as the location of the first sunlight-dependent robotic base.

An example Partially ionized hydrogen plasma

The EOS of hydrogen in various physical conditions has been studied in many papers. Here we focus on the partially ionized atomic hydrogen at T > 3 x 104 K, that is relevant to neutron star atmospheres. Let us employ the chemical picture of the plasma. A detailed model in the framework of the chemical picture of a plasma consisting of protons, electrons, H atoms, and H2 molecules (in all quantum-mechanical states) was developed by Saumon et al. (1995). A completely analytic version of the associated free-energy model, applicable to the case of weakly degenerate electrons in the absence of molecules, was presented by Potekhin (1996b) and extended to the case of arbitrary electron degeneracy by Potekhin et al. (1999b). In this model,

Solar activity and UV radiation

Most of the power is in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm, with very little power at wavelengths shorter than 300 nm (Figure 3.3). However, the proportional variation is highest for the shorter wavelengths. The solar energy output varies with the solar cycle, (a) because faculae, which radiate more energy, are more frequent during sunspot maximum and (b) because the sunspot areas are associated with a lower energy output. The faculae brightening is more dominant than the sunspot darkening and the Sun emits more energy at sunspot maximum than at sunspot minimum. Although the solar ultraviolet (UV) frequency band represents a small fraction of the radiative energy, the solar cycle variability in the UV band is of the order of 0.7 (Lean, 2000).

Coupling Between Thermal Convection and Surface Processes Volcanism and Tectonics

Finally, volcanism is a potential energy source that can be used by organisms to survive in extreme environments. This is the case at midocean ridges where life develops around and close to black smokers. When the geologists dived to study midocean ridges, they discovered that life can develop without solar energy. It does not mean that life can form at midocean ridges (or where there is submarine volcanism) but that life can evolve and adapt itself to difficult conditions.

The Mission Of A Lifetime

Unrealistic by the long time of at least 7 years in flight prior to the encounter. The alternative was a probe equipped with ion thrusters powered by either solar panels or a nuclear generator. After being placed into an eccentric solar orbit, this would gradually reduce its speed, and finally, when far from the Sun, make a maneuver to adopt retrograde motion. On heading back towards the inner solar system, it would encounter the comet 2-3 months prior to its perihelion. But such a flight would still take about 7 years, and because solar panels would generate very little power at the heliocentric distance of the reversal maneuver they would need to be inordinately large. A nuclear spacecraft would be able to run its ion engine essentially all of the time, which would cut the flight time to less than 3 years, but it would involve the development of a nuclear generator for use in space. collecting the pressure of solar radiation using a large but very thin sheet of plastic and metal....

Mysterious Flashing Satellite

More recently, it has come to light that STS-28's payload was most likely a member of the second-generation Satellite Data System (SDS)-B family of US Air Force military communications satellites. Doubts over whether it was a KH-12 were raised within weeks of its launch, when ground-based observers noted that it 'flashed' - as sunlight reflected from its solar panels - at regular intervals, a phenomenon not usually consistent with a spying platform.

No single nation could undertake such an enormous project

Different mechanical and electrical components keep Hubble functioning. The power for Hubble comes from solar panels on the side that convert sunlight into electricity. Gyroscopes, star trackers and reaction wheels keep Hubble steady and pointing in the right direction for hours or days at a time not too close to the Sun, Moon or Earth as they would destroy the light-sensitive instruments and accurately towards the objects being studied. The Hubble pointing and tracking system is a triumph of engineering and relies on a complex hierarchy of systems that keep the entire spacecraft stable in space to an almost incredible precision. It can point to the same spot on the sky for weeks at a time without deviating by more than a few millionths of the Moon's diameter.

Upstream Waves and Particles

It has been mentioned earlier that the main field signature of the ion foreshock is the presence of low frequency fluctuations. Identification of the properties of these waves, their nature, dispersion, diffusion and free energy source as well as their effect on the solar wind are therefore of prime interest. In this section we review Cluster observations and the Cluster-based analysis of these waves.

Lunar surface experiments

Mission using instruments that would be easier to deploy, with the duration of the outing being open ended. On 9 October the Manned Space Flight Management Council, chaired by Mueller, agreed to the development of three lightweight experiments for the first landing mission - a solar-powered passive seismometer, an unpowered laser reflector, and a solar wind composition experiment that would be deployed and later retrieved for return to Earth. It was decided to carry the erectable antenna for the television transmission in case the time of the moonwalk did not coincide with a line-of-sight to Goldstone. The mass saved by not carrying the ALSEP would allow more fuel to be carried, and thereby increase the time available for the hovering phase of the descent. In effect, the first landing was to be an 'operational pathfinder' for its successors. On 5 November Bendix was told to make the three-instrument Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), which was to be shipped by mid-May...

