Info

- computer 98, 155

Order (aberration) see Aberration, order

Orthogonality 289,290 OTF see Optical Transfer Function Output data (optical design) 98 Overcorrection (spherical aberration) 159

Overhang method 13

Parabola 3, 5, 11, 13, 18, 28, 58, 59, 67, 68, 83, 84, 89, 90, 96,102, 103, 129, 178, 182, 189, 218, 229, 244, 255, 336, 348, 351-354, 357, 367, 372, 390, 400, 401, 420, 421, 435, 447, 457 Parabolic primary mirror 67, 68, 83, 89

Parabolising 13,421,435 Paraboloid see also Parabola

- confocal (Mersenne) 227, see also Reflector

Parameter

- aplanatic 64

- aspheric 64,237,344

- basic system (constructional) 70, 234, 238

- dependent 279, 284

- derived 77

- independent 279, 284

- natural 233,234

- normalized 77

- paraxial 41,55

- profile 154

- ray tracing 46 Paraxial 29

- calculation 129

- quantity 35

Paraxial aperture ray 55,65,66, 70,

142, 143, 234, 262 Paraxial data 66, 67 Paraxial equations

- linear nature 65 Paraxial parameter 41, 55 Paraxial principal ray 55, 65, 66, 70,

73, 74,142,143, 224, 234, 262 Paraxial ray-trace 35 Paraxial relations (2-mirror) 42-55,

73, 77-79, 264, 269, 285 Parseval's theorem 315, 319 Petzval curvature 70,191,331, see also Field curvature Petzval sum 64, 147,159,180,184, 191,228,373,378,416

- chromatic variation 147 Phase error 27, 57 Phase shift 65, 313, 314 Photographic camera see Camera Photographic emulsion 111 Photographic grain 214 Photographic law 429 Photographic system 33 Photography 21,190,206,406,432,

- classical 453

- nebular 433 Photometry

- photographic 444

Physical length see Length, physical

Pitch lap (polisher) 9, 18

Plane

- tangential see Section

Plane mirror see Mirror, plane

Plane-parallel plates see Plate, plane-parallel

Plant growth 103

Plate 144, 152, 153,155,160, 327-348

- achromatic 124, 161-166,182,186, 191,211,339

- aspheric 144, 145, 148,165,174, 177,180,182,184,193, 213, 214, 227, 254,326-348,356,411

- aspheric refracting corrector (Schmidt) 151, see also Schmidt corrector

- aspheric singlet 183

- aspheric surface 152

- asphericity 157, 178, 185,186,191, 208, 337, 343

- bending see photographic, bending

- conjugate, virtual see virtual

- corrector 142, 143, 152,161,165, 176-191,208,327-348

- deformation 178

- diagram (Burch) 140

- distance (from primary) 191

- doublet corrector 161, see also achromatic

- filter 159

- form 190

- full-size aspheric (object space) 143-145, 340

- Gascoigne (Cassegrain) 342-347

- Gascoigne (with field flattener) 331-332, 454

- larger (corrector, PF) 337

- non-existent 191

- photographic 115, 138, 160, 161, 165,166,326,373,383,452

- photographic (baked) 363, 453

- photographic (unbaked) 452, 455

- photographic, bending 160, 383

- plane-parallel 154,157,158,172, 326, 333, 392, 394, 396

- profile 145,156,157

- profile constant 146

- real aspheric (corrector) 328, 340, 341

- refracting 141,142

- Schmidt corrector 151, 154, 157-159,164,165,175, 209, 213, 330, 333, 337, 342, 347, 460

