## The Nature Of Light And Its Velocity

Since the velocity oflight plays an essential role in the development of relativistic flight mechanics, it is appropriate that we discuss its nature, its behavior, and its velocity in certain media. To start with, visible light ranges from violet to red in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 750 nm, respectively (1 nm 10-9 m). Wavelengths shorter than 400 nm are called ultraviolet (UV), and wavelengths greater than 750 nm are called infrared (IR). If the wavelengths are given in angstroms (1 A...

## Where again the average proper Einstein number is used 431 Star Planet Systems Galaxies and Beyond

As stated in Section 1.3, there are currently about 160 planets associated with nearly 100 stars planetary systems that have been discovered over the past few years. These numbers are growing at an increasing rate with time. Shown in Table 4.1 are ten of these star planet TABLE 4.1 List of Star Planetary Systems Giving the Associated Star, Its Distance from Earth, Its Magnitude, and the Estimated Mass of an Associated Planet Compared to Jupiter ( 1) Except Where Indicated Otherwise DISTANCE,...

## Principle Of Simultaneity And Synchronicity

There now arises the question as to whether or not two events taking place at different positions in space can be taken as simultaneous by an observer positioned somewhere else in space. To understand the problem of detecting simultaneous events, consider a thought experiment common to our earth experiences. Let two people be within sight of each other at fixed points A and B. If person A (at point A) flashes a light signal in the direction of person B (at point B) and that light signal is...

## Y1 v2c2

, e e +- n dv. (3.27) V1 v2 c V V1 v2 c2 (1 v2 c 3 2 Introduction of the resultant expression in Eqs. (3.27) into Eq. (3.26) leads to the result dm dme uev c2 1 uev c2 +-- - rr dv I -- dv. m me ue (1 v2 c 2) ue (1 v2 c 2) Then, solving for dme me and simplifying gives the result The final series of steps requires that Eq. (3.29) be integrated under two assumptions (1) the space flight of the rocket begins at rest with respect to the rest frame R, (v 0) (2) the initial rocket mass is the proper...

## The Photon Rocket

Now, to greatly simplify the relativistic flight mechanics, we assume that the rocket in Fig. 3.1 is a photon rocket whose propellant velocity is that of the speed of light c. Appendix C provides a detailed derivation of the photon rocket equation. The results are shown in the forms Here ve c is called the proper Einstein number equal to the ratio of proper flight velocity to the exhaust velocity, c. Hence, the proper Einstein number is a normalized proper velocity. Just as the mach number is...

## Minkowski Diagrams Kcalculus And Relativistic Effects

The Doppler redshift can be represented in the slightly different but more useful form as This, of course, is the redshift observed by our astronomers when they view very distant galaxies receding at a relative velocity v, and is indicative of an expanding universe. If the velocity of recession v is much less than c v c , then Eq. 5.12 takes the approximate classical form -y l v2 c2 l v c l v c where Af fs _ fo. The classical form of Eq. 5.13 will be shown later to be useful for redshift...