Superfluidity and Superconductivity in Neutron Stars

The minimum free energy state of any rotating system is the state of rigid body rotation. A charged superfluid - a superconductor - like the protons in the neutron star core achieves the state of rigid body rotation by setting up a magnetic field called the London field, of magnitude BLondon (2mc e)Q sustained by supercurrents at the boundaries of the superconducting region. The energy cost of the London field is negligible compared to the free energy gain of the rigid rotation state. A London field of only 10_4 G is needed for neutron star rotation rates Q 100 rad s_1. Magnetic free energy is minimized in the state with a uniform magnetic field distributing the total flux throughout the body of the system. For most observed stars the required magnetic field that corresponds to the dipole magnetic moment of the star is of the order of 1012 G, in the direction of the magnetic moment. (The magnetic moment constraint is distinct from the rotational constraint which, for the protons, is...

Work begins in earnest

The AOSO, 3.2m long by 1.5 m in diameter with eight fold-down solar panels, was originally devised as a free-flying, unmanned satellite system that would maintain a 300-mile high polar orbit, continually monitoring the sun and near solar environment through the use of an array of detectors and electronic imaging devices covering a broad frequency band. The array of instrumentation built into the AOSO would include a high-resolution X-ray telescope, a white light corona-graph, ultraviolet and hydrogen-alpha spectroheliographs and an ultraviolet scanning spectroheliometer.

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky 18571935

Because Tsiolkovsky was a village teacher in rural tsarist Russia, his important work went essentially unnoticed by the world. Few in Russia cared about space travel in those days, and he never received funding to pursue any type of practical demonstration of his innovative concepts. These suggestions included the space suit, space stations, multistage rockets, large habitats in space, the use of solar energy, and closed life-support systems.

Flux Tube Instabilities

Magnetohydrodynamic stability depends on the inhomogeneity of the plasma, because free energy in ideal magnetohydrodynamics can only be stored in inhomogeneous configurations. Good examples of such unstable situations are solar flares which are believed to evolve in so-called active magnetic configurations, which evolve dynamically and possibly explosively. The instability of these magnetic configurations leads to violent energy releases and causes the particle acceleration, matter ejection, optical flashes, and the various radiation processes observed in the optical, radio, x- and 7-ray energy ranges during solar Bares. Another instability of magnetohydrodynamic nature is the reconnection process, first introduced in Sec. 5.1 of our companion book. To study these instabilities, it is convenient to formulate an energy principle. Such a principle is a global measure of the tendency of a magnetohydrodynamic configuration to undergo instability. In short, when the total energy variation...

Massenergy Equivalence

But we must begin with the Special Theory. In 1905 Einstein published four papers on different topics, one of which presented the famous equation showing the equivalence of mass and energy (E mc2). Here E represents the energy (in Joules), m the mass (in kilograms), and c the speed of light (300 million meters per second). (Einstein actually got his Nobel Prize for one of the other papers, which explained the photoelectric effect his analysis showed that light is split into discrete packets, or photons.) Using that equation, and knowing the flux of solar energy at the Earth and our distance from the Sun, it is trivial to show that our local star is losing mass by conversion to energy at an astounding rate, about four million tons per second. Over millions and billions of years it is obvious that the total mass lost must have been enormous, but in terms of the entire bulk of the Sun it is a minor fraction. The problem of the solar power source was solved, and astronomers at last knew...

Nongravitational Perturbations Other

Satellite-dependent models have been developed to represent some nongrav-itational components. The GPS satellites experience a force parallel to the solar panel rotation axis, referred to as the y-bias force, thought to result from solar panel misalignment and or thermal force effects (Vigue, et al., 1994). in-dex aut Schutz, B. E.

Mariner 77First Spacecraft to Mercury

4.56 feet (1.39 m) diagonally and 1.5 feet (0.46 m) in depth. Two solar panels, each 8.83 feet (2.69 m) long and 3.18 feet (0.97 m) wide, were attached at the top, supporting 54.9 square feet (5.1 square meters) of solar-cell area. Fully deployed and cruising in international space, Mariner 10 measured 26.2 feet (8 m) across the solar panels and 12.1 feet (3.7 m) from the top of the low-gain antenna to the bottom of the heat shield. Engineers mounted a scan platform with two degrees of freedom on the anti-solar face of the spacecraft structure. A 19-foot- (5.8-m-) long hinged magnetometer boom extended from one of the octagonal sides of the spacecraft structure. The Mariner 10's rocket engine was a 50-pound-force (222-newton) liquid monopropellant hydrazine motor located below a spherical propel-lant tank, which was mounted in the center of the structural framework. The rocket nozzle protruded through a sunshade. Engineers used a total of six (two sets of three orthogonal pairs)...