- shift 144

- single-glass set 339

- singlet corrector (field) 144, 327-336, 340-348

- singlet corrector (pupil) 144,151, 157,161,186,190

- spacing 143-144, 337, see also power

- strength see power

- strong 186,339

- theory 140-146,193, 227, 229

- thickness 154, 158, 326, 333

- triplet corrector 143-144, 337-340, 348,361-367

- two separated 327, 334, 348

- virtual 146, 327, 328, 340, 341 Plate theory

- aspheric 140-146,193, 227, 229 Plateholder 115, 160

Point-spread-function (PSF) 293, 298, 302,303,315,317-319

- geometrical (optical) 88, 322 Pointing (tracking) 21, 61,147, 272,

393 Points

- coma-free (neutral) 271

- pointing-free (neutral) 271 Polarisation 293

Polishing 420, 457, see also Figuring techniques

- repolishing (speculum) 431 Polynomial

-aberration 291,306,309

- aspheric surface 59, 83

- degree 289

- Hermite 293

- Jacobi 290,293

- Laguerre 293

- Legendre 290,293

- orthogonal 288, 293

- radial 289-290

- Tschebyscheff 293

- Zernike 62,86,288-293 Power

- aspheric 144

- cylindrical 260

- dispersive 193, see also Dispersion

- high individual (separated lenses) 359, 385

- individual (achromatic Schmidt plates) 164

- residual optical 43,164

- total 40,146,168,404,406 Power of penetration 20 Powered mirror

- single 40,41

- third 223

Primary image 54,97

- real 46,109,112

Primary mirror 6, 8,11,13, 40, 50-52, 66, 70, 71, 74, 77, 90-96,102,103, 105, 108, 113, 114, 117,123, 124,126, 141, 142, 144, 145,148,152, 153, 159, 161, 176, 180, 183, 191, 244, 257, 258, 261, 262, 266-268, 272, 274, 284, 285, 327, 329, 331, 339, 373, 374, 420, 426, 445

- aberration coefficients for 72

- asphericity 161,337,372,454

- Cassegrain 71,186 -classical 90,96,119

- convex 111,113

- eccentricity 331,336,345,354,364, 390, 453

- elliptical 372

- field curvature 159, 331

- fixed spherical 278

- hyperbolic 97,116, 327, 330, 334, 335, 337, 338, 353-355, 357, 358, 390, 391

- lightweighted structure see Blank (mirror)

- modern RC 367

- naked 453

- Newton paraboloidal see parabolic

- non-parabolic (with correctors) 330

- oblate-spheroidal 178, 357

- overcorrection (RC) 457

- Palomar 200-inch 446, 449, 453 -parabolic 101,120,151,178,186,

229, 231, 242, 254, 264, 327, 329, 333-338, 340, 347-358, 375, 382, 385, 389, 390, 399, 419, 442, 445, 449, 453, 454

- perforated 229,230

- quasi-Ritchey-Chretien 337,338, 344,381,454-456

- Ritchey-Chretien (RC) 95,97, 119, 330, 331, 336-338, 354-356, 359, 363, 364, 368, 454-456

- Schmidt 151,159

- segmented 242, 249, 368

- single concave 71,80 -spherical 67,68,88, 89,97,105,

107, 124, 128,139,149, 151, 152, 178, 186, 188, 191, 213, 217, 240, 242, 243, 247-255, 266, 276, 330, 334, 338, 357, 416, 460

- Spherical Primary (SP) 105

- strongly hyperbolic 336-338

- structure (blank) 445, see also Blank (mirror)

Prime focus (PF) 40, 42, 51, 89, 90, 97,101,119,198, 217, 271-273, 275, 325, 327, 329, 331-340, 345, 347372, 406, 414-417, 447, 452-454, 457

Prime focus field corrector see

Corrector, prime focus Principal plane 23, 26, 29, 31, 32, 36, 39,40,42,86,119

-image 23,24,39,42

- object 23, 24 Principal point 23, 26, 41, 86 Principal ray 28, 32-34, 36, 172 Principal section 28

Prism 8, 394

- curved face 399

- objective 396, 399

- pair 396 Problem

- flexure see Flexure

- manufacturing (massive blanks) 442

- mechanical 18,419,422

- tarnishing 11,18,429,431,432,447

- 2-axis tracking 450 Procedure (third order theory)

- non-normalized 70 Profile

- corrector plate 152 Program

- optical design see Optical design program

Projection

- solar 22, 39 Proof plate

- interference 180 Protection

- dust and wind 429

PSF see Point-spread-function Pupil 28,87,133,137,142,148,152, 157,160, 217, 218, 222, 242, 244, 245, 250, 252, 258, 259, 289, 306, 307, 314, 322,327,409, 411,414

- division 87

-entrance 32-34, 36-38,41, 51, 52, 66, 70, 87,145, 223, 231, 242, 244, 272, 273, 275, 284

- exit 5, 6, 9,15, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 51, 52, 55, 133, 135, 227, 231, 242, 272-275, 294, 304, 316, 404, 407, 408, 414

