Info

- angular see Field angle

- flat 93,105,110,114,178, 180, 183, 186, 191, 194, 207, 217, 228, 239, 256, 357, 370

- non-flat 198

- optimum flat 178

- small 326

- small visual 88

Field angle 21, 31, 32, 54, 98,128, 239, 284, 325, 405, 406

Field correction

- fundamental design principles 94

Field corrector 62, 325-391

- afocal see Corrector, afocal

- Cassegrain focus 340-348, see also Corrector, Cassegrain focus

- PF 97, 327-340, see also Corrector, PF

- refracting 107, 325, 326

Field curvature 14, 62, 65, 75, 77, 79, 93, 94, 98-101,105,109,111, 114,116,123,124,135,138,149, 159-161,177,184,186,190, 204, 228, 230, 238, 241, 242, 244, 248, 250-252, 348, 350, 357, 373, 375, 376, 378, 379, 383-385,396,407, 454

- definitions 135-138

- improved 250

- instruments 245

- mean 331

Field flattener 94,123,124, 159, 160, 174,190,196, 202, 207, 331, 345, 366, 383, 414

- achromatic 172,173

- Gascoigne (for a quasi-RC system) 331-333, 345, 346

- plano-concave 124, 333 Field imagery 3, 14, 62 Field stop 32, 36 Field-flattening lens see Field flattener Figure

- aspheric see Aspheric, form Figuring techniques 421, 435, 443 Figuring term

- fourth power 151 Film (photographic) 160 Film (reflecting) see Coat Filter 158, 333

- blue 159

- interference 345

- low bandpass (spatial frequency) 316, 317

- narrow-band 175

Five-fold (aberration) 290, see also Aberration, family Flat field see Field, flat Flat mirror

- full-aperture 96

- Newton 8, 9, 71, 89, 251, 424 Flexure (PF correctors) 359, 366-369 Flexure problem (mirrors) 18

Focal

- case 85, 93,104,105, 272, 283, 286 Focal extender (FE) 325, 404-406

- Barlow (diverging) doublets 404-406

- cemented achromat 405

- small-field doublet 406

- without intermediate image 404-406, 408

Focal length 21-23, 29, 34, 36, 37, 39, 40, 46, 73, 127, 138, 325, 404, 452

- image-side 24

- object-side 24 Focal point 23

Focal reducer (FR) 31,119,325, 404-417

-Baker-type 411,413,414

- Bouwers-Maksutov-type 411

- Cassegrain pair (Wilson-Delabre) 416

- flat-field anastigmat (MacFarlane) 415

- four-mirror (Meinel) 414

- Hawkins-Linfoot-type 411,412,414

- ideal 406

- INCA (Inverted Cassegrain) 414-416

- Konica camera objective (Stockholm) 414

- Leitz Summicron photographic objective (Meinel) 414

- lens solutions 408-410

- lens system with field lens 409

- mirror solutions 407,409-417

- Nasmyth (MacFarlane) 414

- non-spectral mode (spectrograph) 408, 417

- power 409

- replacing a PF facility 404, 409

- Schmidt camera 416, 417

- Schmidt-Cassegrain 416

- small-field doublet 404, 406

- Stockholm 414

- supplementary, Schmidt-based 409, 410

- thin lens theory 404, 406

- wide-field 406-417

- with dispersive means (spectrograph) 409

- with intermediate image 409-417

- with Tessar-type collimator 414

- with uncorrected intermediate image 409

- without intermediate image 407, 408

Focus

-best 129,131,156,283,343

- best astigmatic 138

-Cassegrain 114,119, 325-327,

335, 341, 347, 372, 373, 394, 409, 414, 435, 438, 447, 453, 454, 457

- compensation 130

- coude 438,447,453-455,463

- diffraction 304

- error (aberration) 62, 292

- final 101

- fixed (Nasmyth) 424

- Gaussian 128,129,131,135,153, 156, 304, 321

- Herschel (front-view) 19

- mean astigmatic 137

- Nasmyth 424,463

- Nasmyth-type 242, 245-247

- Newton see Newton focus

- optimum 312

- prime see Prime focus

- Ritchey-Chretien (RC) see Cassegrain (RC)

