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Problems 374

Computer problems 375

20 Cosmology 377

20.1 The scale of the universe 377

20.2 Expansion of the universe 378

20.2.1 Olbers's paradox 378

20.2.2 Keeping track of expansion 380

20.3 Cosmology and Newtonian gravitation 381

20.4 Cosmology and general relativity 384

20.4.1 Geometry of the universe 384

20.4.2 Cosmological redshift 386

20.4.3 Models of the universe 388

20.5 Is the universe open or closed? 390 Chapter summary 392 Questions 393 Problems 394 Computer problems 394

21 The big bang 395

21.1 The cosmic background radiation 395

21.1.1 Origin of the cosmic background radiation 395

21.1.2 Observations of the cosmic background radiation 398

21.1.3 Isotropy of the cosmic background radiation 401

21.2 Big-bang nucleosynthesis 407

21.3 Fundamental particles and forces 410

21.3.1 Fundamental particles 410

21.3.2 Fundamental forces 411

21.3.3 The role of symmetries 412

21.3.4 Color 413

21.3.5 The unification of forces 416

21.4 Merging of physics of the big and small 417

21.4.1 Back to the earliest times 417

21.4.2 Inflation 419

21.4.3 Galaxy formation 420

21.4.4 Estimates of values of cosmological parameters 420 Chapter summary 422 Questions 423 Problems 424 Computer problems 425

Part VI I The Solar System 427

22 Overview of the Solar System 429

22.1 Motions of the planets 430

22.2 The motion of the Moon 435

22.3 Studying the Solar System 438

22.4 Traveling through the Solar System 439 Chapter summary 443 Questions 444

Problems

Computer problems

23 The Earth and the Moon

23.1 History of the Earth

23.1.1 Early history

23.1.2 Radioactive dating

23.1.3 Plate tectonics

23.2 Temperature of a planet

23.3 The atmosphere

23.3.1 Pressure distribution

23.3.2 Temperature distribution

23.3.3 Retention of an atmosphere

23.3.4 General circulation

23.4 The magnetosphere

23.5 Tides

23.6 The Moon

23.6.1 The lunar surface

23.6.2 The lunar interior

23.6.3 Lunar origin Chapter summary Questions Problems

Computer problems

24 The inner planets

24.1 Basic features

24.1.1 Mercury

24.1.2 Venus

24.1.3 Mars

24.1.4 Radar mapping of planets

24.2 Surfaces

24.3 Interiors

24.3.1 Basic considerations

24.3.2 Results

24.4 Atmospheres

24.5 Moons Chapter summary Questions Problems

Computer problems

25 The outer planets

25.1 Basic features

25.2 Atmospheres

25.3 Interiors

25.4 Rings

25.4.1 Basic properties

25.4.2 Ring dynamics

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