Info

In this chapter, the high-resolution frame H2 is centered on the principal ground point, H1 is to the north of H2, .g and H3 is to the south of the central frame. The locations 35 of the high-resolution subframes are shown precisely on the [J^i corresponding medium-resolution frames, except that high-^^ resolution frame LO5-006H is marked on LO5-008M and o LO5-015 on LO5-014M. e

Figure 10.5. This figure labels the principal ground points and approximate total area of coverage of the medium-resolution Lunar Orbiter photos included in this chapter.

Rozhdestvensky iPoinsot iMezentsev

EmdenQ

Sommerfelc

Hippocrates

§tebbins

Garnot

Pelterie

Charlier

V, ^Covalevskaya

L05-029M Sun Elevation: 10.51° Distance: 2673.36 km

The proposed Near Side Megabasin is so large that its rim extends over both poles. This and the photo on the next page show the northern rim of the Near Side Megabasin in the vicinity of Birkhoff. The sun angle is not favorable to show either rim or scarp here. The Carnot and Rowland events have followed the Birkhoff Basin event, but Carnot appears older and may have been in the pre-Nectarian Period.

Pre-Nectarian

Birkhoff Basin, 330km Fowler, 146 km Stebbins, 1 31 km

Nectarian

Carnot, PN?, 126km Rowland, 1 71 km Sommerfeld, 169 km

Early Imbrian

Heymans, 50 km

Late Imbrian

Kovalevskaya, 1 15 km

Eratosthenian

Kirkwood, 67 km

L05-008M

Sun Elevation: 7.54°

Distance: 2753.15 km

East of the Birkhoff Basin is the even larger (and earlier) Coulomb-Sarton Basin. Ejecta from Birkhoff obscured the older basin. In the case of this photo, nearly all of the region of best coverage can be seen in high-resolution mosaics.

Pre-Nectarian

Birkhoff Basin, 530 km Coulomb-Sarton Basin, 530 km Landau, 214 km Stebbins, 1 31 km

Nectarian

Carnot, PN?, 128 km Coulomb, PN?, 89 km Sarton, 69 km Sommerfeld, 169 km

Late Imbrian

Kovalevskaya, 1 15 km

Copernican

Robertson, 88 km

This area is northeast of Korolev and northwest of the Hertzsprung Basin. The ejecta blanket of Hertz-sprung forms the upper layer of most of the area shown in this image. It overlays many of the features here, including the largest crater in this image, Mach.

Pre-Nectarian

Fowler, 146 km Gadomski, 65 km Mach, 1 80 km Schlesinger, 97km Tsander, 1 81 km

Nectarian

Carnot, PN?, 128 km Joule, 96 km Kibal'chich, 92 km

Early Imbrian

Artem'ev, 67 km

Late Imbrian

Blazhko, 54 km

150 W 130 W

130 W

irkhoff

Charlier ¡LKovalevskaya riting

OlFersman

Hertzsprung

130 W

L05-028M

Sun Elevation: 7.79°

Distance: 5265.72 km

This is the first of the photos taken from Lunar Orbiter 5 while it was still in a high orbit. The high-resolution subframes label additional features. The ejecta blanket of the Hertzsprung Basin constitutes the upper layer in most of this image but the blanket of the Orientale Basin (to the southeast) covers much of Hertzsprung itself, as well as Poynting and Fersman. Clementine brightness images show an extensive ray pattern associated with Vavilov.

Pre-Nectarian

Fowler, 146 km Mach, 1 80 km Schlesinger, 97 km

Nectarian

Carnot, PN?, 128km Fersman, El?, 151 km Joule, 96 km Poynting, 128 km Hertzsprung Basin, 570 km

Late Imbrian

Kovalevskaya, 1 1 5 km

Copernican

Vavilov, 98 km

andau vskaya

ibhelson rtzsprung

W 1Z0 w andau vskaya ibhelson rtzsprung

W 1Z0 w

L05-024M

Sun Elevation: 7.57°

Distance: 5272.21km

Landau and the Coulomb-Sarton Basin have been covered by ejecta from the Birkhoff Basin. The eastern parts of those features have later been covered by ejecta from the Orientale Basin. There are linear features from the Orien-tale Basin near the terminator, like the chain of secondary craters in the southern part of the Hertzsprung Basin.