- free from aberrations and obstruction 318

- full circular (unvignetted) 298, 304, 309, 310

- masking 323

- non-axial symmetrical obstruction 322

- position see Pupil position

- shearing 316, 317

- spider obstruction 322-324

- telecentric 34,404

- theory of 55

- transfer 416

Pupil shift 66, 230, 258, see also Stop shift Pupil transfer

- Schmidt-type see Pupil, transferred Pyrex 445,446,456, see also Blank

(mirror)

Quadratic (aberration term) 290, 292, see also Aberration, family Quantity

- derived 53, 279

- normalized 77 Quantum efficiency 453, 455 Quartz

- fused 444-446,455,456

- fused segments (boules) 446, 455

- ULE fused 444,455

Radiation 26

Ramsdendisk 15,37,38,40,302 Ray see Light ray

- aperture 142, 143, 268

- paraxial 3, 29, 55, 64, 65, 70, 85, 130,136, 142, 143, 158, 224, 233, 234, 262, 339, 340, 351

- paraxial aperture 65,66,70

- paraxial principal 64-66, 70, 73, 74, 224, 235, 258

- principal 27, 32, 33, 34, 71, 131, 133-136,142, 143,148,150,170, 172,175, 235, 268, 326, 339, 347, 361, 409

- wavefront normal 57

Ray tracing 14, 29, 41, 57, 65, 82, 85-87,155,161, 234, 238, 286, 288

Rayleigh criterion 129,132, 301, 302, 306,316

Rectangular aperture 293-298 Rectangular grid (for spot-diagrams) 87

Recursion formulae 55, 70, 233, 236, 238, 257, 261, 263, 268, 269, 280, 284 Redundant digits 98 Reference sphere 61, 129, 131, 421, 435 Reflecting telescope see Reflector Reflection 27, 34,165 Reflection equation 35, 50 Reflectivity 11,14,19, 219, 241, 244, 255, 279, 422, 429, 432, 447

Reflector 1-6, 8,10, 11,13,14, 17,18, 20, 36, 98,111,148, 247, 302, 419, 431, 432, 433, 463, see also Telescope

- advances 89

- afocal 37,82,281

- afocal (Mersenne) 4,5,6,9, 48,55, 78, 91-93, 96,103,117, 227, 230, 241, 242,267, 268,285, 324

- afocal Dall-Kirkham (DK) 105, 267

- afocal Spherical Primary (SP) 108, 109, 268, 274

- anastigmatic 93,184,191,225-227, 259

- aplanatic (2-mirror) 5, 89,93, 94-98, 101,111,114-122,126, 265, 266, 272, 273, 284, 286, 287, 373, 442, 443,454

- aplanatic Gregory 95,97,101,267, 273, 274, 277, 284, 342

- aplanatic Maksutov-Cassegrain 198, 201, 207

- aplanatic Ritchey-Chretien (RC) 94, 98, 100, 101, 119, 122, 265, 442, 454, 456

- aplanatic Schmidt-Cassegrain (Baker-type) 186-192

- Arecibo (fixed primary) 254, 278

- Baker 3-mirror, 2-axis anastigmatic 231, 247, 248, 250

- Baker reflector-corrector 357

- Baker Schmidt-Cassegrain 178, 180-185, 191

- Baker Super-Schmidt 209,211,213

- Baker-Nunn Super-Schmidt 209

- Baker-type FR see Focal reducer

- Baranne-LemaƮtre 4-mirror, single axis 249

- Baranne-LemaƮtre 4-mirror, two axis 253

- basic forms 40

- Bouwers (concentric) 148, 150-152, 165, 167, 168, 174, 193, 206, 208

- Bouwers achromatic concentric PF or Cassegrain 186, 193-196, 208

- Bouwers concentric (with additional weak lens) 196,198-200

- Bouwers-Maksutov-type FR see Focal reducer

- Buchroeder Houghton-type 214

- Burch anastigmatic 279

- Busack improved Medial-type 222, 223

- Cassegrain 4, 5, 9, 10, 13,15, 40, 42, 43, 46-53, 55, 88, 90, 93-97,101, 102, 107, 108, 111, 114, 126,134,142, 143,147,152,183-185, 204, 217, 227, 240, 241, 252, 256, 261, 265, 267, 268, 270, 272-276, 282, 287, 288, 302, 322, 326, 340, 341, 347, 348, 373, 374, 382, 407, 415, 419, 423, 426, 431, 432, 444

- Cassegrain afocal see afocal (Mersenne)

