Related to this question is the fact that we do not know the sufficient conditions for the emergence of consciousness. Given the kind of physics which holds here and now, necessary conditions for life as we know it depend on suitable choices of parameters in fundamental physics [7,24]. However, we would have no handle on how to deal with this issue if physics were substantially different. Indeed, we do not even know what the necessary conditions are within the broad kind of physics that holds here and now. Hence we cannot properly characterize the domains in any ensemble where intelligent life may be able to exist. We have a good idea of many necessary conditions, but we do not know the sufficient conditions.
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