Pre-Nectarian

Landau, 214 km

Nectarian

Fersman, El?, 1 51 km Hertzsprung Basin, 570km Michelson, 1 23 km Poynting, 128 km

Late Imbrian

Kovalevskaya, 115km

-120w iror

L05-014M

Sun Elevation: 2.64°

Distance: 6000.34 km

The Orientale Basin is bounded by Montes Cordillera. Key

Robertson (88 km) and Ohm are very young craters. Pre-Nectarian

See L05-015H2 for a high-resolution view of them and a Landau, 214 km discussion of their ages.

Early Imbrian

Montes Cordillera, 930km Orientale Basin, 930km

Eratosthenian

Ohm,64km

Nectarian

Michelson, 1 23 km

Late Imbrian

Mare Orientale

Copernican

Robertson, 88 km

This photo, at the west edge of the southern tier of this region, shows major features surrounding the Korolev Basin. Doppler, Galois, and Oppenheimer are within the interior of the South Pole-Aitken Basin. Jackson, Mineur (73 km), and Mach are in the Eastern Far Side Region near the boundary of the Northwestern Far Side Region.

Pre-Nectarian

Galois, 222 km Mach, 180km Tsander, 1 81 km

Nectarian

Korolev Basin, 440 km Oppenheimer, 208 km

Eratosthenian

Doppler, 1 1 0 km

Copernican

Jackson, 71 km

L05-030M

Distance: 5391.42 km

L05-030M

Sun Elevation: 6.49°

Distance: 5391.42 km

The Apollo Basin is within the South Pole-Aitken Basin, as are Minkowski and Numerov. Galois, Mach, and Vavilov are in the Eastern Far Side Region. The ejecta blanket of the Hertzsprung Basin covers the northern half of this area. The western rim of Hertzsprung touches Vavilov.

Pre-Nectarian

Apollo Basin, 505 km Galois, 222 km Mach, 180 km Minkkowski, 1 13 km Paschen, 124 km

Nectarian

Kibal'chich, 92 km Numerov, 1 1 3 km

Copernican

Vavilov, 98 km

Brouwer

) Lucretius ridman polsky

Brouwer

M in ko w Lemaitre

izeau

\ Zeeman

A

éf

■ v. '¡itwssa

»

P

KV"

I\S fe

m, ^

Èki

¡\s8jHM

Distance: 5380.83 km

L05-026M

Sun Elevation: 5.12°

Distance: 5380.83 km

The ejecta blanket of the Orientale Basin extends westward to about the 130° west meridian. This blanket overlies part of the Hertzsprung Basin. Fizeau and Fridman have deposited their ejecta over the Orientale blanket.

Pre-Nectarian

Minkowski, 11 3 km

Nectarian

Brouwer, El?, 158 km Chebyshev, 178 km Hertzsprung Basin, 570km Zeeman, 190 km

Late Imbrian

Fridman (Friedmann), 102 km

1S0W 15CW

eeman

130 W 120 W

L05-022M

eeman

130 W 120 W

L05-022M

Sun Elevation: 5.34°

Distance: 5441.61 km

The terminator in this photo is near 110° west longitude, so it is quite close to the limb. Montes Cordillera is the rim of the Orientale Basin. The Orientale Basin and the Imbrium Basin had all or parts of their circular rims named as mountain ranges before they were recognized as the rims of basins. Many ridges, troughs, and crater chains such as Catena Michelson radiate from Orientale.

