Info

- slit 295

- unobstructed 303, 321 Aperture diaphragm 41 Aperture number 84 Aperture ratio 111, 188 Aperture stop 32, 33, 36, 51, 52

- telecentric 34 Aplanatic see also Reflector

- supplement 96, 265

Aplanatic Cassegrain (RC) 67, 68, 94, 263

Aplanatic Gregory 67, 68 Aplanatic modification 119

Aplanatic solution (general) 95,101, 186

Aplanatism 96,116,121-123,201,

202, 204, 207, 215, 218, 221 Apodisation 293, 304, 315 Approximation

- Gaussian optics 27

- third order see Seidel Array detectors 94 Aspheric see also Reflector

- form 3, 6,11,13, 64, 70, 98, 228, 229, 243, 244, 251, 262, 270

- general form 82-84

- higher order 83

- mirror form relaxation 377

- off-axis 260

- steep 178

- surface 3,8,82-84,241,363, 366-370, 381, 385, 390, 411, 415

- third order 84 Aspheric contribution 68 Aspheric parameter 70 Aspheric plate 140-142,145,185

- third order 141

Asphericity 59, 82-84, 89, 91, 103, 105, 107, 116, 164, 180, 184,190, 193, 212, 329, 330, 333, 338, 345, 347, 351, 353, 361, 366, 372, 373, 380, 384, 385, 420, 432, 443

- three mirror solution 223

- total 339

- very high 178

Aspherising 13, 208, 366, 435, 447, 449 Astigmatic

-lines 101,136,138,190

- patch 137

- radial line 137

- sagittal line 136,137

- sagittal surface 136

- tangential line 136,137

- tangential surface 135, 136 Astigmatic types 62 Astigmatism

- angular 138,190

- chromatic difference 147, 345, 347

- definition 135-138

- field 2, 14, 62, 65, 69, 76, 79, 90, 92-94, 97, 98,101,105,108,109, 114-117,126,135, 136, 137, 139-141, 143,148, 149,170,177,178,182-184, 186,190,191, 204, 212, 215, 217, 221, 227, 229, 242-244, 256, 257, 259, 260, 290, 292, 312, 327, 330, 331, 333-337, 339, 341, 343, 348, 350, 354-359, 364, 373, 375, 376, 378, 379, 383, 384, 396, 405-407,411,431,454

- lateral 136

- longitudinal 136

- quadratic field dependence 269

- sagittal 115,116

- tangential 115,116

Astrometric reflector see Telescope Astronomical observation

- visual 38 Atmosphere 147,392

- equivalent homogeneous 392 Atmospheric dispersion 392-396,400 Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector

- Cassegrain focus 396, 399, 402-404

- diffraction limited 393

- ESO linear (LADC) 402-404

- oiled contact 396

- prime-focus 396-400

- prisms 396,399

- RC (Cassegrain) focus 399

- Risley variable dispersion prism 393

- two plane-parallel plates 392

- with existing corrector 396

- zero-deviation 392-394 Atmospheric refraction 392, 393 Atmospheric turbulence see Seeing Autocollimation 96,437

Axial imagery see Imagery Axial obstruction ratio see Obstruction

Axis 3, 23, 24, 60, 61, 88,101,148, 150, 152, 161, 255, 263

- altitude 242,246,251,424

- aspheric 261

- optical system (definition) 23, 28, 255, 463

-single 241,242

Axis of symmetry 23, 59, 255

Azimuth angle see Angle, azimuth

Back focal distance 35, 73 Back-reflection 219, see also Reflector,

Mangin Baffle 144, 246, 302

- front 180

- stray-light see Baffling Baffling 115,124,152,180, 230, 239,

- by secondary 227

- stray-light 8,180, 227, 230 Bandwidth

- spectral 150 Barlow lens 404, 405 Beam

- afocal 228

- converging 158, 333, 393, 394

- diverging 158

- telecentric 268, 269 Beam compression 4, 37, 257

-ratio 37,38,48,55,257 Beam compressor 4, 78, 231

- Mersenne afocal anastigmatic 78, 227, 229,231,352

- two-mirror, afocal see Mersenne afocal anastigmatic

Bending 405

- lenses 170, 221

- meniscus 204, 206, 218

- optical 218

- photographic plates 160 Best focus see Focus, best Binocular 38

Blank (mirror)