Switchboard In The

With its communications gear folded up inside the large black solar panels, NASA's first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite is raised to its deployment position. Note the white Inertial Upper Stage mounted at its base and the 'tilt table' at the bottom of the frame. Already, by this time, it had supported data traffic on the first Spacelab mission, launched in November 1983. When fully deployed in orbit, the newly renumbered 'TDRS-1' resembled a colossal, 2,270kg windmill, measuring 17.4m across its fully unfurled solar panels, which extended from a hexagonal 'bus'. The dual panels generated 1,800 watts of electrical power, supplemented by onboard nickel-cadmium batteries when in Earth's shadow to support its decade-long life span. Inside the bus, the communications payload was capable of transmitting in a single second the entire contents of a 20-volume encyclopaedia.

Return of humans to the Moon

Autonomous and tele-operated robots will have prepared the way for the return of humans by installing navigation landing beacons, constructing the beginnings of communications and solar-powered electric networks, and by creating one or more underground shelters. Robotic geoscience expeditions in the south polar region will be routine and several large telescopes will be either operational or in the advanced planning stages, including infrared telescopes in permanently-shadowed craters.

Applications of Gyroresonance Emission 61 Coronal magnetic field measurement

One of the simplest uses of radio observations is the determination of magnetic field strengths at the base of the corona (e.g., Hurford 1986). The absolute value of the coronal magnetic field strength is important for understanding the energetics of the corona, and the availability of free energy stored in coronal magnetic fields which may be used in flares and coronal heating. Figs. 5.2-5.5 demonstrate that where the optically-thick GR layer corresponding to a given frequency and mode drops below the corona, the radio brightness temperature at that frequency and corresponding polarization shows a sharp drop from coronal to approximately chromospheric values. (Note that the transition region is not expected to be detected via gyroresonance emission if its thickness is less than 1 as energy balance models predict, because its signature would be confined to the line at the intersection of the < 1-thick surface of the transition region with the typically < 0 2-thick GR surface, and...

The Challenge of the Spaceplane

What if water is found on the Moon Of course, it would exist as ice, probably in the environs of the Lunar poles. If this ice could be melted and electrolyzed into its constituent elements of hydrogen and oxygen, the Moon itself could supply large quantities of propellant for future space infrastructure. This completely changes the picture. The story would now have its heroes picking up Lunar propellants and delivering them to the Earth-orbiting depot, rather than the other way around. As far as getting to the Moon is concerned, the spaceplane would need only a fraction of the fuel that it needed to get into orbit. So it would fill its tanks to about two fifths of their capacity, fly to the Moon with a much lighter load, and then return with a full load of water, not rocket propellants. This is because water takes up less volume than the same material in the form of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. When it comes to utilizing propellants, it is mass that counts. Once the Lunar water...

Electric propulsion fundamentals

In view of the importance of the power plant to the rocket configuration, it is convenient to analyse the performance in terms of the component masses Mv, the power-plant mass Me, the expellant mass and Mp, the payload mass. The expellant storage and feed system may be assumed to be part of the power plant, while the power-plant fuel mass will be considered to be negligibly small (nuclear fuel) or inappropriate (solar powered). The configuration envisaged is shown schematically in Figure 6.23.

Electrostatic Instabilities

While macroinstabilities are caused by configuration space accumulations of free energy in spatial inhomogeneities and affect the bulk or even global plasma properties, the effects of instabilities fed by velocity space inhomogeneities, i.e., microinstabilities, are observed on smaller and sometimes microscopic scales. Free energy can be easily stored in deviations of the velocity distribution from its thermal equilibrium shape. As a rule the equilibrium distributions are Maxwellian distribution functions (see Sec. 6.3 of our companion book, Basic Space Plasma Physics). In an open system, like in space plasmas, a slight deformation of the Maxwellian distribution can be readily produced and there are many possibilities of such deviations from equilibrium. Correspondingly, a very large number of microinstabilities can arise in a plasma. The present chapter selects those which have been detected in space plasmas. We, however, restrict to electrostatic instabilities only leaving...

Studying orbital living systems

Before his death in 2002, James Grier Miller was proposing LST application to space habitation, first in terms of the International Space Station and later for a lunar base. Astronomical artist Dennis Davidson created, under Miller's direction, a series of illustrations using LST symbols to explain through color usage how this complex theory would be utilized. To provide the reader with some insight into such applications, we have produced here three summary diagrams, but these are in black and white, and do not reflect the distinguishing and separate color flows. Exhibit 37 explains the living systems symbols. Exhibit 38 visualizes Living Systems Theory applied to the International Space Station, with its five major flows for that open system which may become fully operational with eight spacefarers by the year 2009. Exhibit 39 does the same in the context of a lunar outpost which may be functional by approximately 2020. The complex patterns for a Moon base show a command center,...

Speed Fuel And Plants

If that were possible, says the first officer, there would be hundreds of robotic MUVs roving Mars right now. It might someday be possible to get oxygen from subsurface water ice on Mars by melting it and elec-trolyzing it using solar energy, but that is not a convenient way to obtain oxygen for a moving vehicle run by a combustion engine.