Pre-Nectarian

Blackett, 141 km

Nectarian

Brouwer, El?, 158 km Chebyshev, 178 km Mendel, El?, 138 km Zeeman, 190 km

Early Imbrian

Montes Cordillera, 930km

Late Imbrian

Fizeau, 1 1 1 km Lucritius, 63 km

Pre-Nectarian

Stebbins, St, 131 km

See L05-008 for the location of these subframes. The ejecta blanket of the Birkhoff Basin covers this area. Later craters such as Sommerfeld, Kirkwood, and Hipppocrates have modified this ejecta blanket, without changing its character. They have added their crater chains in an interlaced pattern, including contributions from Rowland and Stebbins.

Pre-Nectarian

Stebbins, St, 131 km

Nectarian

Sommerfeld, S, 169km

Early Imbrian

Heymans, He, 50 km

Unassigned

Hippocrates, H, 60km Kirkwood, K, 67km

Merrill, Me, 57km Mezentsev (M, 89 km) Niepce (N, 57km) Noether (No, 67 km) Thiessen (T, 66 km)

This mosaic shows the Birkhoff Basin and its eastern ejecta. The great age of this feature is established by the large numbers of craters of considerable size within the basin and in its ejecta blanket. The floor of Stebbins has been resurfaced. If it is mare material, the viscosity must have been higher than is usual. The striations between Dyson and Zsigmondy may be coming from Sommerfeld.

Pre-Nectarian

Stebbins, S 1 31 km Birkhoff Basin, B, 330km

Nectarian

Unassigned

Dyson, D, 63 km Kramers, K, 81 km Omar Khayyam, O, 70 km Van't Hoff, V, 92 km Zsigmondy, Z, 65 km

L05-029H1 (left), 025H1 (center), and L05-006H1 (right) Sun Elevation: -8° Distance: -5270 km

There are indications that mare has invaded the floor of Carnot, KeY

especially in its northeast sector. Carnot has succeeded not only Birkhoff (preceding page),but also Esnault-Pelterie, which might also be even older than Birkhoff. Fowler and Schlesinger came before Birkhoff and carry the marks of its ejecta and possibly Carnot's as well. Esnault-Pelterie followed Birkhoff, but later received ejecta from Carnot. An area of dark plains has formed northeast of Weber.

Pre-Nectarian

Fowler, F, 146 km Schlesinger, Sc, 97km

Nectarian

Early Imbrian

Gullstrand, G, 43 km

Unassigned

Kramers, K, 81 km

Perrine, P, 86km Rynin, R, 75 km Stefan, St, 125 km Von Zeipel, V, 83 km Weber, W, 42 km Wegener, We, 88 km Wood, Wo, 78 km

Pre-Nectarian

Fowler, F, 146 km

Nectarian

Poynting, P, 128 km

L05-032H (Left) and L05-031H (Right) Sun Elevation: ~1.5°; Distance: ~1600 km

This mosaic is composed of subframes whose information content has suffered from extremely low sun elevation. The floors of craters are fully shadowed and some of the rims throw shadows on their ejecta blankets. On the other hand, the photo is valuable because the texture of relatively flat areas between craters is emphasized. This area is within the ejecta blanket of Hertzsprung and the northern part of the image has received an additional layer of ejecta from Orientale.

This region appears in better light in subframe LO28 H2 on the page after next.

Pre-Nectarian

Fowler, F, 146 km

Nectarian

Poynting, P, 128 km

Unassigned

Bronk, B, 64 km Kekule, K, 94 km Sanford, S, 55 km Teisserenc, T, 62 km c

L05-028H3

Distance: -5270 km

L05-028H3

Distance: -5270 km

This view of the Birkhoff Basin from the south shows how Rowland and Carnot modified its rim. The crater chains that cross Rowland, Carnot, Esnault-Pelterie, and Schlesinger appear to come from D'Alembert to the west, establishing D'Alemebert as the youngest of these Nectarian craters.

