Index

aberration function. astigmatism 254 medium-scale roughness 241 misalignment 106 pinching 147

small-scale roughness 247 spherical aberration 174 tube currents 139 turbulence 131 turned edge 211 zones 205 accommodation 19, 79, 93 accordion box 91 achromatic lens 222 achromatism, Isaac Newton 222 aggregate error 265 air, index of refraction 129 Airy disk 11, 334 alignment 17, 22, 104, 266 Newtonian 109 refractor 121 Schmidt-Cassegrain 125 aperture, as fundamental filter 37 APERTURE program 307, 316 apochromatic lens 226 apodization 160—166 artificial source 77, 82 at night 90 color correction 90 disadvantages 83 distance 83

distance for Schmidt-Cassegrains 86

example 97-100 flashlight illumination 90 induced spherical aberration 83 modifying separation 98 mounting 91 size 86

size, reflected in sphere 89, 339

artificial source (cont.)

spherical reflector 88 aspherical figuring 202 astigmatism 5, 32, 251

diagnosing cause 258 in star test 90, 258-260 ASYMM program 317

atmospheric turbulence 129 audio analogy 38

bandpass, optical system 46 black spheres 90

boundary-value problem 58, 308

c calculation methods 307 Cassegrain design 171 causality 62 caustic test 284 caustic 170

Ceravolo's mirrors 267 chromatic aberration 219 eyepiece 232 in eye 231 clean optics 168 clips, mirror 25, 114 collimation 17, 22, 104

colored filters in star test 93, 227 coma 23, 106

mix with astigmatism 104 complain, how to 273 contrast reversal 52 convective cell 131 coordinates of light 57 cycloid, curtate 147, 345

Dall-Kirkham-Cassegrain 171

Danjon and Couder conditions 8

Dawes criterion 286

decentering error 228

defocus distance 20, 78, 337

defocused, definition 2

defocusing aberration 75, 173

deformed optics 145

depth of focus 79

diagonal size, excessive cures 156

diffraction rings 10

diffraction, and focusing 65

diffraction 55

dispersion 220

Dobson, John 88

dog biscuit 236

Dollond, John 223

dust and scratches 166

electronic pop 61

encircled energy ratio (EER) 197

encircled energy secondary obstruction 154 spherical aberration 177 example star tests

8" f/6 Newtonian 94 16" f/4 Newtonian 97 6" f/12 apochromatic refractor 98 8" f/10 Schmidt-Cassegrain 100 eye, automatic focus 93

roughness 240 eyeglasses 18, 252 eyepiece motion, 77-81

internal focusing mechanisms 81 table of 80 eyepiece, in star test 17

fast Fourier transform 314 field stop 9

filter, colored 93, 98, 227

fine-alignment 117

fixed eyepiece viewpoint 9

fixing telescope flaws 269

fluorescent lights 41

focus accommodation 19, 79, 93

focus position with artificial source

83-86 focus trick 93 focus, types 174

focuser motion, in star test 18, 78 focusing error, fix first 272

Foucault test 167, 239, 278 Fourier 62, 71 Fraunhofer 26

approximation 310 lines 224 Fresnel approximation 310 Fresnel zones 66-70 Fresnel-Kirchhoff formula 308

Gaussian pupil transmission 161 geometric Ronchi test 289-297 geometric shadow 56 grinding, astigmatism 5 guitar string 70

Hall, Chester Moor 223 Hartmann test 284 Heisenberg indeterminacy 60 HST (Hubble Space Telescope) 172 Huygens, Christian 63 Huygens-Fresnel principle 307 Hz (hertz), definition 39

image evaluation, blind test 267 image processing 41 image, as reproduction 35 impulse response function 62 indeterminacy principle 60 interferometer tests 298 iridescence 298

knife-edge test 167, 239, 278

Labeling of image frames 333 location, in star test 17, 138, 243 longitudinal slice 73, 187-190 lowpass filters 42

magnification as oversampling 42 Maksutov telescope 171 maps and surface error 236 Marechal's tolerance 7, 9, 238 microripple 237, 246 microscopy 38 microwave oven 72

midpoint-displacement fractal algorithm 131 misalignment 17, 22, 104, 109, 121, 125, 266