Circumferential lunar utilities

One potential drawback with sunlight as a source of energy is that it is not available during the lunar night.2 Consequently, some form of energy storage device,3 such as batteries or flywheels, will be needed to provide power for nighttime lunar operations. The incorporation of energy storage devices substantially increases the mass, cost, and complexity of solar power systems, and for this reason solar cells have been regarded as less attractive as a primary power source for lunar operations than nuclear reactors. Nevertheless, as noted in Chapter 3, the lunar regolith is an abundant supply of materials that can be used as feedstock for the Moon-based manufacture of solar cells. If a number of Earth-made solar arrays were placed on the lunar surface and connected into an electric power grid, the grid would supply the power required for solar cell fabrication equipment to make solar cells from the lunar regolith. Another possibility is a solar-powered mobile robotic factory that...

Power Systems for Spaceflight

It is likely that some form of nuclear energy will have to be used to send spacecraft by propulsive means to speeds of 100 km sec or higher to the outer planets. Solar energy may work well for the inner planets. However, the energy requirements for reaching Mercury are comparatively high and a high specific impulse propulsion system must be powered to reach the planet in a timely manner. Solar energy may work well enough for this domain of space exploration. However, solar radiation at the gas giant planets is a fraction of the irradiance here on Earth. Solar photovoltaic cells would have to be inordinately large. The efficiency of solar cells is 10-15 . Thus for a solar irradiance of 1000 W m2 a meter square of photovoltaic will light a 100 to 150 watt bulb. Efficiencies have improved some and the production costs have declined. It is likely that solar photovoltaics will be an increasing aspect of the electrical generating infrastructure around the world in the 21st century. The...

Circumferential Electric Grid

The LPS is intended to satisfy the future energy needs of the consumers of electric power on Earth, but it would also, be the source of electric power for all future lunar missions. For the first permanent lunar base, the LPS concept could be modified by creating a solar-powered electric grid that courses around the circumference of the Moon. If solar panels were placed at regular intervals along a given circumference of the Moon, then 50 percent of the panels would be powered at any one time, and continuous4 electric power would be available in the grid for all lunar operations (Figure 7.2). Earth to the first lunar base. Solar cells can be fabricated from lunar regolith feedstock (using autonomous and tele-operated robots) and then connected to the lunar electric grid. As more solar cells are added, the grid would grow in east and west directions from the first lunar base until a solar-powered electric grid is constructed around the circumference of the Moon. When the solar-powered...

Looking to the Future

Neither NASA nor the DOD was anchored solely in the contemporary realities of pursuing Mercury and Dynasoar and dealing with the numerous associated challenges. Both organizations looked to future and follow-on human-spaceflight projects such as space stations and lunar landings. As early as 10 July 1959, NASA held a conference to study the various aspects of placing a manned space laboratory in operation. . . . This project is envisioned as one of the initial steps in the actual landing of a man on the moon in 10-15 years. The participants at this conference even reached preliminary design decisions such as that the station should have a one-year life, incorporate a two-person crew, have a near-equatorial 400-mile altitude orbit, be comprised of a rigid cylinder with a parabolic solar energy collector, and weigh 7,000 lbs.124 NASA's Langley Laboratory continued to study the space station concept and produce preliminary designs throughout the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations....

Lake Vostok and Ice Core Data in a Nutshell 711 Generalities

The recently discovered subglacial lakes in Antarctica are icy-water-geologic complex systems with unique characteristics. More than 100 lakes have been detected (Siegert et al., 1996, 2001), some of which are very large (up to 14 000km2). The high pressure, excess gas, low temperature, absence of solar energy and isolation of subglacial lakes from surface biota for thousands and perhaps millions of years make them extreme environments that may host life different from that found on the Earth's surface.

Mars Observer Surveyor and Pathfinder

Launched on November 7, 1996, and is continuing a long project of (among other things) detailed low-altitude mapping of the Martian surface. Unexpected oscillations in its solar panels while coming into a circular orbit around the planet caused the start of the major surface mapping program to be delayed by almost a year.

Understanding The Corona

Nineteenth-century astrophysicists were much confused about the source of the Sun's power. They did not understand this until nuclear reactions were discovered, as discussed in Chapter 4. This had major ramifications for other areas of science because the origin of solar energy affected estimates of the age of the Earth, and hence studies of geological and biological evolution. In this earlier

Cutting Edge Technology

The satellite system provides the structure and the equipment necessary for the telescope and the scientific instruments to operate. A propulsion system gradually puts the spacecraft into its final orbit, which is elliptical and extends far from Earth. In order to control the critical temperature of its components, Chandra has a special system of radiators and thermostats. The temperature near the X-ray mirrors has to be maintained at the proper temperature to keep the mirrors in focus. The electrical energy of the satellite comes from solar panels and is stored in three batteries. SOLAR PANEL