Pre-Nectarian

Birkhoff Basin, 330km Charlier, 99 km Fowler, 146 km Schlesinger, 97km Von Zeipel, 83 km

Nectarian

Carnot, 126 km Rowland, 171 km Esnault-Pelterie, PN?, 79km

Most of this area contains overlapping pre-Nectarian craters like KeY

Charlier. Poynting came later and Fersman came after Poynting. Pre-Mectarian

Kovalevskaya was the last to arrive on this scene and is nearly Charlier, 99 km unmarked. A tongue of Orientlale ejecta reaches out between Bronk and Kovaleskaya.

Nectarian

Fersman, El?, 53 km Joule, 96 km Poynting, 128 km

Late Imbrian

Kovalevskaya, 115km

Vavilov, on the main ring of the Hertzsprung Basin, is nearly free of later impacts. It also has a ray pattern. The inner ring of Hertzsprung (265 km) is shown clearly here, as is an intermediate ring (410km) that passes under Kuo Shou Ching (34km).

Pre-Mectarian

Hertzsprung Basin, 570 km

Nectarian

Kibal'chich, 92 km Sechenov, 62 km Timiryazev, 53 km

Early Imbrian

Artem'ev, 67km

Copernican

Vavilov, 98 km

L05-024H3

Distance: -5270 km

L05-024H3

Distance: -5270 km

The characterisitics of large craters are similar to those of small basins. This image includes both the Birkhoff Basin and the large crater Landau. They have similar ejecta blankets, each with a typical pattern of radial troughs and ridges but only Birkhoff has an inner ring. The Coulomb-Sarton Basin is between Birkhoff and Landau, formed at an even earlier time. Kramers and Sarton are at its inner ring. The craters that have been used to name the Coulomb-Sarton Basin are related only by position.

Pre-Nectarian

Birkhoff Basin, 330km Charlier, 99 km

Nectarian

Carnot, 126 km Coulomb, 89km

Early Imbrian

Gullstrand, 43 km Thiel, 32km

Coulomb-Sarton Basin, 630 km Sarton, 69km

Landau, 214km

Schlesinger, 97km

L05-024H2 Sun Elevation: 7.57° Distance: 5272.21 km

The northern half of this subframe exhibits ejecta, including chains of craters, from the Hertzsprung Basin. In the southern half, ejecta from the younger Orientale Basin dominate. Because of this double bombardment, age assignments of many craters in this region and to (lie south are uncertain.

Pre-Nectarian Nectarian Late Imbrian

Charlier, 99km Fersman, LI?, 151 km Kovalevskaya, 1 15km Weyl, N?, 108 km

Distance: -5270 km

Sun Elevation: ~8(

L05-024H1

This is a view of the eastern portion of the Hertzsprung Basin, showing the structure of its main ring (570 km) and inner ring (265 km). There are two fainter and discontinuous internal rings at diameters of 140 km and 410 km. Orientale sent sprays of secondary impactors that form chains of craters, including Catena Michelson, and Catena Lucretius in this area. However, the north-central region of Hertzsprung was either spared or resurfaced with mare.

Nectarian

Hertzberg Basin, 570km Michelson, 123 km

Early Imbrian

Grigg, 36 km

Late Imbrian

Lucretius, 63 km

L05-015H3

Distance: -6000 km

L05-015H3

Distance: -6000 km

The Lorentz Basin is older than Birkhoff but younger than the Coulomb-Sarton Basin. Lorentz extends all the way to (lie eastern limb of the far side (the western limb of the near side). Northwest of Winlock, the ejecta blanket of Lorentz dominates, but to the southwest it is covered with ejecta from the Orientale blanket.

Pre-Nectarian

Coulomb-Sarton Basin Landau, 214km Lorentz Basin, 360 km

Nectarian

Coulomb, El?, 89km

Early Imbrian

Gullstrand, 43 km

Late Imbrian

Lacchini, 58 km

L05-015H2

Sun Elevation: 2.63°

Distance: 6000.34 km mm

L05-015H2

Sun Elevation: 2.63°

Robertson and Ohm are young, sharply defined craters. Robertson has been classified as Copernican and Ohm as Eratosthenian but Clementine brightness data shows that Ohm has a strong ray pattern and Robertson has none. This is evidence for reversing the classifications. This area is close to the Orientale Basin (next page) and is covered with its ejecta blanket. Catena Leuschner, radial to Orientale, takes its name from the unrelated crater Leuschner.

