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Numbers of sunspots per year as a function of year.The 11-year pattern is evident. Note that the number in a peak year is not the same from cycle to cycle. [NASA]

(including spinning) charges. Magnetic field lines form closed loops (Fig. 6.22). This is equivalent to saying that there are no point sources of magnetic charge, magnetic monopoles. (We will discuss the implications of the possible existence of magnetic monopoles in Chapter 21.) We call the closed loop pattern in Fig. 6.22 a magnetic dipole.

The magnetic field strength B is defined such that the magnetic force on a charge q, moving with velocity v, is (in cgs units)

where the x indicates a vector cross product. There is no magnetic force on a charge at rest, or

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