The RNA world and the origin of the genetic code

Early versions of the code probably used a smaller repertoire of amino acids, each with a larger number of codons. The codon table was divided up into progressively smaller blocks as successive amino acids were added. This idea goes as far back as Crick (1968). Each addition would have opened up a whole new world of protein possibilities. Thus, there is a selective drive for adding new amino acids in the early stages of code development. This brings us back to question of the order of addition of amino acids to the genetic code. We have shown above that the early group of amino acids can be identified based on their appearance in meteorites, the Miller-Urey experiment, and a variety of other chemical syntheses designed to simulate prebiotic conditions. The strong correlation between the ranking, Robs, that we derive and the free energy of formation, AGsurf, suggests that this ranking is a meaningful prediction of the relative frequencies of abiotically synthesized amino acids that...

International Space Station The Latest

After years of planning and design, the largest, most expensive international collaboration in space is now under construction. As of early 2001, the heart of the International Space Station (ISS) had been assembled, and the first crew exchange had taken place after four and a half months. The international effort now includes the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. As expected, the project has experienced growing pains. There were concerns early on when the power-generating solar panels failed to deploy properly, but with some human intervention, they were coaxed into place.

Image not available

Is solar energy generated by thermonuclear conversion of hydrogen to helium. A beautiful theory had been constructed to describe this process, but although the theory accounted successfully for the Sun's luminosity, it predicted less than half of the observed flux of neutrinos (we will discuss all this in detail in chapter 7). Was the nuclear theory that far off Or was something wrong with our ideas about the core of the Sun It was a critical question for astrophysicists. Helio-seismologists were therefore eager to pin down the properties of the core.

Surface investigations

As the mechanical properties of the lunar surface would influence the design of the LM the Apollo planners said, in October 1962, that the development of JPL's 'soft landing' spacecraft should receive a higher priority than the orbital spacecraft. However, the development of the Centaur stage was so protracted that the surface investigations could not start until 1966. The planners for these Surveyor missions were faced with the same dilemma as their Apollo counterparts where should they send their first mission Although safety issues obliged them to select one of the dark plains, this was consistent with characterising the surface in the equatorial zone in which the Apollo targets were located. When Surveyor 1 was launched on 30 May 1966, the 'old hands' at JPL might well have wondered whether they were in for a rerun of the teething troubles that had plagued Ranger, but on 2 June the spacecraft landed safely near Flamsteed, in a crater that appeared to have been breached by the...

Solar Concentrator Dynamic Power System

Solar energy can be used in systems other than photovoltaic cells. For example, the sun's energy is collected in the form of heat using a concentrator. The heat, in turn, is used to generate steam and drive a rotating turbo-generator or a reciprocating alternator either way uses a thermodynamic energy converter. where the temperatures are in degrees absolute. The higher the hot side working temperature and lower the cold side exhaust temperature, the higher the efficiency of converting the captured solar energy into electricity. The hot side temperature, Thot, however, is limited by properties of the working medium. The cold side temperature, Tcold, is largely determined by the cooling method and the environment available to dissipate the exhaust heat.

Palaeo data proxy data 5251 Biological proxies

It is sometimes possible to learn about past climate by examining elements that one way or another have been exposed to the climate and bear an imprint of the past climatic conditions. Such data records, which themselves are not direct measurements of the climate elements, but are witnesses of the past, are called proxy data. One common type of proxy data is tree rings from old trees and fossilised wood. Tree rings provide two types of information by counting the rings that show faster growth during summer and slower growth during winter, it is possible to date events in chronological order. The width of the rings gives an indication of how warm and wet the summer has been. The tree ring chronology can be used for calibrating carbon dating methods and vice versa. The proxy data do not give a direct measure of the conditions, but one must use empirical models to relate the tree ring characteristics to the climate elements. It is possible to develop statistical relations (empirical...

Composition Atmosphere And Weather

The climatic system that governs the temperatures on Uranus might be called the great thermal equalizer. If Earth were tilted on its axis as much as is Uranus, the weather on our planet would be incredibly severe. Winters would be brutal everywhere except at the very lowest latitudes. The prevailing winds would be fierce as they attempted to equalize the radical annual seesaw of solar energy received at most points on the surface. Hurricanes of unimaginable size would prowl the seas and slam into land masses. The whole course of the evolution of life on our planet would be much different from what it was. We cannot be certain that intelligent life would have evolved at all.

Launch Vehicle Environment and Its Effects on Spacecraft Design

For launch spectators, one overriding impression is the wall of sound that hits them a few seconds after they see the rocket engines ignite, despite the fact that they are kept at a safe distance from the launch complex. Launch is a very noisy affair, and even more so for the satellite payload sitting on top of the rocket. The acoustic field encountered by the satellite is harsh, despite the satellite being contained within the launcher fairing. Large amplitude and damaging vibrations can be excited in flexible structures, such as solar panels or large antennas, by this level of noise.