- aluminium 450

- beryllium 450

- borosilicate 450,456, see also Pyrex

- lightweighted 442, 446, 449, 450, 455, 456

- lightweighted, built-up 420

- meniscus 450,456

- Pyrex 445,446,456

- 60-inch 435,446

- stainless steel 450

- thin 450,456

- 200-inch see Palomar Bore

- cylindrical 447 Bowen camera 111, 414

Boyden station (South Africa) 183 Buchroeder design see Reflector Building see also Dome and Air, local

- ESO 1.4 m Coude Auxiliary Telescope 460

- ESO 3.6 m telescope 460

Cage

- prime focus 447, 452, 453 Calculation data

- input 98

Camera see also Reflector

- Baker flat-field 183

- Baker-Nunn 209,211,214

- photographic 21,26

- pinhole 22

- Schmidt see Reflector

- Schmidt semi-solid 174,176

- Schmidt solid 174-176

- Schmidt solid (direct form) 175

- Schmidt solid (folded form) 175

- spectrograph 114,174,175 Camera objective

- triplet 144 Camera obscura 21, 22

Carl Zeiss (optical works) 366, 406 Cartesian

Case see also Reflector

- afocal see Afocal case

- aplanatic 94,97

- Cassegrain see Reflector and Corrector

-focal 85,93,283,286

- prime focus see Reflector and Corrector

Cassegrain reflector see Reflector Cassegrain system with concave secondary 114 CAT (ESO) see Telescope Catoptric system 15, 88 CCD (Charge Coupled Device) 94,

98, 239, 326, 455 CCD array 239, 245 Cement

- optical 165

Centered optical system 57, 59,158, 206

- definition 23

- ideal 23 Centering 11,206

- tolerances 111

Central obscuration factor 303 Cervit (glass ceramic) 455, 456 Characteristic Function 59, 61-66, 85,

120, 127, 255, 288, 290 Chromatic limitation 152 Chromatic variation 147, 148, 152, 160, 333, 339, 394

- astigmatism 147,407

- first order (Gaussian) terms 147

- focus (longitudinal colour) 147

- higher order terms 152

- spherical aberration 147

- wavefront tilt (lateral colour) 147 Chromatism

- primary 14

Circle (equation) see Equation, circle Classical Cassegrain see Reflector Classical Gregory see Reflector Coat

- aluminium 219,241,447,449

- cleaning 241

- durable 241

- multi-dielectric 244, 255

- silver 219,241,255,426,429

Coefficients

- chromatic 147,349

- third order aberration 63, 90,128

- third order aspheric 84

Coherence 297

- partial 297

Colour see also Chromatic variation

- lateral 147

- longitudinal 146

Coma

- angular tangential 343

- chromatic difference see colour

- coefficient 134

- colour (chromatic variation) 147, 339, 345, 347, 358, 359, 365, 407, 409

- compensation 257

- decentering 261-272, 274-277, 287, 288, 444, 445, 449

- definition 131-134

- field 2, 5,14,19, 62, 65, 69, 75, 76, 78, 85, 86, 89-92, 95, 97, 101, 103, 105,107-109,117, 121, 131,134,135, 138-141,143,148, 149,161,176,182, 206, 217, 218, 222, 227, 229, 243, 244, 255-260, 262-265, 268, 270, 272, 273, 275, 276, 287, 290, 292, 314, 327, 329, 333-335, 339, 341-343, 345, 348, 350, 354, 356, 357, 359, 373, 376-384, 396, 405-407, 409, 421, 435, 442, 453, 454, 463

- field (linear dependence) 85, 86, 269

- field-uniform (decentering) see decentering

- fifth order 361

- figure (pattern) see patch

- inward 134,202

- outward 202,204

- rotation decentering 270,271,274, 276

- sagittal 134

- Staeble-Lihotzky condition 85, 86, 120

- stop-independent 92

- tangential 19, 133

- third order 62,132,133,152, 242, 306,309,311

- third order (with optimum tilt) 309, 311

- total 271

- translation (lateral, transverse) decentering see decentering

- triangular 62 Coma limits

- acceptable 269 Coma-free point 271-275, 277 Combination see also Reflector

- aspheric plate-meniscus 208

- two-mirror 42-55, 71-110 Committee (telescope design) 431 Companar see Reflector Compression ratio see Beam compression, ratio Computer drawing 98 Computer program (optical design)