- Cassegrain Dall-Kirkham (DK) see Dall-Kirkham

- Cassegrain Ritchey-Chretien (RC) see Ritchey-Chretien (RC)

- Cassegrain Spherical Primary (SP) see Spherical Primary

- centered 255

- centered, two-mirror (off-axis) 260

- Chretien (original RC) 116,117

- classical (2-mirror) 5, 88,92,93, 95-98,101, 107-109,111,134,152, 265, 272, 282, 286, 444, 452-454, 456, 460

- classical afocal Mersenne see afocal (Mersenne)

- classical Cassegrain 67, 68, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94, 98, 99,101,102,104, 105,119,120,122,139,140, 254, 264, 265, 266, 267, 271, 275-277, 282, 284, 286, 347, 372, 373, 375-381, 384-386, 389, 391, 404, 405, 444, 457, see also Cassegrain

- classical Gregory 67, 68, 88, 90-92, 267, 271, 284, see also Gregory

- Companar 209

- compound (2-mirror) 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 42, 43, 46, 50, 54, 69, 71, 77, 78, 80-82, 88, 90, 95, 98,101,109, 111, 114,124,127,138,144,145,150,174

- concentric (monocentric) Cassegrain 208, see also Hawkins-Linfoot

- Couder (anastigmat) 111, 116, 119, 122-126,152,159

- Dall-Kirkham (DK) 67, 68, 88, 101-109, 266, 267, 271-273, 275-277, 282-284, 372

- decentered 255, see also Schief-spiegler

- Delabre 4-mirror, single axis 248, 249

- Delabre Brachymedial 222

- design (third order) 89

- double or multiple meniscus 212

- double-pass Cassegrain 240, 254

- Epps and Takeda 3-mirror 230

- fast, wide-field 4-mirror see Delabre 4-mirror

- first modern (Crossley) 432

- five-mirror 2-axis (Wilson-Delabre) 251

- folded Gregory 78

- Forster and Fritsch Brachy Cassegrain 255

- four-mirror, single-axis Cassegrain-Gregory 250, 251

- Gregorian equivalent of Paul-Baker (Baker) 231

- Gregory 4, 6, 7, 9, 13,17, 40, 42, 43, 46-53, 55, 88, 90, 94-97,101103, 108, 109, 112, 114, 126, 266, 267, 268, 270, 273-276, 340, 341, 372, 414, 419

- Gregory afocal 78, see also afocal (Mersenne)

- Gregory Dall-Kirkham (DK) see Dall-Kirkham

- Gregory limit case 103

- Gregory Spherical Primary (SPG) 284, 287

- Hamilton Brachymedial 219, 220

- Harmer-Wynne 382, 384

- Hawkins-Linfoot monocentric Cassegrain 208-210

- Hawkins-Linfoot Schmidt-Bouwers PF 208,209

- Hawkins-Linfoot-type (FR) see Focal reducer

- Houghton afocal doublet corrector (Richter-Slevogt) 213-217

- hyperbolic primary (high eccentricity) 336, 337

- inverted Cassegrain (INCA-type) FR see Focal reducer

- Korsch 3-mirror, 4-reflection 240, 241

- Korsch 3-mirror, single-axis 67, 68, 223-227, 238, 239, 278

- Korsch 3-mirror, two-axis 223-225, 231,238,246,247

- Korsch double Cassegrain (4-mirror) 254

- Kutter anastigmatic see Schief-spiegler

- Kutter catadioptric see Schief-spiegler

- Kutter coma-free see Schiefspiegler

- Kutter Schiefspiegler 255-259, 278, 320, see also Schiefspiegler

- laterally decentered 2-mirror 264

- Laux 3-mirror 239

- lens telescopes with catadioptric correction 219

- Leonard Schiefspiegler (Solano and Yolo) 260

- Linfoot monocentric (concentric) Schmidt-Cassegrain 183-187,191, 193, 196, 198, 208

- "long" Maksutov 170,201,202

- Loveday 231,232,238,240

- Lurie (Houghton) 214-217

- Maksutov 150,165-175,178,196, 206, 207, 212, 214, 217

- Maksutov-Cassegrain 193,198,201, 204, 205, see also "long" and "short" Maksutov

