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14.5 Interstellar molecules 251

14.5.1 Discovery 251

14.5.2 Interstellar chemistry 253

14.5.3 Observing interstellar molecules 254

14.6 Thermodynamics of the interstellar medium 258 Chapter summary 259 Questions 260 Problems 261 Computer problems 262

15 Star formation 263

15.1 Gravitational binding 263

15.2 Problems in star formation 266

15.3 Molecular clouds and star formation 267

15.4 Magnetic effects and star formation 270

15.5 Protostars 272

15.5.1 Luminosity of collapsing clouds 272

15.5.2 Evolutionary tracks for protostars 273

15.6 Regions of recent star formation 274

15.6.1 HII regions 274

15.6.2 Masers 280

15.6.3 Energetic flows 282

15.6.4 T Tauri stars and related objects 285

15.7 Picture of a star forming region: Orion 287 Chapter summary 289 Questions 290 Problems 291 Computer problems 292

16 The Milky Way galaxy 293

16.1 Overview 293

16.2 Differential galactic rotation 294

16.2.1 Rotation and mass distribution 294

16.2.2 Rotation curve and Doppler shift 296

16.3 Determination of the rotation curve 300

16.4 Average gas distribution 302

16.5 Spiral structure in the Milky Way 304

16.5.1 Optical tracers of spiral structure 304

16.5.2 Radio tracers of spiral structure 304

16.6 The galactic center 306

16.6.1 Distribution of material near the center 306

16.6.2 A massive black hole? 308 Chapter summary 310 Questions 311 Problems 311 Computer problems 312

Part V I The universe at large

17 Normal galaxies

17.1 Types of galaxies

17.1.1 Elliptical galaxies

17.1.2 Spiral galaxies

17.1.3 Other types of galaxies

17.2 Star formation in galaxies

17.2.1 Star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud

17.2.2 Star formation in spiral galaxies

17.3 Explanations of spiral structure

17.4 Dark matter in galaxies Chapter summary Questions Problems

Computer problems

18 Clusters of galaxies

18.1 Distribution of galaxies

18.2 Cluster dynamics

18.3 Expansion of the universe

18.3.1 Hubble's law

18.3.2 Determining the Hubble constant

18.4 Superclusters and voids

18.5 Where did all this structure come from?

18.6 The Hubble Deep Field Chapter summary Questions Problems

19 Active galaxies

19.1 Starburst galaxies

19.2 Radio galaxies

19.2.1 Properties of radio galaxies

19.2.2 Model for radio galaxies

19.2.3 The problem of superluminal expansion

19.3 Seyfert galaxies

19.4 Quasars

19.4.1 Discovery of quasars

19.4.2 Properties of quasars

19.4.3 Energy-redshift problem

19.5 Gravitationally lensed quasars

19.6 A unified picture of active galaxies?

19.6.1 A common picutre

19.6.2 Black holes in galactic nuclei? Chapter summary Questions

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