Table of Contents

1. The Far Side of the Moon 1

1.1. The Far Side Unknown: A Mystery 1

1.2. The Far Side Revealed: A New Mystery 1

1.3. The Current View of the Far Side 1

1.4. Mystery Resolved? The Near Side Megabasin 3

2. The Spacecraft Missions and Images 5

2.1. Spacecraft programs 5

Luna 3 and Zond 3 5

Lunar Orbiter 5

Apollo 5

Clementine 5

Lunar Prospector 5 w

Nozomi 5 g

2.2. The images 6 IE

Luna 3 and Zond 3 6 v

Lunar Orbiter 6

Apollo 8

Clementine 8 "o

Nozomi 9 -5

3. The History of the Moon and its Features 10

3.1. Origin of the Moon 10

3.2. The Magma Ocean 10

3.3. Bombardment 10

3.4. The Near Side Megabasin 10

3.5. The South Pole-Aitken Basin 11

3.6. Impact features: craters and basins 11

3.7. Mare Basalt 11

3.8. The Ages of the Lunar Features 12

Named Age Ranges of the Moon 12

4. Regions of the Far Side 14

4.1. The Western Far Side Region 14

4.2. The Korolev Basin Region 14

4.3. The South Pole-Aitken Basin and the South Polar Region 14

4.4. The Northwestern Far Side Region 14

4.5. The Eastern Far Side Region 14

4.6. The North Polar Region 14

4.7. The Orientale Limb Region 14

5. Nomenclature and Conventions of this Book 16

5.1. Identification of Named Features 16

Annotated Images 16

Spelling of Feature Names 16

Features Identified on High-Resolution Images 16

Lettered Craters 16

5.2. Identification of Basins 16

5.3. Latitude and Longitude 16

5.4. Scale and Age 17

6. The Western Far Side Region: Earth-rise, Tsiolkovskiy,

Gagarin, and the Mendeleev Basin 18

6.1. Overview 18

6.2. Photos 18

Lunar Orbiter Medium-Resolution Frames 18

Lunar Orbiter High-Resolution Subframes 18

7. The Korolev Basin Region 51

7.1. Overview 51

7.2. Photos 51

Lunar Orbiter Medium-Resolution Frames 51

Lunar Orbiter High-Resolution Subframes 51

8. The South Pole-Aitken Basin and the South Polar Region 60

8.1. Overview 60

8.2. Clementine 60

8.3. Clementine and Lunar Orbiter Coverage 60

w Clementine Mosaics 60

S Lunar Orbiter Medium-Resolution Frames 63

e Lunar Orbiter High-Resolution Subframes 63

UP 9. The Northwestern Far Side Region: The Moscoviense Basin 94

9.2. The Moscoviense Basin 94

Lunar Orbiter Medium-Resolution Frames 94

Lunar Orbiter High-Resolution Subframes 94

10. The Eastern Far Side Region: Birkhoff to Hertzsprung 124

10.1. Overview 124

10.2. The Birkhoff Basin 124

10.3. The Hertzsprung Basin 124

10.4. Rayed Craters 124

10.5. Photos 124

Lunar Orbiter Medium-Resolution Frames 124

Lunar Orbiter High-Resolution Subframes 125

11. The North Polar Far Side Region 160

11.1. Overview 160

11.2. The Western Far Side Limb (Eastern Near Side Limb) 160

11.3. Bel'kovich K, a Copernican Crater 160

11.4. Clementine Mosaics 160

12. The Orientale Limb Region 172

12.1. Overview 172

12.2. The Crater Hausen 172

12.3. Radial Profile of the Orientale Basin 172

12.4. Photos 172

Lunar Orbiter Medium-Resolution Frames 172

Lunar Orbiter High-Resolution Subframes 172

13. The Near Side Megabasin 194

13.1. How the Far Side Differs from the Near Side and Why 194

13.2. Impact Basin Models: The Search for the Source of the Far Side Crust 194

13.3. The Near Side Megabasin and its Effects on the Far Side 196

Internal Basin and Rim 196

Ejecta Blanket 196

Ejecta from Antipode to Escape Scarp 197

Antipode Bulge 197

Model Compared to Measurement 197

13.4. The South Pole-Aitken Basin and its Effects on the Near Side. . . . 198 Model Compared to Measurement 198

13.5. Thickness of the Crust 198

13.6. Parameters of the Near Side Megabasin 199

13.7. Asymmetry of the Center of Mass 199

13.8. Heavy Element Anomalies 199

13.9. Summary 200

Glossary 201

References 203

Appendix A: Cleaning the Scanning Artifacts from Lunar Orbiter Photos 204

General Index 207

Index of Annotated Features

Index of Far Side Features that are not Annotated Index of Photographs

209 j2

Chapter 1

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