- ZEMAX-EE 98 Computers 85-87, 98, 117, 161 Concentric zones (ripple) 308-311 Concentricity 150,183,196, 206 Condensor

- two-mirror 259 Condition

-aplanatic 115,189,390

- Bouwers 169

- coma-free 259

- effective flat field 116

- flat field (Petzval) 94,115,116, 225, 228,239,241,245,251

- Maksutov 169 Conditions see also Air, local

Conic (Schwarzschild) constant 59, 64, 82, 84, 226, 243, 332, 361, 363, 369, 376,379,420 Conic form 84 Conic parameter 84 Conic section 3, 13, 28, 58, 59, 82-84, 96

- higher order variations from 269

- strict 58, 59, 84, 269 Conjugate plane 24, 31 Conjugate point 23, 26 Constant

- dimensionless profile 154 Construction (primary)

- monolithic 242

- segmented 242,249,368 Contrast

- loss 320

- negative 321

- reduction 320 Contribution

- "central" see Aberration, "central" Control

- telescope (pointing and tracking) 450

Convex lens see Lens Convolution 319 Coordinates

- Cartesian 24,117,306

- "optical" 304

- polar (secondary mirror) 117

- system (diffraction) 294 Correction

- chromatic 150,219

- fifth order 191

- monochromatic 152,407 Corrector 97,123,160,161, 208, 253,

325-391,454

- achromatic 208

- achromatised doublet meniscus 384

- afocal 214,215,219,325,348-350, 363, 372

- afocal doublet 352-355, 372, 373,

381, 382

- afocal doublet plus plate 358

- afocal doublet with single glass 373,

382, 384

- aspheric 356

- aspheric (Schmidt) 150

- aspheric plate 325, 327-349, 353, 375

- aspheric plate plus field flattener 384

- Atmospheric Dispersion (ADC) 368, 385, 392-404

- Baker concave mirror pair 250

- Baker reflector-corrector 357

- Baranne three-lens 366

- bigger 367

- bigger, with aspheric 366

- Cassegrain focus 331,340-348, 363-391,454,457

- COSTAR 2-mirror 348

- Delabre 4-lens, 2-glass PF 370-372

- Dialyte 219

- double meniscus 217, 221

- double-pass Mangin 222

- doublet lens 211, 213, 215, 348-358, 363, 372, 373, 376, 378-382, 384, 385, 399, 463

- doublet plus aspheric 356

- doublet with ADC 399

- doublet with hyperboloid 357, 363

- doublet with single glass 389, 390

- doublet with two different glasses 376

- doublet, fused silica 390

- Epps 368-370,385,386,390,392, 396

- Faulde-Wilson three-lens 361

- for paraboloids 358, 359, 366-368

- for RC primaries 359, 361, 363

- four-lens all spherical 358-361,366

- Gascoigne 327, 330, 334, 336, 341, 342, 345, 348, 350, 355

- Gascoigne PF aspheric plate 330-332, 355, 356

- Gascoigne plate (Cassegrain) 342-348

- Gregory focus 340

- Hawkins-Linfoot aspheric achromatic 209,211

- Houghton-type lens 211,213-217

- Kohler (Cassegrain) 365

- "lensm" 399-402

- lens-mirror 221

- Meinel 327, 337

- meniscus 150, 353, see also Reflector, Bouwers and Maksutov

- modern RC 363-367

- multi-element 339

- multiple plate 329, 347, 356

- multiple plates at Cassegrain 347

- multiple thin lenses 352

- nearly afocal doublet (Harmer-Wynne) 385

- nearly afocal spaced doublet (Sampson) 372

- Paul-Baker reflecting-type 369

- plate 327-348

- position (relative to stop) 329, 340, 341,374

- powered 406

- prime focus (PF) 97,138, 327-340, 345, 348-373, 408, 411, 416, 417, 449,453,454,457,460