- sagittal 136

- tangential 136

Focus shift 153, 154, 158, 293, 308 -lateral 69,131,140

- longitudinal 69, 140, 153

- transverse (image height) see lateral

Focusing 279

Folded Cassegrain 78

Folding flat see Flat mirror, folding

Form see also Reflector

- afocal see Afocal case

- angular (aberration) 131

- aplanatic 96, 282

- aspheric 3, 6,11,13, 64, 70, 98,151, 152, 228, 229, 243, 244, 281, 283, 330

- brachy 278

- concentric 165,184

- normalized 92

- parabolic 96

- paraxial (Snell's law) 29

- stop-shifted 150 Formulae

- aberration 65, 80-82, 186

- analytical 69-82,233

- Cassini 392

- conversion (aberration forms) 128, 139, 283

- decentering (telescope) 261

- Korsch 3-mirror 223, 225

- Maksutov 193

- paraxial (reflectors) 41-55,186

- recursive forms 234 -stop-shift 66,69,89-91,170,180

- thick lens 169 Formulation

- explicit (Seidel) 65

- general, afocal 82, 92

- Hamilton 62,63

- Zernike 288

Foucault "knife-edge test" 429,432,

434, 437 Fourier theory 312, 315 Fourier transformation 130, 315, 319,

321, 322 Free diameter 54 Freedom

- degrees of (for corrector lenses) 376 Frequency (spatial) 312

- normalized atmospheric limit 320 Fresnel law (of reflection) 165 Function

- aberration 59-63,288-292,315

- aspheric 91

- aspherising 435

- autocorrelation 315, 316, 318

- axisymmetrical 60,61,290

- Bessel 298, 301

- circular aperture 299-301

- dispersion 163, 164, 220

- line spread 315, 317

- normalizing 69

- orthogonal or non-orthogonal 288

- phase 318

- profile 154

- rectangular aperture 294-296

- sinusoidal spatial intensity 316

- variance (Strehl Intensity Ratio) 307

- wavefront aberration 127 Fused quartz 444-446, 455, 456

Galaxies

- external 422

Gauss-error see Spherochromatism Gaussian (paraxial) region 28, 36, 57, 61, 86

Gaussian brackets 233 Gaussian condition 60 Gaussian optics 21, 23, 29, 30, 36, 41,

42,55,57, 60,86,119 Gaussian optics approximation 27-29 Gaussian parameters 50 Gaussian properties 40 Gaussian relationships 41 Gaussian terms 61,290-292 Geometrical optics 23, 24, 26, 27, 59,

87, 293, 295, 312, 322 Geometry

- Baker 2-axis 231

- Brachymedial 222 -Cassegrain 94,98,109,111,327

- Korsch 2-axis 225, 248

- normalized 104

- Schmidt 174,230

- single-axis 243

- three-mirror 225 -two-axis 230,231,243 Ghost image see Image, ghost Ghost reflections 326

Glass 14, 146, 148, 154,155,165,166, 193,195,196, 206, 215, 218, 351

- Astro-Sitall (ceramic) 450, 455 -block 174,176

- borosilicate (Pyrex) 440,444-447, 449, 450, 455, 456

- bubbles 438

- ceramic 450,455,456

- Cervit (Owens Illinois)

- choice 196

- classical main sequence

- diagram (optical glass)

- expensive 193, 405

- filter 326

455, 456 221

- lead 165

- low-expansion 444,450

- low-expansion borosilicate (Pyrex) see borosilicate (Pyrex)

- mass 438,450

- near zero-expansion 455

- normal 163,164,174, 219-221

- quartz see Quartz

- Schott UBK7 157,163, 460

- single type 214, 339, 348, 349, 358, 360, 363, 376, 378, 380, 385

- volume 450

- zero-expansion 455

- Zerodur (Schott) 455, 456 Glass catalogue

- Chinese 399

- Schott 193 Glasses

- different (PF correctors) 364 Glassworks

- Corning 446,455,456

- General Electric Company 446, 455

- Owens Illinois 455

- Schott 193,450,455

- St. Gobain 435, 438, 444 Graticule 34

Grating 257

Grazing incidence 5, 101

Gregory see Reflector

Hamilton theory 59-63, 255, 288 Herschel condition 421 Higher order (aberration) theory 82-84

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) see

Telescope Hubble's redshift law 440 Hyperbola 9,59,84,91,96,102,108, 226, 238, 242, 335, 336,348,368,384

Image 24

- "axial" (Schiefspiegler) 256-260, 278

- comatic 101

- diffraction 293-321

- Gaussian see paraxial

- Gaussian lateral shift (despace) 287

- geometrical quality 87

- motion 319

- paraxial 37, 130

- position (final) 47-49,94,255,273, 274

- primary 54,97,326,327

- quality 82

-real 21,33,103,104

- round geometrical 101

- secondary 97

- stability 275

- uncorrected intermediate (FR) 409 -virtual 103,112

Image formation 24, 28,130

- ideal 24,28 Image height 71 Image shift

- despace 280

- transverse (despace) 287 Image space 24 Imagery

- direct 175,206,241

- field 3 Imaging 21

- direct 408, 409, 452 Incidence

Incident beam see also Czerny-Turner

- compression 257

- expansion 257

Incoherent illumination 297,301,308,

309, 313-315, 318, 320, 321 Index see Refractive index Infra-red observation 51, 97 Instrument (auxiliary) 21,111,402, 408