Magnetic Fields in Prominences

The physics of prominences plays an important role in modern understanding of all types of solar activity because they reflect the position of the neutral lines of the photospheric magnetic field, both in its global and local AR structures. In the latter case it represents the location of the highest flare activity. The complicated plasma and magnetic structure of the surrounding regions is of great interest for studying the nature of the solar flares and other processes of the solar energy release.

Weakly nonideal Coulomb plasma

According to the Bohr-van Leeuwen theorem (p. 54) the magnetic field does not affect thermodynamics of classical charged particles. Thus the excess free energy F (r) for a classical OCP of ions is independent of B at any ion coupling parameter r (defined by Eq. (2.22)). The classical regime for an electron-ion plasma corresponds to rs 1 and r 1 in the absence of electron degeneracy. In this case the excess Coulomb free energy is given by the Debye-H ckel formula FeC -N T Z J(1 + Z) 3 r3 2 (compare to Eq. (2.73)). Indeed, it is easy to check that for classical plasma particles this law holds independently of B (Abrahams & Shapiro, 1991a Cornu, 1998). The magnetic field, however, affects quantum contributions to F . These effects have been studied either in the regime of low T and high p (considered in the following section), or at low densities. In the latter case, a general power-series expansion for the free energy of a Coulomb plasma in an arbitrary magnetic field (up to the...

Modified Two Stream Instability

A similar current-driven instability exists also for currents which flow perpendicular to the magnetic field. Independent of their origin, such currents serve as free energy sources. There are several possibilities for generating perpendicular currents. The most important are pressure gradient drifts or polarization field drifts. An instability connected with these currents is the lower-hybrid drift instability, which we will derive in detail when discussing the effects of inhomogeneities on kinetic instabilities.

The Importance Of Knowing The Suns Size

This increase in solar output has not terminated. In our earlier description of solar evolution it was noted that the Sun is expected to continue to behave in a similar fashion to the present for another five billion years or so. Over that time, though, its power output is expected to double. If that increase were steady and uniform then over five thousand years (a suitable time scale for human civilization) the solar energy reaching the Earth might increase by one or two parts in a million. Such changes are dwarfed by other natural variations, like the way in which the Earth's orbit evolves and the orientation of its spin axis shifts. But what if the

Softlanders and orbiters

Solar batteries solar panel Ranger was the first NASA spaceprobe to be stabilized on oil three axes, instead of spinning to remain stable. This was achieved by importing small amounts of thrust from nitrogen gas jets. This allowed the use of large flat solar panels tilted toward the Sun, insteod of the earlier spinning drum design, and produced a large increase in electrical power to the probe.

Results And Discussion

We analyzed helicity injection in active region NOAA 8100 from November 1 to 4, 1997. As shown in Figure 1(b), the helicity injection caused by flux emerging first starts on November 2 at 3 00 UT. This process continues at least until November 4, supplying a positive helicity of about 5 x 1042 Mx2. On the other hand, the photospheric shear motion injects negative helicity from November 3 to 4. Note that the helicity injected by the two processes has opposite sign, but a similar absolute value. Furthermore we point out that X-ray activity increases and a series of flares begins with a delay of about a day after the start of the helicity injection. This suggests a relationship between helicity injection and the activation of the flares. We also integrated the energy supplied into the coronal field by interpolating the data gap in SFT observations. Figure 1(c) shows that the supplied energy has an excess of 5 x 1032 erg above the potential field energy. Since energy release is not taken...

A simple greenhouse effect model

The Earth can only lose energy to space from the top of the atmosphere since all long-wave radiation emitted from the surface is absorbed in the atmosphere. If an equilibrium situation is assumed, so that the Earth does not gain or lose energy over time (warms up or cools off), then the radiative heat loss must equal the solar energy coming into the terrestrial system.

St century starflight

As it happens, there is one star-travelling approach that may become feasible by the middle of the century. Figure 7.1 presents the various aspects of this approach -beamed-energy sailing. A solar powered station is located closer to the Sun than the starship. Solar collectors focus sunlight on a solar pumped beam projector attached to the solar collector array. A laser beam or particle beam is generated by the power station. This is directed at the distant starship with the beam divergence angle shown. The starship, which consists of payload attached to a sailcraft, accelerates to its cruise velocity by the exchange of momentum with the impinging beam.

NASAs Chandra Xray Observatory

In preparation for its launch, aerospace technicians at NASA's Kennedy Space Center prepare to attach and deploy a solar panel array on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. (NASA KSC) A computer-enhanced rendering of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, in orbit with its solar panels fully deployed (NASA MSFC) A computer-enhanced rendering of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, in orbit with its solar panels fully deployed (NASA MSFC)

Crewtraining strategies

Orbital team satellite repairs. The historic first salvage mission of a satellite into the payload of the Shuttle Discovery the first of two such recoveries on mission 51-A. During the 8-day mission beginning on November 8,1984, two astronauts demonstrated superb teamwork by retrieving two communications satellites for repair. Again in 2007, the continuing teamwork between astronauts was evident in difficult and delicate repairs made to ISS solar panels. Source NASA Johnson Space Center.

Energy Budgets from Field Measurements

The release of the non-potential magnetic energy required to drive transient activity must be accompanied by a change in the magnetic field topology as it relaxes to a more potential state. One major reconfiguration frequently invoked to describe CMEs is the opening of previously closed field lines. It has been conjectured that, for simple geometries, the energy stored in pre-eruption closed force-free fields can never exceed that of a fully open coronal magnetic field with the same boundary conditions (Aly, 1991 Sturrock, 1991). This has been confirmed by numerical experiments (e.g. Mikic and Linker, 1994). Thus, if a CME was required to open all of the field then the energy source could not be solely magnetic in nature. The Aly-Sturrock conjecture has also been found to apply to more complex magnetic topologies, most notably ones which contain a current-carrying fluxrope of the type often used to model filaments (e.g. Lin et al., 1998). The impact of the Aly-Sturrock conjecture has...

Interstellar probe Mission

With the successful flight of the solar-powered ion propulsion system on the Deep Space 1 mission, and the numerous electric propulsion systems in use by Earth-orbiting spacecraft, it was now possible to consider the use of electric propulsion for more ambitious deep-space applications.4 However, solar power is not a feasible option for an electric propulsion system on a fast mission into interstellar space the spacecraft does not spend enough time close to the Sun to build up adequate velocity and the farther you get from the Sun, the less power you can generate to drive your propulsion system. The Interstellar Probe study team estimated that a mission to the outer solar system would require a solar collector with a mass estimated to be in the order of 50,000 kilograms in order to collect enough power for an 11-year trip time with electric propulsion. Given the relatively high power levels required to achieve fast trip times, a small fission reactor capable of producing tens of...

Al11 Exploration for waterice

Extremely robust mobility will not be required at first. The lander must have a smooth surface to land on, and the smoothest surfaces are often found in the floors of large craters. The robot would then deploy from the lander and explore within the confines of that single crater. Because continuous solar power will not be available when the first robots arrive (the infrastructure needed will not yet be in place), they will use batteries or fuel cells. The instruments and tools will be based on flight-proven or commercial systems. A six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm with stereo vision, onboard lighting, and an end effector will allow multiple views at varying distances. Additional instrumentation might include color cameras with filter wheels to provide spectral information for geologic interpretation. The first robotic explorer might have a capability of handling 10 kg of regolith over a one-month time period, representing up to 100 individual samples.

Space Weather Effects On Soho

SOHO is designed to withstand the effects of the varying flux of high energy particles encountered in its L1 Halo orbit. These effects can be separated at least into three classes. First we will discuss the effects on the spacecraft (service module and solar panels) and then the effects on the different scientific instruments. A brief summary of efforts to prevent interruptions to the daily operation of the spacecraft is also discussed.

Lasermaser Sailing Fundamentals

Perhaps because particle-beam techniques are of military significance in missile defence schemes, more research has been published on optical laser or microwave laser (maser) application to spacecraft acceleration. This work leans heavily upon studies of solar power stations (SPS) in space that beam energy to Earth by

A14 Robotic explorations of the lower latitudes

Robotic rovers that operate with a combination of supervisory and autonomous control will begin to explore the lower latitudes (closer to the equator) on Magellan routes - paths that remain in sunlight at all times - so that solar power can be used as the principal power source. They would require more autonomy than past rovers, due to the 14-day traverse of the lunar far side (Teti et al., 2005). Their autonomous system software will include guidance algorithms for long-range route planning (based on LRO data) as well as short-range planning to avoid obstacles detected by sensors. They will be able to recognize features to determine their current position, in a method that may be similar to the way that Clementine's StarTracker cameras provided navigation guidance by recognizing constellations. The software must also manage strategies for re-planning routes when necessary, and for continuously pointing its solar panels towards the Sun.

Electromagnetic Radiation

Most of the energy in the Sun's electromagnetic spectrum is contained within wavelengths ranging from about 0.2 to 3 m (see Figure 6.2), ranging from short wavelength ultraviolet radiation, through visible light, to longer wavelength infrared (heat) radiation. The most obvious effect of this radiation on an orbiting spacecraft is the thermal heating that it causes. For an Earth-orbiting spacecraft, the solar power falling on every square meter of surface presented to the Sun is about 1.4 kilowatts, so that the heat input to the spacecraft surfaces is substantial. By contrast, a spacecraft in a LEO usually enters Earth's shadow on each orbit, and when this happens the vehicle's surface temperature drops drastically. Management of this thermal cycling is a critical job to be done by the thermal control subsystem engineer (see Chapter 9) to ensure that the equipment inside the spacecraft does not suffer a damaging level of temperature variation.