- refracting 151,326,369

- Ritchey-Chretien (RC) 342, 367, 373,381,390

-Ross 348-353,358,359,363,381, 447, 449, 453

- Ross-type doublet 357, 363, 364

- Sampson 325,348

- Schmidt achromatic 163-165

- Schulte 345,356,384

- Schwarzschild-Bowen pair 250

- secondary focus see Cassegrain focus

- secondary focus with aspheric plates 340

- secondary focus with lenses 372, 383

- separated doublet, single glass 349,

380, 381

- separated doublet, two glasses 351

- simple meniscus 172

- single glass 165, 214, 353

- single thick meniscus 384, 390

- single-plate 329, 336, 337, 340-348

- size 368

- Su 389,390,399-404

- supplementary (plate) 140

-thin afocal 350,351,354

- thin afocal doublet 349, 350, 354-356,358,376,382

- thin doublet with one glass type 379-382

- thin doublet with two different glasses 378, 379, 381

- thin singlet lens 376, 378

- three aspheric plate 329, 337-340, 347, 364-366, 385

- three quartz lenses 369

- three separated thin lenses 381, 382, 385

- three weak aspheric lenses 366

- three-element (meniscus) 213

- three-lens 340, 348, 352, 356, 358, 359, 361, 363-365, 367-369, 384, 385, 390

- three-lens plus one aspheric 360-362

- three-lens with aspherics 366

- three-lens, one glass (Wynne) 364

- three-plate 337-340, 347, 348

- three-plate plus field flattener 340, 364, 365

- tilt 161

- two aspheric plates 333-337

- two fused quartz lenses with quite large separation (Su et al.) 390

- two plates at Cassegrain 347

- two separated lenses 357, 358, 380, 389, 390

- two separated thin afocal doublets 357, 358

- two-element (with FR) 409

- two-glass 390,411

- two-glass doublet 357, 381

- two-glass meniscus 390

- two-lens afocal see thin afocal doublet

- two-lens solutions 384, 385

- two-lenses with one glass type 387

- two-lenses with two different glasses 388

- two-plate 333-338, 348

- weak achromatic (Hawkins-Linfoot) 208

- Wilson 359-362,365-367,383,384, 387-389

- Wynne 326,337,348,351,352, 354, 356-360, 363-367, 373, 375, 381-382, 384, 390, 393-398, 400

- Wynne three-lens, all spherical 364-366

Corrector (Cassegrain focus)

- aspheric plate 340-348

- lens 372-391

Corrector (PF)

- aspheric plate 327-340

- lens 348-372

Corrector plate 101,160,188,191, 193, 196

- achromatic (doublet) 161-166,191, 192, 194

- aspheric 186,208,340

- bending 161

- for astigmatism of an RC telescope 342

- Gascoigne (for a quasi-RC system) 344-348

- Gascoigne (for a strict RC system) 341-345

- non-achromatic (singlet) 152,165, 186, 187, 191, 214

- Schmidt see non-achromatic

- Schmidt-type 357

- singlet (Paul) 330

Cosine effect 245

Cost advantage (spherical primary) 242

Coude Auxiliary Telescope (ESO CAT) see Telescope

Crystals 146, see also Glass

Curvature 28

- vertex 59,83

Czerny-Turner

- condition 257

- monochromator 257

Dall-Kirkham (DK) see Reflector

Decentering 54, 86, 266, 267, 269, 272, 287, see also Aberration

- angular 270

- lateral (transverse) 161, 261-270, 275, 276, 282, 444

- rotational 270,271

- transverse see lateral Definitionshelligkeit (Strehl Intensity

Ratio) 304 Defocus 61,158,292,306,308-312, 320

- effect 135

- pure 61,320 Deformation

- aspheric 157

Derived quantity see Quantity, derived Design see Reflector Despace

- angular field coma 287

- axial 279-287

- field coma 283-287

- Gaussian terms 279, 280

- pointing change 288

- sensitivity 280,287

- spherical aberration 280-284, 287

- transverse 287, 288

- zero sensitivity (spherical aberration) 283

Detector 21, 40, 123, 124,169, 190, 230, 241, 243, 302, 319, 368, 405, 409, 411, 452,454

