List Of Figures

1.1 Neutron-star prediction cartoon 3

1.2 Schematic structure of a neutron star 12

1.3 EOS of neutron star matter 15

1.4 Superfluid transition temperatures and neutrino emissivities 17

1.5 Thermal conductivity and bulk viscosity 23

1.6 Cooling curves 26

1.7 Arecibo radio telescope 30

1.8 Chandra X-ray satellite 31

1.9 X-ray image of the Crab Nebula 40

1.10 Multiwavelength spectrum of the Vela pulsar 42

2.1 Structure of an envelope of a neutron star 54

2.2 Density-temperature diagram for outer envelope 57

2.3 Pressure versus density for an ideal degenerate electron gas 71

2.4 Internal energy of a one-component plasma 76

2.5 Electron-ion plasma screening energy 98

2.6 Difference between polarization corrections for Coulomb liquid and solid 101

2.7 Heat capacity of the outer crust 103

2.8 Pressure isotherms of partially ionized hydrogen 113

2.9 Adiabatic gradient isotherms for hydrogen 114

3.1 Fractions of constituents of the outer envelope of a newly born neutron star 117

3.2 Density profiles of neutron and protons (Hartree-Fock results) 128

3.3 Numbers of protons per nucleus in the ground state of the inner crust 129

3.4 Density profiles of neutron and protons (ETF results) 132

3.5 Local proton and neutron number densities within a spherical unit cell in the inner crust 134

3.6 Parameters of the unit cell versus density 138

3.7 Mass and proton numbers of spherical nuclei versus density 138

3.8 Ground state of the inner crust 141

3.9 Unit cells for a set of nuclear shapes (spheres, rods, plates) 142

3.10 Energy densities for different nuclear phases for the FPS and

SkM interactions 145

3.11 Energy densities for nuclear phases for the SLy interaction 146

3.12 Energy per neutron versus neutron number density for pure neutron matter 152

3.13 Comparison of the SLy and FPS EOSs. 153

3.14 Comparison of the SLy and FPS EOSs near the crust-core transition 154

3.15 SLy EOS 155

3.16 Adiabatic index for the ground state of the neutron star matter 156

3.17 Melting temperature and electron and ion plasma temperatures of the ground-state matter in the crust 157

3.18 Effective shear modulus versus density for bcc lattice 158

3.19 Shear and bend coefficients of the columnar phase 160

4.1 Characteristic parameter domains in the p -T plane for iron in a strong magnetic field 174

4.2 Vibration spectrum of a bcc crystal in a magnetic field 182

4.3 Harmonic lattice heat capacity in magnetic fields 183

4.4 The effects of a strong magnetic field on the atoms 184

4.5 Energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom moving across a strong magnetic field 192

4.6 Equation of state for iron in strong magnetic fields 196

4.7 Population of hydrogen energy levels in a strong magnetic field 200

4.8 Ionization isotherms for hydrogen in a strong magnetic field 200

4.9 Ionization state of the hydrogen plasma as a function of magnetic field strength 202

4.10 Equation of state for hydrogen: the effects of a strong magnetic field and Coulomb interactions 203

4.11 Density exponents of hydrogen in magnetic fields 204

5.1 Energy per nucleon versus baryon number density 219

5.2 Some processes contributing to three- and four-nucleon interactions 224

5.3 The most important meson-exchange processes which contribute to the NN interaction 228

5.4 Strong-interaction one-meson-exchange processes accompanied by A-E conversion 232

5.5 Second-order three-body correlations involving two-body interactions in dense matter 233

5.6 Pressure versus baryon number density for several EOSs of the npei matter in beta equilibrium 261

5.7 Pressure versus mass density of the npei matter 262

5.8 Proton fraction in npei matter at beta equilibrium for different EOSs 264

5.9 Adiabatic index of the npei matter in an inner neutron-star core 267

5.10 Threshold chemical potentials 268

5.11 Fractions of particles versus baryon number density for two relativistic models of baryonic interactions 269

5.12 Fractions of particles versus baryon number density in the

BHF approximation 270

5.13 Effect of the three-body forces on particle fractions 271

5.14 Softening of EOSs by the presence of hyperons 274

5.15 The adiabatic index versus nb in a neutron-star core 275

5.16 Selected model EOSs of neutron-star cores 276

6.1 M(R) curves for stellar models with different EOSs 294

6.2 Dependence of masses of equilibrium stellar models 295

6.3 Gravitational mass versus central density for several EOSs 296

6.4 Gravitational mass versus central density near the minimum mass for the FPS and SLy EOSs 303

6.5 Neutron star radius versus gravitational mass 304

6.6 Gravitational mass versus radius at the minimum mass for neutron stars with the SLy EOS 306

6.7 Surface gravitational redshift versus gravitational mass 307

6.8 Gravitational acceleration versus compactness parameter 311

6.9 Apparent radius of neutron stars versus gravitational mass 312

6.10 Baryon mass and gravitational mass versus central density for the BBB2 models 314

6.11 Binding energy versus gravitational mass for several EOSs 315

6.12 Binding energy (relative 56Fe and hydrogen) versus gravitational mass at M & Mm-m for the FPS and SLy EOSs 316

6.13 Density versus radial coordinate for BBB2 models 317

6.14 Density versus radial coordinate for neutron star models with

6.15 Density and surface mass in a neutron star crust versus depth 320

6.16 Moment of inertia of a slowly and rigidly spinning neutron star versus stellar mass for several EOSs of dense matter 325