MTF (modulation transfer function) 9, 46

as autocorrelation 315 astigmatism 256 definition 47 defocusing 51

higher-order spherical aberration 194

lower order spherical aberration 176

medium-scale roughness 242 multiple optical problems 52, 267 obstruction 155 of symmetric apertures 313 pinched optics 147 small-scale roughness 247 spiders 158 tube currents 140 turbulence 136 turned edge 211 zones 205 mythology of telescopes 15

Newtonian reflector, quality 28 nodes and antinodes 70—74 null test 172, 304 numbering in image frames 333 numerical model, limitations 320

o obstruction mask, 33% 94 obstruction 20, 153 tolerance 155 offset, diagonal 114 ordering of diagnosis 19 OTF/MTF as autocorrelation 315 other tests 277 out-of-focus, definition 2 overcorrection 171 oversampling 41

paraboloid 171

perfect optics, diffraction pattern characteristics 11, 14 perspective compression 38

photographic plates 284 physical optics 15 Pickering's seeing scale 136 pinched optics 25, 145 pinch horizontal star test 92

in thin-mirror reflectors 151 pinholes 83-88 pitch operating principles 5 physical characteristics 5 polishing 28 point-spread function 62

point-diffraction interferometer 302 Poisson, S.D. 21 power conservation 11 primary ripple 236 printing image frames 324 propagation, definition 63 pupil function 74 pupils, Gaussian 161 pupils, super-resolution 160

radial bar target 52 radiators 64 radio telescope 40

ray tracing (geometric optics) 22, 56 Rayleigh criterion 286 Rayleigh tolerance 6 Rayleigh-Taylor instability 130 rear-view mirrors 89 red dot effect 230 refractive/reflective optics 26 remedies, turned edge 217 residual chromatic aberration 224 resolution, audio 39 resolving power test 286 resonance, cause for dispersion 224 Ritchey-Chretien-Cassegrain 172 Ronchi test 289-297 rough surface 28, 235 roughness in the eye 240 roughness scales 238

sagitta 78, 337

sampling errors in calculations 320 scaled accuracy of wavefront 3 schiefspiegler 79 Schmidt-Cassegrain 171 scratches and dust 166

secondary sources 64 secondary spectrum 224 "seeing" filters 165 sensitivity of star test 78, 81-82 shading 160

shrinkage with cooling 146 signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) 43, 167, 249

signature of reproduction device 62

simple lenses 219

site modification 14, 138

site selection 91

skyglow 38

snap test 18, 93, 98

soap bubbles 298

Sparrow's criterion 287

spatial frequency response 45

spherical aberration 26, 170, 174

spherical reflector as an artificial source 88 spiders 157-160 stack of filters 35 star, as target 18 star test 17

2:1 criterion for spherical aberration 190-192 apochromats and advanced designs 231 astigmatism 258 chromatic aberration 227 conventional doublets 229 Ellison's variant 179 Gaussian pupil 163

higher-order spherical aberration 194

inequalities of focus 311 low-order spherical aberration 178

medium-scale roughness 243 obstruction 155 pinched optics 148 spider diffraction 159 tube currents 142 turbulence 136 turned edge 211 zones 207 star-test etiquette 273 strained optics 25, 145 Strehl ratio 9, 148, 198, 238 subwoofer 40

surface deformation at microscopic scale 4

surface roughness 235

temperature effects 25, 187 torus 252

transmission, negative 161 tube currents 24, 139

turbulence cells, origin 23 turbulence, ground 91, 138 turbulence 23, 129 turned edge 5, 31, 203, 209 twinkling 24

undercorrection 171

vignetting 85

"warm" colors 41 wave sum 67

wavefront error, measure of quality 6 wedge error 228

Welford's 20 focal length rule 83 white light diffraction pattern 13 wire test 284

Zernike polynomials 174 zonal aberration 31, 201

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