Fig 25.28.

Orbital resonances and tidal heating of Io.An orbital resonance with Europa keeps Io's orbit elliptical.This means that, even though Io rotates at a constant rate, equal to its orbital period, it doesn't go around the orbit at a constant rate. If we think of Io as an ellipsoid, with an inner and outer section, the effect of the torques caused by Jupiter is for the inner layer to be out of phase with the outer layer. The two layers move against each other and generate heat.

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