- Maksutov-Cassegrain, secondary on meniscus 204-206

- Maksutov-Newton 215

- Mangin 217-219

- Mangin (achromatic) 218

- Mangin prime focus 218

- Mangin-type, Delabre 222

- Mangin-type, Rosin and Amon 218

- Mangin-type, Silvertooth 218

- meniscus, double (Wynne) 212, 213

- meniscus, multiple 212

- meniscus-type 150,193, see also Bouwers

- Mersenne (afocal) see afocal (Mersenne)

- Mersenne (grazing incidence) 5, 101, see also Wolter

- Mersenne afocal feeder 242

- Mersenne-Schmidt 230, see also Willstrop

- mirror forms 3

- modern 419

- modern aplanatic Schmidt-Cassegrain 186-191

- modern RC 116,117,444,457

- monocentric Schmidt-Cassegrain (Linfoot) see Linfoot

- multi-mirror (centered) 223

- Newton 8-13,17,18, 40, 41, 89, 134, 204, 215, 218, 231, 240, 329, 348, 419, 423, 426

- non-aplanatic (with decentering coma) 287

- normal Cassegrain (with ADC) 393

- normalized see Normalization

- off-axis (Schiefspiegler) 255

- original Ritchey-Chretien (RC) 116, 117

- Paul-Baker 3-mirror 228-232, 239, 241, 278

- Plossl Dialyte 219-221

- plate-meniscus systems 207

- quasi-classical Cassegrain 376, 379, 384, 385, 390

- quasi-concentric (monocentric) Bouwers-Cassegrain 193

- quasi-Ritchey-Chretien 331,332, 335, 340, 344-348, 364-366, 372, 379, 381, 383, 384, 387, 389, 390, 453, 454, 455, 456

- Rakich-Rumsey 3-mirror solutions 63, 232, 233, 278, 279

- RC modification (of classical Cassegrain) 119

- Richter-Slevogt (afocal doublet corrector) see Houghton

- Ritchey-Chretien (RC) 67, 68, 88, 94, 95, 97, 98, 101, 105, 109, 111, 119-122,139,140,178, 255, 266, 267, 272-274, 277, 282, 284, 286, 287, 325, 331, 335, 336, 340, 341-344, 347, 348, 354-356, 363, 367, 372, 373, 376, 378, 381, 383, 389, 390, 404, 405, 442, 444, 445, 452, 453, 455-457

- Robb 3-mirror 238-239, 278

- Rosin (with doublet field corrector) 382, 384

- Rumsey 3-mirror 238

- Sampson (Mangin secondary corrector) 372

- Sand excentric 3-mirror 278

- Sasian two-axis, 4-mirror 252

- Schafer 4-mirror Schiefspiegler 278

- Schiefspiegler see Schiefspiegler

- Schmidt 119, 124, 145,151, 152, 157-160,161, 163,165,174-176,178, 180,182, 183-186,190,196, 209, 214, 230, 241, 242, 252, 357, 409, 416, 457, 460

- Schmidt achromatic 161,163

- Schmidt, basic principles 151

- Schmidt, solid or semi-solid 174

- Schmidt-Cassegrain 178-191,193, 405

- Schmidt-type with afocal doublet see Houghton

- Schupmann Brachymedial 219-222, 248

- Schupmann Medial 219-222, 248

- Schwarzschild 445

- Schwarzschild (aplanatic) 94,111, 114-119,122-124,126,178

- Schwarzschild (impractical) 113, 126, 279, 372

- Schwarzschild-Couder types 273

- Shack and Meinel 3-mirror 238

- "short" Maksutov 170-173,198, 201-203

- single-mirror 46, 69, 71, 80, 88-90, 92, 93,111,128, 134,138-140,144, 145, 150, 226

- Slevogt (aplanatic Schmidt-Cassegrain) 183,186,191,194

- small-field (Mangin) 217

- Solano Schiefspiegler (Leonard) 260

- Sonnefeld (Mangin with corrector) 213, 219

- Spherical Primary (SP) 101, 107-110, 122, 191, 266, 267, 274-277, 284, 287, 463

- Spherical Primary (SP) Gregory 105, 267, 284

- Spherical Secondary see Dall-Kirkham (DK)