6.17 I/MR2 versus rg/R 327

6.18 Families of stable stationary rotating neutron star configurations in the M — Req plane (for the SLy EOS) 336

6.19 Effect of rotation on the neutron star shape 339

6.20 Cross section in the plane passing through the rotational axis of a neutron star 340

6.21 Fractional decrease of the central density by rotation; ratio of rotational to gravitational energy 341

6.22 Gravitational mass M versus equatorial radius for low-mass non-rotating and rotating neutron stars 342

7.1 Spectrum of lowest energy charged-pion excitations in the npen matter 355

7.2 Spectrum of lowest energy charged-pion excitations in the npen matter 357

7.3 Three EOSs of pion-condensed matter 359

7.4 versus P in the presence of an equilibrium first-order phase transition 376

7.5 P versus nb in the presence of an equilibrium first-order phase transition 377

7.6 First- and second-order phase transitions 383

7.7 Time for the formation of a droplet of the quark matter versus the central pressure 389

7.8 Metastable one-phase stellar configuration 392

7.9 Stellar mass versus central density for EOSs with a phase transition without a density jump 393

7.10 Mass versus central pressure for EOSs containing phase transition with a density jump 396

7.11 Vicinity of the "reference configuration" in the M — R plane for phase transitions with A < Acrit and A > Acrit 397

8.1 Baryon chemical potential versus pressure in weak-interaction equilibrium 409

8.2 Lines of constant energy per unit baryon number for strange quark matter at zero pressure 415

8.3 Adiabatic index versus density for the SQM0 EOS 418

8.4 The increase of the stability region of strange quark matter due to CFL pairing 420

8.5 Mass-radius relation for bare strange stars and for strange stars with the normal crust 423

8.6 Mass density versus radial coordinate for three bare strange stars of different masses 424

8.7 Surface redshift for bare strange stars and for neutron stars versus stellar mass 425

8.8 I/MR2 versus M/R for several EOSs of SQM 426

8.9 Number densities of u, d, s quarks and electrons versus radial coordinate for a model of a bare strange star 427

8.10 Gravitational mass versus central density and radius for stars built of SQM; 428

8.11 Apparent stellar radius versus gravitational mass 436

8.12 Surface gravity versus strange star mass and compactness 437

8.13 Cross section in the meridional plane xz of a rapidly rotating strange star 442

8.14 Families (in the M — Req plane) of spinning bare strange stars (SQM1 EOS) stable with respect to axially symmetric perturbations 443

8.15 Families of rotating strange stars (the SQM1 EOS) with the crust in the M — Req plane 444

8.16 The effect of rotation on the shape of a strange star with the crust 445

8.17 Fractional decrease of the central density produced by rotation; The ratio of the kinetic energy to the modulus of the gravitational energy 446

8.18 Baryon mass of the crust as a function of spin frequency 447

8.19 Gravitational mass versus circumferential equatorial radius 447

8.20 The cross section of the crust for a strange quark star (SQM1 EOS of the quark core) with the spin frequency close to the Keplerian frequency 448

8.21 Logarithm of density versus the radial coordinate along the polar and equatorial directions for a rotating strange star 448

8.22 Critical value of Ek-m/\Egrav\ for the triaxial instability versus the compactness parameter 452

8.23 Critical frequency for the secular triaxial instability versus gravitational mass 453

9.1 Neutron star masses inferred from observations 457

9.2 Keplerian orbit of the primary component of a binary 459

9.3 Some measurements of the Vela X-1 mass 462

9.4 Orbit evolution of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar 470

9.5 Mass measurements of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar and its companion 475

9.6 Orbital period, major semi-axis, and gravitational luminosity of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar last ten years of its life before the final merging stage 478

9.7 The gravitational surface redshift versus stellar mass compared with observations 492

9.8 EOS constraints from observation of rapidly rotating pulsars 500

9.9 Expansion of the Crab Nebula 503

9.10 Binding energy with respect to the presupernova core versus neutron star mass 506

9.11 Time evolution of the cumulated angular momentum transferred during glitches to the strongly coupled crust-core component of the Vela pulsar 510

C.1 Comparison of the data and fits for the SLy and FPS EOSs 529

C.2 Adiabatic index for the SLy EOS 531

E.1 M(PC) curves 538

E.3 zsurf(M) curves 539

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