- CCD-array 94,98,239,245,326, 331,414,417

- electronic 326, 455, 457

- faceplate 369

- image-intensifier tube 452

- non-linear 138

- photomultiplier 452 Diagram

- see-saw (Burch) 377 Diameter

Diaphragm 141, see also Stop Diffraction 293-324

- annular aperture 302-304

- circular aperture 298-302

- effects of spider 322, 324

- Fraunhofer 293, 294, 296, 297, 299-301

- Fraunhofer integral 294

- Fresnel 293

- integral 298, 314, 318 -limit 301,312

- small aberrations 304-312

Diffraction limited 19, 215, 229, 302, 312

Diffraction pattern 295, 297, 300, 303 Diffraction point-spread-function (PSF)

293, 298, 302-304, 310, 312, 318, 319 Diffraction theory 26, 293-324

- with aberrations 293, 304-322 Disk

- Airy see Airy disk

- of least confusion 130,131,156, 283, 308, 351, 353

- Ramsden see Ramsden disk Dispersion

- abnormal 209

- atmospheric 147,368,385,392,393, 395, 396, 400, see also ADC

- chromatic 8, 14,146,148, 155, 157, 164,172,193,195,196, 208, 214, 351, 359, 376, 400

- curve 163

- glasses for ADC 394, 397

- mismatch (ADC) 395

- properties 163

- vector (ADC) 394 Displacement theorem 305, 312 Distinct vision

- minimum distance of 39 Distortion 62,65,66,138,141,148,

- barrel 138, 139

- chromatic difference 345

- pincushion 138,139 Dome

- air mass 455

- concept 457

- fixed 426

- large 449

- seeing 440, 455

- volume 455

Double star (resolution) 301 Double-pass (autocollimation test) 437

Doublet see Achromatic doublet

- afocal see Corrector Dust 244

Dutch 0.9 m national telescope (ESO) see ESO Telescope

Eccentricity 59, 95,120,189, 226, 331,

337, 354-356, 364 Edge

- "turned-down" 447

- "turned-up" 447 Effect

- photometric 138, 352

- stop-shift see Stop shift Eikonal 85-87, 373

Electronic detector see also Detector

- array 98 Element

- centered 23

- double-pass 217

- optical powered 270

- reflecting (catoptric) 88

- refracting (as corrector) 368, 369, 404, see also Corrector

- refracting (in catadioptric systems) 98,146,147, 220

- tilted 255

189,229,275,361,372 Emissivity

- infra-red 52 Emulsion

- photographic 89,116,117

- slow 429 Energy

- concentration 202, 207, 209

- encircled 202, 301 Energy transfer 85

Entrance pupil see Pupil, entrance Equation

- analytical 174

- conic section 58, 59

- linear 29

- linear diophantine 233

- Newton's conjugate distance 25

- Nijboer 130,133

- parabola 58, 59

- paraxial 35, 233

- plate profile 342

- refraction 35

- Schwarzschild 59 -stop-shift 66,77,89-91,145,182

- transfer 35 Equatorial mount 13 Error see also Aberration

- defocus 140

- Gaussian 136

- guiding 61

- manufacturing (corrector plates) 165

- pointing 61

- tracking 61, 140

ESO (European Southern Observatory)

98,100,102,106,110 ESO La Silla Observatory see

Observatory ESO Telescopes

- Coude Auxiliary Telescope (CAT) 102

- New Technology Telescope (NTT) 54, 86, 98-100,105,106, 109,110, 402, 424, 435

- Schmidt 1 m achromatic 165,166

- 3.6 m 331-333, 345, 346, 364-367, 383, 456, 457, 459

- Very Large Telescope (VLT) 86, 269,402-404

Euler relation 294, 314

Exit pupil see Pupil, exit

Expansion coefficient (glasses for mirror blanks) 432, 440, 446, 455 Eye 21,302

Eyepiece (ocular) 4, 6, 8, 21, 22, 36-40, 54,55,146,452

- Galilean negative 2, 40

- refracting 9

Feeder telescope 109, 242

Fermat's principle 27, 86,117

Fibres (multi-object spectrograph)

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