- Stevick-Paul Schiefspiegler 278

- strict aplanatic 341

- strict classical Cassegrain 375-376, 385

- strict Ritchey-Chretien (RC) 345, 347, 377-381,388,453

- TC,0 (insensitive to lateral decenter) 275-277

- TC,0 (with spherical primary) 276

- three-mirror (centered) 223-231, 238-242, 345

- three-mirror excentric (uniaxial) (Sand) 278

- total afocal (zero power system) 352

- Tri-Schiefspiegler (three-mirror) 255, 260, see also Schiefspiegler

- two-axis Baker 231, 248, 250

- two-axis Baranne-Lemaitre 253

- two-axis Sasian 252

- two-axis Wilson-Delabre 243-251

- two-glass concentric (monocentric) Bouwers-Cassegrain 195-196,208

-two-mirror 42-55, 71-82, 90-126, 226, 233, 238, 263, 265-268, 271, 275, 277, 279, 281, 283, 284, 327, 340, 380, 382

- two-mirror afocal see afocal (Mersenne)

- two-mirror and plate 178,223, see also Schmidt-Cassegrain

- two-mirror non-aplanatic (with decentering coma) 287

- two-mirror Schiefspiegler 255-261, see also Schiefspiegler

- wide-field 21, 55,140,143,145,146, 148-255

- Wilson 4-mirror, single-axis with Bowen camera 250

- Wilson-Delabre 4-mirror, two-axis 243-251

- Wilson-Delabre 5-mirror, two-axis 251

- Wolter 5,101, see also Mersenne

- Wynne three-meniscus 213

- Wynne two-meniscus 212

- Wynne two-meniscus (asymmetric) 212, 213

- Yolo Schiefspiegler (Leonard) 260 Reflector-corrector (Baker) 357 Refracting telescope see Refractor Refraction 8,14,27,34,172

- atmospheric 392, 393

- Snell's law of 27 Refraction equation 35 Refractive index 14, 24, 27, 34, 43,

124, 131, 145, 148, 155,158,161,164, 165,174,209,376,381,394 Refractor 1,4-6, 8, 9,11,14, 17, 21, 22, 146, 191, 219, 221, 222, 419, 431, see also Telescope

- afocal 39,55

- conventional 36, 54

- conventional visual 78

- defocused 39,40,42

- Galileo-type (afocal) 405 -Kepler 4,5,37,40,42

- large 431,433,438,452

- normal equivalent to Schupmann Medial 221

Relative aperture 114, 160 Remittance 22

- angular 302

- limit 301,320

- linear 302,317 Resolving power 301,303, see also Resolution Reticle 6 Ripple 308-311

- idealized sinusoidal 308, 309

Ritchey-Chretien (RC) see Reflector Rotation

- secondary (angular decenter) 270, 271

Sagitta (sag) 41,84 Sagittal section see Section Satellite tracking (Baker-Nunn camera) 211

- inverse 54

- linear 138,139 Scaling 128

Scaling factor (correctors) 374 Scaling laws 126, 356, 358, 367 Schiefspiegler 255-263, 268, 273, 277, 304, 320

- analysis 270

- anastigmatic (Kutter) 257, 259, 260

- basic 259

- catadioptric (Kutter) 260

- excentric (off-axis) section 260, 261

- formula (decentering coma) 261-266

- four-mirror 278

- lateral decenter, strict case 263

- perfect 260

- Solano 260

- spherical primary (TC,0 form) 277

- term (decenter) 265

- three-mirror (Sand) 278, 279

- with off-axis sections 260,261, 276-279

- with three or more mirrors 277, 278

- Yolo 260

Schmidt plate see Plate Schmidt telescope see Reflector Schwarzschild (conic) constant 59, 64, 82, 84, 226, 243, 332, 361, 363, 369, 420

Schwarzschild formulation (two-mirror telescope) 77 Schwarzschild theorem 89,98,101,

111, 114, 176, 242, 325 Schwarzschild theorem generalisation

89,145,241,242,248,251 Searchlights 217

Secondary mirror 11,13, 50-55, 73, 91, 93-97,107,111-114,117,142,147, 150,183,189,191, 207, 230, 256, 262, 268-271, 273-276, 280, 281, 284, 286, 373, 406

