Michelson interferometer. Light enters from the left, and strikes a beam splitter.The split beams bounce off mirrors and are brought back together to interfere with each other. One of the mirrors has its position fixed, and the other is movable.

For any position of the mirror, corresponding to a path length x, we will receive the contributions from all wavelengths (k). So, to find the total intensity as a function of x, we integrate over all k:

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