1. David Swift, Voyager tales: Personal views of the Grand Tour (Reston, Va., 1997),


2. Bruce Mazlish, "Following the sun," Wilson Quarterly (autumn 1980): 90-93.

3. Bruce Murray, Journey into space: The first three decades of space exploration (New York, 1989). See also Timothy Ferris, "Ground NASA and start again," New York Times, 16 Mar. 1992.

4. Figure 2 in Office of Science and Technology Policy, "Funding trends in NASA's space science program," Sept. 1984 ( JPL 173, 8/110).

5. Robert Staehle interview, 12 Oct. 2001.

6. E.g. Michael Meltzer, The Galileo mission to Jupiter (Washington, D.C., forthcoming 2006), chap. 1; Jerry Adler, "The riddles of Saturn," Newsweek (24 Nov. 1980).

7. Laurence Bergreen, "Across sands of time and oceans of space," Los Angeles Times, 5 Jan. 2004.

8. The hard-headed Soviets, by contrast, named spacecraft after their objectives, such as Venera, Mars, and Phobos.

9. E.g., Glyndwr Williams, "The Endeavour voyage: A coincidence of motives," in Margarette Lincoln, ed., Science and exploration in the Pacific: European voyages to the southern oceans in the eighteenth century (Suffolk, U.K., 1998), 3-18; John Gascoigne, Science in the service of empire: Joseph Banks, the British state and the uses of science in the age of revolution (Cambridge, 1998); Donald Worster, A river running west: The life of John Wesley Powell (Oxford, 2001), esp. 300-10 on artists.

10. Ed Stone interview, 14 Nov. 2003.

11. Winston Gin conversation, 9 Jan. 2004.

12. Noel Hinners interview, 23 July 2003; Albert D. Wheelon interview, 13 June 2002.

13. Charles Elachi interview, 15 June 2004.

14. Larry Dumas, JPL interview, 24 Sept. 2001.

15. Scholars have noted clear organizational goals as one feature of high-reliability organizations: Gene I. Rochlin, Todd R. LaPorte, and Karlene H. Roberts, "The self-designing high-reliability organization: Aircraft carrier flight operations at sea," Naval War College Review (autumn 1987): 76-90; LaPorte, "The United States air traffic control system: Increasing reliability in the midst of rapid growth," in R. Mayntz and T. Hughes, eds., The development of large technical systems (Boulder, 1988), 215-44. Cf. Charles Perrow, Normal accidents: Living with high-risk technologies (Princeton, 1999), and Scott D. Sagan, The limits of safety: Organizations, accidents, and nuclear weapons (Princeton, 1993).

16. EC minutes, 5 May 1988 ( JPL 198, 25/.342); see also EC retreat minutes, Mar. 1991 ( JPL 165, 7/4).

17. David Baltimore to visiting committee for JPL, 3 Jan. 2001 ( JPL 259, 35/346).

18. Peter J. Westwick, The national labs: Science in an American system, 1947-1974 (Cambridge, 2003).

19. E.g., J. L. Heilbron and Robert W. Seidel, Lawrence and his laboratory (Berkeley, 1989); Peter Galison, Image and logic: A material culture of microphysics (Chicago, 1997).

20. E.g., John Noble Wilford, "A new breed of scientists studying Mars takes control," New York Times, 14 July 1997. On the identification of technology with science, see also Michael L. Smith, "Selling the moon: The U.S. manned space program and the triumph of commodity scientism," in R. W. Fox and T. J. J. Lears, eds., The culture of consumption: Critical essays in American history, 1880-1980 (New York, 1983), 177-236.

21. G. Ervin, in "New technology thrusts," 18-20 May 1983 ( JPL 92, 1/6).

22. John Casani, handwritten notes on EC retreat, 12 Mar. 1992 ( JPL 165, 1/6); James Westphal, interview by Robert Smith, 27 Sept. 1991, NASM.

23. Exceptions include Glenn Bugos, "Manufacturing certainty: Testing and program management for the F-4 Phantom II," Social Studies of Science 23 (1993): 265-300; Thomas P. Hughes, Rescuing Prometheus: Four monumental projects that changed the modern world (New York, 1998); Stephen B. Johnson, The secret of Apollo: Systems management in American and European space programs (Baltimore, 2002); Christophe Lecuyer, "Hightech corporatism: Management-employee relations in U.S. electronics firms, 1920s-1960s," Enterprise & Society, 4:3 (2003): 502-20.

24. H. M. Collins, "LIGO becomes big science," HSPS 33:2 (2003): 261-97, on 271.

25. Raphael Kasper to Lew Allen, 6 Apr. 1990 ( JPL 198, 38/558). Casani was offered the job but declined it: Casani e-mail to author, 12 Aug. 2004.

26. Tony Spear interview, 12 Feb. 2004.

27. Murray interview, 15 Jan. 2002.

28. Fred Felberg to Murray, 23 June 1975 ( JPL 8, 1/34); on lab leadership, see Charles Thorpe and Steven Shapin, "Who was J. Robert Oppenheimer? Charisma and complex organization," Social Studies of Science 30:4 (2000): 545-90; Catherine Westfall, "A tale of two more laboratories: Readying for research at Fermilab and Jefferson Laboratory," HSPS 32:2 (2002): 369-407.

29. John Casani retirement video, 27 Aug. 1999 (courtesy of Susan Foster).

30. Chahine interview, 24 June 2003; Walt Brown interview, 14 Nov. 2002.

31. Chahine interview.

32. On "branding": John Casani interview, 9 Apr. 2004.

33. NASA Advisory Council minutes, 11-12 June 2002 and 10-11 Sept. 2002 (quote). (, accessed 12 Aug. 2004); David Ignatius, "The CIA as venture capitalist," Washington Post, 29 Sept. 1999; Michael Griffin interview, 21 Oct. 2004.

34. James Q. Wilson, Bureaucracy: What government agencies do and why they do it (New York, 1989), 113-15.

35. E.g. Donna Shirley, Managing Martians (New York, 1998); Swift, Voyager tales, also sought managerial lessons.

36. Stone, town hall meeting, 3 May 1995 ( JPL 259, 51/566).

37. Michael Griffin telephone interview, 21 Oct. 2004. The head of DARPA in the early 1980s, Robert S. Cooper, was previously director of Goddard, and one of his successors at DARPA, Raymond Colladay, came from NASA's technology office; the first director of SDI, Lt. Gen. James Abrahamson, had been head of space flight at NASA. And of course Dan Goldin came to lead NASA after managing an SDI program at TRW.

38. Koppes; Joseph N. Tatarewicz, Space technology andplanetary astronomy (Bloom-ington, 1990); Ronald E. Doel, Solar system astronomy in America: Communities, patronage, and interdisciplinary science, 1920-1960 (Cambridge, 1996).

39. David Williamson, Jr., to Murray, 26 Mar. 1980, responding to Pat Rygh, "The JPL NOSS experience," 13 Mar. 1980 ( JPL 8, 7/92).

40. John Cloud and Keith Clarke have proposed a "shuttered box" model for how knowledge gets from secret to public realms. The questions remain: what particular knowledge gets out, and who controls the shutter? John Cloud and Keith C. Clarke, "Through a shutter darkly: The tangled relationships between civilian, military, and intelligence remote sensing in the early U.S. space program," in Judith Reppy, ed., Secrecy and knowledge production (Cornell University Peace Studies Program, Occasional Paper no. 23, 2000), 36-56.

41. Allen to Gregory M. Reck and Wesley Huntress, appendix C, 13 Aug. 1993 ( JPL 259, 87/1268); Noel Hinners supported the view of a persistent disconnect; Hinners interview.

42. Philip K. Eckman, interview by Russ Castonguay, 20 Nov. 2001, JPL archives.

43. DCI Small Satellite Advisory Panel meeting at NRO, Apr. 1996, and "Independent panel review of small satellites," unclassified DCI report, 29 June 1996 ( JPL 259, 53/609 and 54/626). Stone also sat on a Defense Science Board committee on satellite reconnaissance.

44. Meeting between Stone and Lt. Gen. Arnold Kadish, 29 June 2000 ( JPl 259, 70/ 849).

45. Eckman interview.

46. Samuel P. Huntington, The soldier and the state: The theory and politics of civil-military relations (Cambridge, Mass., 1957); Morris Janowitz, The professional soldier: A social and political portrait (New York, 1960). Huntington and Janowitz continue to define the terms of scholarship on the subject: James Burk, "Theories of democratic civil-military relations," Armed Forces & Society 29:1 (2002): 7-29, and Peter D. Feaver, Armed servants: Agency, oversight, and civil-military relations (Cambridge, Mass., 2003), on 2. On the 1990s: Thomas E. Ricks, "The widening gap between the military and society," Atlantic Monthly ( July 1997): 66-78.

47. Jim Burke interview, 5 Dec. 2003.

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