- aplanatic form 96

- aspheric 189, 228, 384

- Cassegrain (convex) hyperbolic 5, 9,15, 91, 92,101,107,111,117,120, 287, 426

- changed asphericity 385

- circular (obstruction) 302

- combined with (coated on) meniscus 204

- concave 113,114,124,273

- concave (Schwarzschild impractical) 113, 114

- convex (virtual image) 112

- decentered 263, 287

- elliptical (convex) 231

- Gregory (concave) elliptical 8, 9, 91, 101, 111, 278, 287

- high magnification 287

- hyperbolic concave 231

- magnification see Magnification, secondary

- Mangin-type 219,222,372

- oblate spheroid 117,122,191

- parabolic 92, 242, 285

- power 54,115

- Ritchey-Chretien (RC) 95,119,120

- rotation (angular decenter) 270, 271, 288

- separate (from meniscus) 206

- spherical 101,103,180, 182,191, 227, 243, 247, 251-255, 272, 382, 384,416

- spider 322-324

- vertex (Paul telescope) 227

- virtual 126

- weakly curved 93

Secondary spectrum see Spectrum, secondary

Section

- sagittal 133, 135, 314

- tangential 132,133,135, 255, 313, 314

Seeing

-atmospheric 19,38,139,301,312, 320,422,450,457

- limit 414 Segment

- aspheric 242

- fused quartz 446 Segmented construction (primary mirrors) 107, 242 Seidel

- aberrations 127

- approximation 57-59,63-65,96, 120, 121

- coefficients 63-68,139

- monochromatic conditions 111, 241 Seidel sum 64

Self-achromatic (2-meniscus system) 212

Sensitivity (despace) see Despace Separation 143

- aspheric plates 143, 333, 337, 356

- thin lenses 40, 356 Series

- aspheric surface (Schwarzschild) 59

- Fibonacci 103 Serrurier truss 449 Shape see Lens

Shape factor 168, 170, 206, 351, 353 Shearing

- circular pupil 316

Shellac (speculum protection) 429 Shift of image (transverse despace) 288

Short constructional length 190 Sign convention 24, 35, 41, 43, 52, 53,

55,64,65,77, 233,234 -Cartesian 24,31,63,70,233

- strict 224 Signal/noise ratio 302 Silica see also Quartz

- fused 345, 347, 385, 390, 446 Silver (reflecting coat) 255, 426, 432,

447 Silvering

- chemical 429,432,447

Sine condition (Abbe) see Abbe Single surface 34 Singlet objective 219, 220 Singularity 235, 236, see also Recursion formulae Sitall (glass ceramic) 450, 455 Site 457, 463 Site selection 457 Skew ray 28 Sky

- background 452

- limited coverage (mounting) 422 Slit 294, 295, 298

- long 295

- two, at right-angles 322 Snell Invariant 64 Snell's law 27, 29, 34, 57 Solar projection 22, 39 Solution see also Reflector

- effective flat field 117

- quasi-RC 331,453,454,456

- strict-RC 331,453,454,456

- third order limitation 278

- three reflection 240 Solution matrix

- well-conditioned 243 Source

- extended 293, 297

- point 297 Space

- object 24-26, 34, 36, 145, 146, 148, 327, 328, 340, 341

Space telescope

- Hubble see Telescope

- Next Generation Large 240 Spatial frequency 313-315, 321 Speckle camera 393 Spectral band

- narrow 147

- wide 147

Spectral line (resolution) 301 Spectral range (FR using lenses) 407, 409

Spectrograph 175, 250, 260, 463

- design 408

- echelle 452

- fixed 435,454

- Mayall slitless 432

- McCarthy slitless 324

- multi-fibre (multi-object) 98, 326, 363, 370, 390

-optics 111,217 Spectroscopy 241, 435, 452

- multi-object 98,326,363,370,390

- with fixed equipment 435, 454 Spectrum 8, 147, 175

- normal secondary 163

- primary 163, 220 -secondary 14, 146,163,174,209,

218-221, 348, 352, 358, 359, 364, 368, 373, 376, 379, 381, 389, 390, 400, 406, 411, 419

Speculum metal 11,14,18, 419, 420, 422, 426, 429, 432

- casting large mirrors in 18, 419, 429

- crystallisation 419

- tarnishing see Problem, tarnishing Speed (photographic) 48, 175, 267,

373, 443

Spherical aberration 3, 5, 6, 8,14, 62, 65, 69, 73, 76, 88, 91, 97,102,117, 128,130, 131,134,140,142,143, 144,148-150,152,156,158,159, 164, 168, 176, 182, 206, 217, 242, 244, 248, 250, 255, 264, 265, 267, 268, 275, 280, 282, 284, 290, 292, 293, 299, 310, 312, 327, 329, 334, 335, 341-343, 345, 348, 349, 351-354, 356-358, 361, 363, 364, 367, 372, 373, 376, 382, 384, 396, 405, 406, 454

