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From the pen of Galileo Galilei:

In this short treatise I propose great things for inspection and contemplation by every explorer of Nature. Great, I say, because of the excellence of the things themselves, because of their newness, unheard of through the ages, and also because of the instrument with the benefit of which they make themselves manifest to our sight.

Certainly it is a great thing to add to the countless multitude of fixed stars visible hitherto by natural means and expose to our eyes innumerable others never seen before, which exceed tenfold the number ofold and known ones.

It is most beautiful and pleasing to the eye to look upon the lunar body, distant from us about sixty terrestrial diameters, from so near as if it were distant by only two of these measures, so that the diameter of the same Moon appears as if it were thirty times, the surface nine-hundred times, and the solid body about twenty seven thousand times larger than when observed only with the naked eye. Anyone will then understand with the certainty of the senses that the Moon is by no means endowed with a smooth and polished surface, but is rough and uneven and, just as the face of the Earth itself, crowded everywhere with vast prominences, deep chasms, and convolutions.

Moreover, it seems of no small importance to have put an end to the debate about the Galaxy or Milky Way and to have made manifest its essence to the senses as well as the intellect; and it will be pleasing and most glorious to demonstrate clearly that the substance of those stars called nebulous up to now by all astronomers is very different from what has hitherto been thought.

But what greatly exceeds all admiration, and what especially impelled us to give notice to all astronomers and philosophers, is this, that we have discovered four wandering stars, known or observed by no one before us. These, like Venus Shrouds ofthe Night and Mercury around the Sun, have their periods around a certain star nota-

2 ble among the number of known ones, and now precede, now follow, him, never digressing from him beyond certain limits. All these things were discovered and observed a few days ago by means ofa glass contrived by me after I had been inspired by divine grace.

Perhaps more excellent things will be discovered in time, either by me or by others, with the help ofa similar instrument, the form and construction of which, and the occasion of whose invention, I shall first mention briefly, and then I shall review the history of the observations made by me.

About 10 months ago a rumor came to our ears that a spyglass had been made by a certain Dutchman by means of which visible objects, although far removed from the eye of the observer, were distinctly perceived as though nearby. About this truly wonderful effect some accounts were spread abroad, to which some gave credence while others denied them. The rumor was confirmed to me a few days later by a letter from Paris from the noble Frenchman Jacques Badovere. This finally caused me to apply myself totally to investigating the principles and figuring out the means by which I might arrive at the invention ofa similar instrument, which I achieved shortly afterward on the basis of the science of refraction. And first I prepared a lead tube in whose ends I fitted two glasses, both plane on one side while the other side of one was spherically convex and of the other concave. Then, applying my eye to the concave glass, I saw objects satisfactorily large and close. Indeed, they appeared three times closer and nine times larger than when observed with natural vision only. Afterward I made another more perfect one for myself that showed objects more than sixty times larger. Finally, sparing no labor or expense, I progressed so far that I constructed for myself an instrument so excellent that things seen through it appear about a thousand times larger and more than thirty times closer than when observed with the natural faculty only. It would be entirely superfluous to enumerate how many and how great the advantages of this instrument are on land and at sea. But having dismissed earthly things, I applied myself to explorations of the heavens. And first I looked at the Moon from so close that it was scarcely two terrestrial diameters distant. Next, with incredible delight I frequently observed the stars, fixed as The Grand Stage Before Us well as wandering, and as I saw their huge number I began to think of, and at 3

last discovered, a method whereby I could measure the distances between them. (Excerpted from the Sidereus Nuncius as translated by Albert Van Helden,

University of Chicago Press. Used with permission.)

And so, it was in the early 1600s that the science of observational astronomy by means of a telescope was born. Impinged on the brain of people on Earth could be photons of starlight unseen by the naked eye -photons of light which may have traversed hundreds of years or more, before finally journeying down the telescope tube to the Eye of the Observer. Starry messengers indeed. The years 1608 and 1609 were small steps for Man, but giant leaps for Mankind, to paraphrase the words of astronaut Neil Armstrong. That era marked the dawning of a new age wherein not only could the Moon be observed by Galileo at closer quarters, but the fiery stars of the night, as well.

Figure 1 [405] Note: The captions to the figures in this book are located on the page indicated in the brackets next to the figure number.

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