Diffusion equation for ion transport in the radiation belts

The Fokker-Plank equation describes stationary space-energy distributions of particles inside the radiation belts. For particles with pitch-angles 90 it has the form fi is the distribution function for i- type ions is the magnetic moment G is the Coulomb factor, A is the term describing the chargeexchange process and DLL is the radial diffusion coefficient. The efficiency of particle transport inside the magnetosphere is determined by DLL. The magnetic and electric diffusion coefficients Dm and...

Iiliillli RI1

Solar Wind Speed Versus Diagram

A superposed analysis of seasonal fluxes of E> 2MeV electrons throughout the outer radiation belt (2.5< L< 6.5) for 1992-1999. A strong seasonal variation of electron fluxes is seen (from Baker et al., 1999). Another feature in Figure 9 that is quite evident is the occurrence of two peaks in the smoothed RBC Index each year. These occur around each spring and fall equinox. Baker et al., (1999) analyzed this semiannual effect in the outer radiation belt electron content. Figure...

Solar Protons

King (King, 1974) published the first statistical model for solar proton events using Poisson distributions. He concluded from his analysis of proton data from the 20th solar cycle that solar proton events could be classified into ordinary and anomalously large. This was based on the fact that only one anomalously large event occurred in the 20th solar cycle - the August 1972 event. That event alone accounted for 84 of the total proton fluence in the solar cycle at energies E > 30 MeV....

Trends And Future Issues

Future ESA and European space missions will continue across a broad range of domains - Science missions in space, using space as a vantage point for astrophysics missions, for solar-terrestrial investigations, for exploration of the solar system and as a place to perform fundamental physics experiments - Space applications development programmes such as Earth observation programmes, communications technology development, development of programmes for Global Monitoring for Environment and...

Solar Radio Burst Flux Threshold For Impact On Wireless Systems

The discussions in Bala et al. (2002), in Nita et al. (2002) and in Lanzerotti et al. (2003) present some of the considerations of noise levels for wireless systems. For an ambient operating temperature T 273 K, the nominal thermal noise power level PT for a receiver of bandwidth B 1 Hz is 3.8 x 10-21 W ( -174 dBm), or 38 sfu Hz m . A single polarization antenna of gain G that is immersed in an isotropic radio flux of F W m-2 will have a receiver power of (Kummer and Gillespie, 1978) where X is...

Simulation Of Space Radiation Effects In Microelectronic Parts

Chumakov Spacialized Electronic Systems 115409, Moscow, Russia Abstract This chapter describes the main space radiation effects in integrated circuits (total dose and single event effects) and experimental approach of their simulation in microelectronic parts. Simulation experimental techniques are presented to obtain the main radiation sensitivity parameters of IC. Keywords Space radiation, radiation effects, radiation hardness, simulator, integrated...

Outlook on Space Weather Effects on Spacecraft

Space Environments and Effects Section,ESTEC, European Space Agency 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands Abstract Spacecraft are becoming more susceptible to space weather hazards for a number of reasons. The types of missions being flown are increasingly demanding and payloads are becoming more sophisticated. In addition, commercial pressures can result in selection of more lightweight spacecraft and less radiation hardened components. Non-availability of radiation-hardened components in some...

Specifying and Forecasting Space Weather Threats to Human Technology

Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303-7814, USA Abstract Adverse space weather is one of the principal threats to modern human technology. Solar coronal mass ejections, large solar flares, and high-speed solar wind streams often lead to sequences of damaging disturbances within the Earth's magnetosphere, in the atmosphere, and even on the Earth's surface. Powerful geomagnetic storms can develop following solar disturbances...

Introduction

Space weather and technologies are the essential constituent of humanity. We can not imagine our life without data obtained from spacecraft for weather forecast, communication, science, etc. Unfortunately, there are limitations of spacecraft lifetime mainly due to space radiation effects in microelectronic parts - integrated circuits (IC) and semiconductor devices. The main reason of space electronic equipment failures and upsets deals with two dominant radiation effects total dose and single...

Solar Heavy Ions

Solar heavy ions pose a significant threat to spacecraft systems through their ability to cause SEEs on spacecraft microelectronics which can result in loss of spacecraft service. At this time there is little capability to monitor or forecast solar heavy ions. Science instruments on ACE and WIND make heavy ion measurements, however, because the data are not available within a reasonable time, this does not comprise a monitoring capability that can be used for forecasting or nowcasting (anomaly...

The Causes Of Spacecraft Anomalies

To understand where best to focus efforts to improve our ability to prevent spacecraft anomalies, it is useful to examine compilations of spacecraft anomalies and to understand the space environment effects that cause them. The components of the space environment that can pose hazards to normal spacecraft operations include micrometeoroid and orbital debris which cause impact damage and increased contamination the neutral thermosphere which causes surface erosion due to atomic oxygen, satellite...

Ionospheric variability in the context of HF propagation

Figure 2 shows the maximum usable frequency (MUF) measured by an IRIS oblique ionosonde Arthur et al., 1997 on a 400 km path from Inskip (53.9 N, 2.8 W) to Malvern (52.1 N, 2.3 W), in the UK, over a period of 13 days in October 2002. This period coincided with a period of variable geomagnetic activity. The selected oblique ionograms from the data sets were examined and the MUF of the F layer trace was extracted using IRIS analysis software Heaton, 1999 . Figure 3 shows the minimum and maximum...

Inflight Measurements

Continued and improving monitoring of the environment is obviously important for improving knowledge of the environment, but also for providing the resources to respond to emerging requirements and for use in new analysis methods. ESA has successfully promoted the idea of having standard radiation environment monitors (SREMs) on as many missions as possible. These both contribute to the general body of data and provide mission-specific data, which can be used in real-time for protection, or...

Technological Developments

The future picture of aircraft operations, whether civil or military, is of one comprising a global multi-network infrastructure that provides for future growth, but ensures safety and security. It will have a satellite-based, air space management system with global connectivity, offering better C3I, free-flight routing for commercial aircraft and complete space-to-mud situational awareness for multi-national military operations. Combined with information technology, airspace and aircraft...

References

Aarons, J., Global morphology of ionospheric scintillation, Proc. IEEE, 70 (4), 360-377, 1982. Anderson, D.N., J.M.Forbes, and M. Codrescu, A Fully Analytical, Low- and Middle- Latitude Ionospheric Model, Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 1520, 1989. Angling, M.J., and P.S. Cannon, Assimilation of Radio Occultation Measurements into Background Ionospheric Models, Submitted to Radio Science, 2003. Angling, M.J., P.S. Cannon, N.C. Davies, T.J. Willink, V. Jodalen, and B. Lundborg, Measurements...

Microsatellites and Facilities for InOrbit Experimentation

Lack of rapid, frequent and cheap access to space for technology experiments is a serious impediment to technology progress, both for assessing space environmental effects on systems, and in other areas. Microsatellites and nanosatellites offer relatively low-cost access to space for technology flight experiments and are often ideal for experiments related to environmental effects and as platforms for monitoring the environment in important regimes. This has been recognised by those...