Saturn V

Although a lunar mission using Saturn I rockets might have been feasible, the lunar-orbit rendezvous mission that NASA eventually settled on required a much larger and more powerful launch vehicle. This rocket was the Saturn V, the largest rocket ever to fly successfully. Masterminded again by the rocket team at Huntsville's Marshall Space Flight Center, it built on, but did not replicate, the technology of the Saturn I. Fifteen of these giants were ultimately built.

Rocketdyne

liquid hydrogen suction line

Rocketdyne J-2 engine ullage fairing top forward skirt outer Rocketdyne F-1 engines pivot to steer first stage manufacturers Boeing, North American, Douglas

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liquid oxygen suction line thrust structure prevents engines from pushing into tank above liquid hydrogen suction line

Rocketdyne J-2 engine ullage fairing top forward skirt height 110.6m (363ft)

maximum diameter 10.1m (33ft)

weight at launch 3,038,500kg (6,699,000lb)

unfuelleo weight 183,395kg (404,317lb)

engines 5 x Rocketdyne F-1

thrust at launch 3,440,344kgf (7,584,582lbf)

DESIGN MOCK-UPS

One of the first tasks at Huntsville was to design engineering models for testing weight characteristics, dimensions, and aerodynamics. This is a full-size mock-up of the S-IC first stage.

manufacturers Boeing, North American, Douglas

ON THE MOVE

A prototype S-IC stage is moved into the Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center, for testing under stresses and loads similar to those encountered during launch.

liquid oxygen suction line thrust structure prevents engines from pushing into tank above outer Rocketdyne F-1 engines pivot to steer first stage

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CONTROLS AND WINDOWS

The Command Module control panels were directly in front of the astronauts, while five windows formed an arc oround the upper half of the CM. Two of these were "rendezvous windows", fitted with a mechanism for use when docking with the LM.

COMMAND MODULE INTERIOR

The three astronauts lay alongside each other on couches during launch and loading. The Commander sat on the left, the Command Module Pilot in the centre, and the Lunar Module Pilot on the right. The open space in the cabin was interrupted by two vertical bars in front of the exit hatch - there to provide structural support in the event of a crash-landing.

APOLLO COMMAND MODULE

The Command Module was the heart of the spacecraft, where the crew spent the majority of their journey to and from the Moon. It remained in lunar orbit as the LM went down to the surface, and it was the only part of the spacecraft to return to Earth.

crew 3

forward heat shield forward hatch main landing chute pitch-down reaction control engine

Apollo Capsule Mockup

instrument panel instrument bay couch impact attenuation device

_astronauts' couches pitch-up reaction-control engine

Command Module

length

3.47m (11ft Sin)

maximum diameter

3.92m (12ft 10.5in)

mass at launch

5,947kg (13,090lb)

engines

12 x Reaction Control System

thrusters, MMH (hydrazine)

and N204 propellant

manufacturer

North American Rockwell yaw reaction-control engine manufacturer

North American Rockwell

Service Module

EARLY APOLLO MODULE MOCK-UP

In 1962, a variety of aerospace contractors were invited to submit designs for the Apollo spacecraft elements. This mock-up Command Module was built by Boeing (the "astronauts" are Boeing staff). However, North American Aviation (later North American Rockwell) won the contract.

APOLLO SERVICE MODULE

The Service Module provided life support, power, and other vital needs to the Command Module throughout the flight. It was also the location of the spacecraft's main propulsion engine and numerous smaller thrusters for adjusting the spacecraft's roll, pitch and yaw.

reaction-control system quod (4-engine cluster)

length

7.56m (24ft 10in)

length

7.56m (24ft 10in)

maximum diameter

3.92m (12ft 10.5in)

mass at launch

24,582kg (54,074lb)

engines

Service Propulsion System:

UDMH/N204; 4 x Reaction Control

System quads: MMH/N204

manufacturer

North American Rockwell

forward hatch main landing chute pitch-down reaction control engine instrument panel instrument bay couch impact attenuation device

_astronauts' couches yaw reaction-control engine reaction-control system quod (4-engine cluster)

pressure system panel

Command Module

Service Module reaction-control system assembly helium tanks service propulsion system tanks service propulsion engine nozzle pressure system panel reaction-control system assembly helium tanks service propulsion system tanks service propulsion engine nozzle

Grumman Lunar Module Hatch Operation

reaction-control system quod (4-engine cluster)

ascent propulsion fuel tank

EXPERIMENTAL LUNAR LANDER

As well as the flying bedstead (see p. 117), NASA's Langley Research Center developed a number of other troining and research vehicles to assess the operation of the LM.

crew 2

height 6.98m (22(1 llin)

Lunar Module Optical Telescope

alignment optical telescope inertial measuring unit landing pad

TECHNOLOGY

THE APOLLO MODULES

The Apollo spacecraft had three separate elements - the Command Module (CM), Service Module (SM), and Lunar Module (LM), although the Command and Service Modules (CSM) remained linked except during re-entry. Compared to that on Gemini, the docking system was far more sophisticated and allowed access directly from one spacecraft to another for the first time.

EXPERIMENTAL LUNAR LANDER

As well as the flying bedstead (see p. 117), NASA's Langley Research Center developed a number of other troining and research vehicles to assess the operation of the LM.

Lunar Module ascent stage gaseous oxygen tank

Modularized Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA)

fuel tank descent engine oxidizer tank

Apollo scientific experiments package lunar surface sensing probe rendezvous radar antenna control console engine cover reaction-control system quod (4-engine cluster)

ascent propulsion fuel tank

LUNAR MODULE MOCK-UP

Awarded the contract to build the LM, Grumman developed a mock-up, the TM-1, that they used to test the astronauts' practical tasks - such as leaving and returning to the capsule - as well as the ergonomics of the internal equipment layout.

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