Intensity 294,295

- distribution 295,299,300,302 Interferometry

- Fabry-Perot 414 Invariance 64,289 Isoplanatism 314

Lagrange Invariant 30-32, 38, 39, 48,

64,70,141,331,349,374 Lateral (transverse) decentering 261, 263

- Schiefspiegler interpretation 261

- strict case 263 Layout (telescope)

- initial 77,188,189 Lead see Glass

Length 180,186, 191, 215, 218, 445 -constructional 165,178,190,191

- effective 185

- favourable 178

- optical 124,215

- physical 114, 161

- reduced 182

- total 201

- additional corrector 196,198

- aspherised 209, 356

- bending 167, 349, 351, 353, 354, 356, 358,365,376,381,382,384

- field 22,331,405,408,414,416

- field-flattening 94, 123,159,160, 190, 331, 366, see also Field flattener

- finite thickness 351,356,409

- liquid 404

- meniscus (PF corrector) 384

- negative 190, 193

- negative Mangin 222

- negative, field-flattening (RC corrector) 383

- objective 6

- powered 146

- quartz (correctors) 363 -shape 168,170,351

- spectacle quality 9, 11

- thick 168,169

- thickness see finite thickness

- thin 41, 65, 146, 159, 167, 168, 195, 348, 351, 352, 354, 356, 373-375, 381

- thin positive (biconvex) 41,65

- tilted plano-convex 260

- triplet group corrector 209 Lens corrector see also Corrector

- Houghton-type 213-215,217

- Lurie-Houghton 214-216

- Richter-Slevogt 213 Lens forms 101

Lens formula 25, 43 Lens system

- afocal supplementary 55 Lenses

- off-axis sections (ADC) 399

- separated and powered 359

- thin, separated 40,219,221,380, 390

Light

- incident 24

- wave nature 26 Light ray see also Ray

Light transmission power 38, 39, 48, 50

Light-gathering power 11, 15, 18, 255 Limit case (afocal telescope) 98 Line spread function (LSF) 315, 317 Linearity 29,35 Losses

- absorption 38

- reflection 38

LSF see Line spread function Luminous wire

- incoherent 297

Magic number (Fibonacci) 103, 273 Magnification 22, 24-26, 37, 38, 54, 55, 58,146, 224, 242, 259, 302, 313, 378, 404-407, 409, 415, 422

- afocal system 48

- angular 55

- Barlow 405,406

- empty 302

- field angle 55

- inverse 234

- secondary 43, 73,113,115, 142, 185,190,191, 247, 256, 286, 287, 354, 378, 453

- transverse 30

- unit 23, 24, 31 Magnification factor (lens) 351 Magnification laws 38, 55, 279 Magnifying power 20 Magnitude

- limiting 452

Maintenance (telescope optics) 128, 269

Major planets (Schiefspiegler advantage) 256 Maksutov circulars 198 Malus' theorem 86 Mangin-type systems see Reflector Manufacture 1, 2, 9, 10,11,13, 46, 88, 101, 105, 107, 111, 140,165,186,191, 207, 253, 256, 260, 279, 340, 345, 347, 361, 426, 431, 432, 442, 445, 454

- errors 319

- specification 98 Mask (testing) 421

- zonal 421,437

Material (mirror blank) see also Blank

- low-expansion 440

- zero-expansion 440 Matrix spot-diagram

- single-column 88

- single-focus field-wavelength 87, 98

- through-focus 88, 98 Maximum (diffraction PSF)

Mechanics

- telescope 18,450

Medium (optical) 24, 26, 27, 29, 33, 36,145,148, 172

- object 24,39

Meniscus 165,168,170,193,196, 202, 217, 222

- achromatic 218

- back surface (as secondary) 202

- Bouwers 196

- concave 168

-concentric 150,168-170,172,195, 209, 213, 396

- concentric Bouwers 152, 167, 193

- concentric shells 209

- contribution 193

- double-pass 217

- Mangin 219

- quasi-concentric 213

- simple 196

- solution 165

- strongly asymmetric thickness 213

- thick 168

- thick concentric 167

- two-glass achromatic Bouwers concentric 193, 218

Mersenne afocal telescope see reflector Metric (length) 353, 374 Microscope 85

Miniature camera format 201, 204 Minimum (diffraction PSF) -secondary 297,300,301,303 Mirror 3, 5, 6, 219, 409, see also Blank (mirror)

- aspheric 3, 105, 145, 174, 176, 177, 180, 223, 240, 252, 257, 325, 377, 380

- built-up cellular 443

- centered concave 71, 89

- confocal, paraboloidal 92

- cylindrical Nasmyth 252,416

- deformed plane 325

- field 410,416

- field, concave 416

- large 241

- Mangin 213,217,218,220,221

- metal 450

- plane 53, 71, 89,142,176,185, 242, 255, 267, 278, 345, 416, 437, 442, 445

- powered 89, 142

- primary see Primary mirror

- Schmidt-type spherical 242

- secondary see Secondary mirror

- segmented 249

-speculum 11,14,18,255,419,422, 424, 450

- spherical 3, 9, 67, 68, 89, 97,148, 153, 168, 183-187, 214, 215, 229, 241, 242,256,257,415