Late Imbrian

Butlerov, 40 km Pease, 38 km

Erastothenian

Leuschner, 49 km Ohm, 64 km

Distance: 6000.34 km

Copernican

Robertson, 88 km

At last we encounter the Orientale Basin, the source of the ejecta blanket, crater chains, and other secondary craters on previous pages. The western ejecta blanket is revealed in great detail here. The rim of this basin is named Montes Cordillera. Inside the rim, Orientale has a pair of rings, the smaller the inner ring and the larger the intermediate ring. Montes Rook is the name of the complex composed of these two rings. A fuller presentation of this basin is in the Orientale Limb Region chapter.

Early Imbrian

Montes Cordillera, 930km Montes Rook, 620/480 km Orientale Basin, 930km

Late Imbrian

Kearons, 23 km Lowell, 66 km

Eratosthenian

Grachev, 43 km

L05-030H3

WJ<m

Distance: -5390 km

L05-030H3

Distance: -5390 km

This image includes part of the Korolev Region. The ejecta blanket of the Hertzsprung Basin dominates this subframe; Vavilov is mostly inside the rim of that basin, and Chaucer is outside of the rim. Although Korolev and Hertzsprung are both Nectarian, it is clear that the Korolev impact was earlier in that period. Paschen and Tsander have been buried by both Korolev and Hertzsprung.

Pre-Nectarian Nectarian

Galois, 222 km Chaucer, 45 km Paschen, 133 km Hertzsprung Basin, 670 km Tsander, 1 81 km Kibal'chich, 92 km

Korolev Basin, 440 km Sechenov, 62 km Timiryazev, 53 km

Early Imbrian

Artem'ev, 67km

Late Imbrian

Dirichlet, 47km

Copernican

Vavilov, 98 km

L05-030H2

Sun Elevation: 6.49'

Distance: 5391.42 km

Mariotte has double boundary roles. It is at the edge of the ejecta blanket of the Hertzsprung Basin and it is on the rim of the South Pole-Aitken Basin. Kleymanov is on the rim of the Apollo Basin; Das has a significant ray pattern that is not visible here, but is revealed by Clementine data.

Pre-Nectarian

Apollo Basin, 505 km Galois 222 km South Pole-Aitken Basin, 2500km

Nectarian

Chebyshev, PN?, 1778 km

Late Imbrian

Mariotte, 65 km

Copernican

Das, 38 km

(Hendrix

Distance: -5390 km

L05-030H1

Distance: -5390 km

The area of this entire subframe is within the South Pole-Aitken Basin. Buffon is on that basin's rim. The crater chains crossing the resurfaced mare area between Cori and Hendrix are radial to the Orientale Basin, to the northeast. If they are from that basin, the last lava flow here was in the Early Imbrian Period at the latest.

Pre-Nectarian

Apollo Basin, 505 km Minkowski, 1 1 3 km

Nectarian

Bhaba, 64km Bose, 91 km Buffon, 106 km

Early Imbrian

Borman, 50km

This view of the Hertzsprung Basin from the south shows excellent definition of its ring structure. The inner and intermediate rings are particularly well defined in this image. Catena Lucretius is formed by aligned secondary impactors from the Orientale Basin and is representative of many such crater chains.

Pre-Nectarian Late Imbrian Copernican

Hertzsprung Basin, 570km Kuo Shou Ching, 34km Vavilov, 98km

Lucretius, 63 km Nectarian Fridman (Friedman), 102 km

Chaucer, 45 km Michelson, 123 km

Nectarian Late Imbrian Copernican

Brouwer, PN? 158 km Mariotte, 65km Das, 38km

Chebyshev, PN? 178 km

This area, south of the Hertzsprung Basin and east of the ApolloBasin,has been subject to several major influences. It covers the northeast sector of the South Pole-Aitken Basin and craters such as Chebyshev and Brouwer are on or near that basin's rim. Then Hertzsprung threw its ejecta as far as Chebyshev. Later, the Orientale Basin's ejecta also reached Chebyshev.

Nectarian Late Imbrian Copernican

Brouwer, PN? 158 km Mariotte, 65km Das, 38km

Chebyshev, PN? 178 km

L05-026H1

Sun Elevation: ~5'

Distance: -5380 km

The area within the dashed elipse is the flat floor of the South Pole-Aitken Basin and the area outside of the line is the slope rising to the rim. This area has clearly been resurfaced, perhaps in the pre-Nectarian Period. Both Lemaitre and Fizeau are Nec-tarian, but Fizeau is younger; ejecta from Fizeau is on the ejecta blanket of Lemaitre. Striations from the southeast running north of Fizeau are from the Mendel-Rydberg Basiin, all the way from the limb.

Pre-Nectarian Nectarian Late Imbrian

Minkowski, 1 13km Bhaba, 64km Fizeau, 1 1 1 km

Bose, 91 km Buffon, 106 km Lemaitre, 91 km

Leuschnér rachev

Orentale Basin m /¡flip ta* * éfc" * * t ,, , saf : teVir^

Montes

Sun Elevation: 5° Distance: -5440 km

L05-022H3

This subframe shows the area between the Hertzsprung Basin and the Orientale Basin. Since Orientale came later, its ejecta pattern dominates the area. Three named crater chains Catena Lucretius, Catena Michelson, and Catena Leuschner illustrate how the multitude of striations here converge on their sources in the Orientale Basin. Montes Cordillera continues on the next page.

Nectarian

Hertzsprung Basin, 570 km Michelson, 123 km

Early Imbrian

Montes Cordillera, 930km Orientale Basin, 930km

Late Imbrian

Lucretius, 63 km

Eratosthenian

Grachev, 35 km Leuschner, 49km

Pre-Nectarian Nectarian Early Imbrian

Blackett, N?, 141 km Brouwer, El?, 158 km Montes Cordillera, 930 km

Houzeau, 71 km Chebyshev, El?, 178 km Orientale Basin, 930km

This image shows the southwest ejecta blanket of the Orientale Basin. The heavy, continuous part of the ejecta blanket ends as it approaches Chebyshev, Langmuir, and Brouwer. The low sun elevation shows the stringy nature of its texture. Blackett has been covered with continuous ejecta from more than one source; there are also striations from the earlier Mendel-Rydberg Basin (next page). The apparent bending of the Orientale striations on the floor of Blackett is probably due to the oblique view of this deep crater.

Pre-Nectarian Nectarian Early Imbrian

Blackett, N?, 141 km Brouwer, El?, 158 km Montes Cordillera, 930 km

Houzeau, 71 km Chebyshev, El?, 178 km Orientale Basin, 930km

From Orientale

South Pole-Aitken

Distance: -5440 km

L05-022H1

Sun Elevation: 5°

Distance: -5440 km

The Mendel-Rydberg Basin is to the southeast of Mendel. Some evidence of its ejecta is here, underneath the more obvious Orientale ejecta. The continuous Orientale ejecta blanket extends to Lippman, Fizeau, Karrer, and Buffon. The low albedo to the lower left, within the South Pole-Aitken Basin between Lippmann and Stoney has been confirmed by the Clementine mission. It is not so dark as mare in the floors of Karrer and Baldett and may have had its albedo raised by powdered ejecta from Orientale.

Pre-Nectarian

Lippman, 1 80 km Minkowski, 1 1 3 km

Nectarian

Buffon, 106 km Eijkman, 54km Karrer, 51 km Mendel, El?, 138 km Mendel-Rydberg Basin, 630 km

Late Imbrian

Fizeau, 1 1 1 km Stetson, 64 km

Chapter 11

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