A233 Picking up rocks

Although it is not useful for cleaning spacesuits, brushing (perhaps using an electrostatic or magnetic brush) may be effective for cleaning other items, such as tools and equipment (e.g., solar power cells or other hard, smooth surfaces). Dust was a serious problem during the Apollo missions (Sullivan, 1994). Dust got into areas where the release bolts were located and made it difficult to deploy some experiments. It is likely that dust caused some of the equipment to fail early, and it is known that the accumulated dust on surfaces caused a gradual increase in the operating temperatures of the instruments (Bates et al., 1979). A brush end effector mounted on a mobile robot would be able to clean equipment on the lunar surface when dust has built up on the equipment to the point that its effectiveness is compromised. Trade studies are needed to determine the efficiency of brushing away dust from surfaces as opposed to making all of the surfaces dust-repellant.

Calculating Orbital Parameters

The solar energy received at the top of the atmosphere in one true solar day is a function of the total solar irradiance (S), the latitude the tilt of the Earth's orbit on the ecliptic (e) and the Earth-Sun distance (r). This distance is known from the length of the semi-major axis (a) of the Earth's orbit, its eccentricity (e) and the true anomaly (v) giving the position of the Earth on its orbit. Figure 1 and the key to symbols at the end of this chapter may be referred to for a definition of the various angles. Given that the seasons are defined by reference to the vernal equinox (V.E.), v is expressed as the difference between the longitude of the Earth (X) to the vernal equinox, and that of the perihelion (ro). An astronomical theory of palsoclimates is built on the hypothesis that the evolution of climate is somehow determined by the seasonal and spatial distribution of insolation. This distribution is a functional of a, e, e and ro. It therefore links the evolution of climate...

Trapped Particle Radiation

Solar panels suffer radiation damage, which causes the amount of power they produce from sunlight to decrease with time. A spacecraft in this type of orbit for many years may suffer a power loss up to 50 of the solar panel's original output. However, the power subsystem engineer is able to predict the likely deterioration for the particular type of orbit flown, and make due allowance in the spacecraft's design. Other electronic components onboard are also subject to radiation damage, but unlike solar panels, they can be shielded to some degree from the energetic particles by increasing the thickness of the walls of the metal boxes (typically made of aluminium) in which they are usually mounted. However, this needs to be done carefully as it will increase the spacecraft's mass, and as we have seen in Chapter 5, an increase in mass means a larger, more expensive launch vehicle. Another way of providing radiation protection, which goes some way toward solving this mass-growth problem, is...

Lowcost Missions Take

Encounters and comet asteroid rendezvous. More advanced missions could sweep up gas and dust from comets and upon returning to the vicinity of Earth release an entry capsule to enable the material to be thoroughly analyzed. However, like HER, such sampling would do little to preserve the physical and chemical states of the material. An even more ambitious mission could land on the nucleus of a comet to collect and preserve a sample. A spacecraft could use a Mars slingshot to enter an orbit that would facilitate fast flybys of some main belt asteroids and close-in slow encounters with others. Another proposal was to configure the Mariner Mark II bus (for once powered by solar panels instead of RTGs) for the Planetary Observer-class Mars Geoscience Climatology Orbiter mission. However, most Mariner Mark II missions would be devoted to the outer planets of the solar system, starting from Saturn. A Saturn orbiter could deliver a capsule to the atmosphere of either Saturn or Titan at the...

Oast2 A Technology Testbed

The TES experiment consisted of two GAS canisters affixed to the Hitchhiker bridge, one of which contained a 'salt' of lithium fluoride and the other of lithium fluoride and calcium difluoride eutectic. After activation by Mission Specialist Pierre Thuot early on 5 March, TES collected and stored solar energy which was converted into electricity while in Earth's shadow. As the salts in the GAS canisters absorbed thermal energy, they slowly melted and expanded by up to 30 . Then, when cooled, they solidified and shrank, creating 'voids' in the salts which affected their heat-absorption rates.

The Other Planets In Our Solar System 571 The signature of solar variability from other planets

Variations in Venus's brightness temperature should in principle be coherent with Earth's temperatures if they both are driven by changes in the solar energy output. A strong coherent signal may furthermore be indicative of common feedback mechanisms on Earth and Venus responsible for amplifying the effect. But it is also possible that a feedback mechanism only takes place on one planet. Hence, one question is does the surface brightness temperature of other planets vary, and is it coherent with the temperature fluctuations on Earth For such studies, one needs long, high-quality time-series to reduce the risk of coincidence.23

Getting Started With Solar

Getting Started With Solar

Do we really want the one thing that gives us its resources unconditionally to suffer even more than it is suffering now? Nature, is a part of our being from the earliest human days. We respect Nature and it gives us its bounty, but in the recent past greedy money hungry corporations have made us all so destructive, so wasteful.

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