- definition 3,128,130,131

- fifth order 165, 193, 198, 202, 207, 208, 212, 215, 218, 306, 308

- lateral 131

- longitudinal 153,167

- third order 129, 130,144,145,150, 152, 153, 158, 167,168,169, 217, 283, 306, 308, 309, 311, 320

- third order (with optimum focus) 309,311

Spherical mirror see Mirror, spherical

Spherical primary see Primary mirror, spherical

Spherical Primary (SP) 2-mirror system see Reflector

Spherochromatism 147,150,152, 155-157,158,161,163, 165, 182, 183,186,191,196, 202, 206, 213-215, 218,339,348,411

Spider

- diffraction effects 322, 324

Spot-diagram 87,88,98-101,105,

106,109,110,117,118,124,125,161, 165,166,170,171,173,174,178,179, 186,187,191,192,194,196,198-205, 209, 210, 214-216, 243, 245, 248, 249, 252, 253, 259, 260, 322, 332, 333, 340, 346, 359-365, 368, 369, 383, 385-391, 396-401,405,407-415

- single-column matrix 88

- single-focus field-wavelength matrix 88, 98

- through-focus matrix 88, 98

Stop 89-92,113,124,141,142,148,

149,151, 160, 165,172,182,184, 208, 211, 212, 255, 256, 262, 270, 285, 349, 357, 374, 378, see also Aperture stop, Field stop

- at primary 105,108,148, 374

- central 351,408

- concentric 170

- front 170-172,196, 357

- quasi-telecentric (FE or FR) 405

- shifted 183,218

Stop position 66, 89, 90,151,170,180, 201,228,230,244,268,329

- different 69

- front 170-172,196, 357

- meniscus 175

- original (zero shift) 141

- symmetrical 148

- uncritical 170,227

Stop shift 66, 69, 71, 87, 141,145, 148,160,164,170,172, 201, 227, 257

- normalized 77

Stray light 152

Strehl criterion see Strehl Intensity Ratio

Strehl Intensity Ratio 129, 130, 301,

304, 305, 307-309, 320, 321 Structure

- spiral 422

Sun (observation) 39 Superposition

- linear (of Seidel coefficients) 64 Supplementary feeder system 55, 227,

229, 230, 242, 243 Support see also Mirror

- active (push-pull) 245

- astatic lever 423, 437

- astatic principle 420,423

- primary mirror 420, 423, 437, 446, 449

- whiffle-tree 420,421,426 Support (mirror) see Mirror and

Support Support system

- 200-inch primary 447 Surface

- aspheric 59, 82-84, 87, 148, 176, 178, 218, 349, 353, 354, 356, 359, 361, 366,367,370,381,401,402

- centered reflecting 55

- chemically silvered 217,429,430, 432, 447

- concave (for aspheric testing) 361

- contributions (Seidel) 207

- first of 2-mirror system 71

- glass 165

- n-mirror 233

- reflecting 11, 34, 57, 233, 234 -refracting 11,34,57,142

- second of 2-mirror system 73

- spherical 11, 18, 58, 70, 165, 198, 207, 215, 218, 222, 255, 278, 359, 369, 370,389,399,411

- toroidal 253, 260

Symmetry 59,150, 255, see also Axis

-concentric 148-151,184,198 System see also Reflector

- aberration-free 320

- afocal Cassegrain feed 55

- afocal Gregory feed 55

- catoptric 238

- centered 278

- concentric (obstruction problem) 209

- Czerny-Turner (monochromator) 257

- evaluation 82,87

- Milky Way 440

- mirror (for optical power) 146, 325

- n-mirror 70,233

- normalized 65, 70, 92, see also Normalization

- push-pull (active mirror support) 245

- reflecting (catoptric) 98

- reflecting and refracting (catadiop-tric) 98

- Schmidt equivalent (Paul) 227

- Schmidt-Cassegrain (for FR) 414

- supplementary feeder 55

- telecentric see Telecentric system

- telephoto see Telephoto system

- tilted 257

- Wilson-Opitz 2-mirror condensor 259

Tangential section see Section Tarnishing see Problem, tarnishing Telecentric see also Pupil

- output (corrector) 370, 390 Telecentric system 33, 37 Telecentricity (FR) 407 Telecommunications (off-axis system)

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