- tertiary 228, 238, 240

- toroidal 252, 253, 260 Mirrors

- three aspheric 251

- two aspheric (Schwarzschild) 114

- two spherical (concentric Schmidt-Cassegrain) 183

- two tilted (Schiefspiegler) 255 Modal concept

- aberration function 306 Mode

- natural vibration 62, 293 Modulation Transfer Function (MTF)

- degradation (aberrations) 321

- diffraction 316-321 Monocentric (system) 191,193 Monocentricity 184 Monomial functions 293 Mounting 89

- altazimuth (alt-az) 18, 242, 245, 423, 450, 452, 455-457, 461, 463

- English cradle-type 438, 447

- equatorial 423,426,435,455,456

- fork-type 438

- horseshoe equatorial (Palomar type) 447, 463

MTF see Modulation Transfer Function

Natural (vibration) mode 62, 86, 293 Nebula

- M31 in Andromeda 435,440

- spiral 422 Negative (test glass)

- concave 101

Neutral point (coma) 271 Neutral point (pointing) 271, 272 Newton focus 8, 70, 89, 325, 423, 424,

Normalization 66, 70,71,77, 90,92, 105,107-109,115, 116, 122, 123,126, 128,134,144,153,177,180,182,185, 190,193, 225, 235, 238, 276, 283, 287, 289, 290, 295, 307, 308, 314-317, 320, 321, 328-347, 349, 350, 353, 374, 379 NTT (ESO) see ESO Telescopes Null test (system) 96, 361, 437, 445

Object

- extended 312,429,457 Object space 24, 26, 33, 54,142 Objective

- achromatic (doublet) 8, 14, 17, 21, 36-38, 40,144,163,164, 218, 405

- camera 22

- lens 218-221,404 -photographic 5,21,40,54,55,114,

- singlet (Dialyte) 219

- telescope 22, 36-40

- triplet 14

Objective prism (ADC) 396, 397, 399 Oblate spheroid 59,107,117,178,182, 274, 275, 283

- convex 108

Obscuration factor 302-304, 310, 311 Observation

- astrometric 138

- astronomical programme 431

- bird-watching 38

- Cepheid variables 440

- galaxy M31 in Andromeda 435, 440 -infra-red 51,97,272

- Jupiter (test object) 438

- Milky Way 440

- Moon and major planets 256

- photographic 186, 431

- planetary 320,438

- spectroscopic 431

- spiral structure 422

- Vega (test object) 440

- visual 186,190, 204, 256, 438, 452 Observatory

- Armagh 183,424

- Bjurakan 460

- Dublin 183

- Harvard College 183

- Karl Schwarzschild (Tautenburg) 157, 462

- Lick 369,444

- McDonald 324

- Michigan 456

- Royal Greenwich 461

- St. Andrews University 183

- Tautenburg see Karl Schwarzschild

- Urania, Berlin 221

- Zelenchuk 451

Obstruction 115,116,191, 223, 247, 251, 252, 276, 278, 384, 406, 409, 411,443,445, 453

- central (axial) 230, 256, 259, 260, 277, 278, 287, 302, 303, 316, 319, 320,323,352,414,444

- detector 411

- field supplement 126, 230

- front-view 8

- linear 124

- ratio (axial) 46, 54, 77, 91,113,115, 116,160,180, 184-186, 209, 229, 239, 243, 273, 276, 319, 373, 453

Ocular see Eyepiece (ocular) Oil

- optical immersion 394 Oiled contact 394 Opera glasses 40 Operation (telescope) 89

Optical design 24, 63, 70, 77, 144, 170 Optical design program 83, 98, 155, 161,170,269,288,322

- ZEMAX-EE 98 Optical figuring 18

Optical geometry see also Layout, telescope

- Bowen 452

Optical glass see Glass, optical Optical length see Length Optical path 26, 27, 35,117,161

- total 85

Optical power 41, 52, 89,148,151, 255

- zero (plane secondary) 54, 327 Optical system

-centered 23,26,28,32,66

- non-centered 23, 255 Optical theory

- Gaussian 21

- third order see Theory

Optical Transfer Function (OTF) 304, 312-317, 319, 322

- multiplicative form 319

- theory 312 Optical works

- Grubb-Parsons 457 Optics

- Gaussian see Gaussian optics

- large 255

- physical 26,293-324

- spectrograph 111

- telescope 26,402 Optimization 170,174,191, 238, 288,

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know all about the telescopes that can provide a fun and rewarding hobby for you and your family!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment