Cutting Edge Technology

N July 1999 the X-ray observatory known as Chandra was put into orbit. Since then, it has provided important information about the universe and its phenomena. Chandra can make X-ray observations of the heavens with an angular resolution of 0.5 seconds of an arc, 1,000 times greater than the first orbital X-ray telescope, the Einstein Observatory. This characteristic permits it to detect sources of light that are 20 times more diffuse. The group in charge of constructing the X-ray telescope had...

The Moon Without Secrets

Six Apollo missions were able to land on the lunar surface. Apollo 13, because of an oxygen-tank explosion, flew to the Moon but did not make a landing. Through the intelligence and expertise of the astronauts onboard, it was able to return to Earth safely. With the success of these missions, the Moon was no longer unreachable. A dozen men were able to walk on the gray, crunchy lava soil strewn with craters. Each one of these voyages, besides bringing back data, encouraged the development of...