How to Attract a Taurus Man

Taurus Man Secrets

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Taurus Man Secrets Summary


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Stellar Nurseries Taurus Auriga

Returning to Figure 1.1, we now proceed northwest from Orion, i. e., along the direction of the Hunter's belt. We soon encounter the constellation Taurus (the Bull). Taurus is notable for the Figure 1.8 Dark clouds in Taurus-Auriga. The large patches in the lower left and middle right correspond to TMC-1 and L1495 in Figure 1.9.

Taurus And The Pleiades

Low in the north-northwest sky is Taurus, the bull (Fig. 3-32). This constellation contains the bright star Aldebaran. Below Taurus is a group of several stars known as the Pleiades. At this latitude, the Pleiades are less spectacular than they are as seen from the northern hemisphere, but on an especially dark night, with a good wide-angle telescope, their splendor shines through. From extreme southern latitudes, the Pleiades never rise above the northern horizon. Figure 3-32. Taurus, the bull, and the Pleiades, also known as the Seven Sisters (although there are really far more than seven of them). Figure 3-32. Taurus, the bull, and the Pleiades, also known as the Seven Sisters (although there are really far more than seven of them).

Discover the Jewels in Taurus

Taurus the Bull features one 1st-magnitude star, Aldebaran, and two standout star clusters best viewed with binoculars the Hyades and the Pleiades. For those with a telescope, Taurus offers the Crab Nebula, one of the most spectacular supernova remnants in the sky. The main body of Taurus the Bull is easy to trace. First, find the sprawling Hyades star cluster. The brightest stars in this group take the shape of the letter V. The 4th-magnitude star Gamma (y) Tauri marks the V's tip. Aldebaran represents the fiery eye of the Bull. Although this star appears to belong to the Hyades, it lies in the foreground, at less than half the cluster's distance. If you extend the arms of the Hyades's V eastward, you'll come to Beta (P) and Zeta (Z) Tauri. These two stars mark the tips of the Bull's horns. The Crab Nebula (Ml) lies just 1 northwest of Zeta. But the finest deep-sky object in Taurus has to be the Pleiades star cluster (M45). It stands at the Bull's shoulder. Taurus stands highest in...

Landing At Tauruslittrow

Ignition, Houston,'' Cernan reported. Attitude looks good. Engine Override is On. Master Arm is Off. We got a Descent Quantity Light On at ignition, just prior to ignition.'' The twelve-minute powered descent phase would take the Lunar Module from its ten nautical mile altitude to the valley floor of Taurus-Littrow. Schmitt read off velocity and altitude as Challenger slowed and dropped out of its lunar orbit.

Acrux in the Scorpius Centaurus Association

The most glorious clutch of youthful, prodigal suns in the direction of Cen-taurus and Crux is the one that includes the following stars (with their distances from Earth included) Alpha Crucis (320 light-years), Beta Crucis (350 light-years), Delta Crucis (360 light-years), and Beta Centauri (352 light-years). How glorious must these stars be as seen from each other This far from Earth, Hipparcos parallaxes give a distance with an uncertainty of


H VII-21 (NGC 1758) 05 04 + 23 49, open cluster, 7.0, 42'. Cluster, pretty compressed, stars large and small. This is one of two dual clusters in Taurus (see also next), which in both cases Herschel cataloged the one but not the other What is taken to be H VII-21 appears as a large but sparse arc of fairly bright stars. However, this is just the E section of the much bigger and richer attached cluster NGC 1746. Sir William must have seen this object but neither described it (although his description above leaves some doubt as to which group he was actually referring to - perhaps both combined ) nor gave it a designation. On virtually all modern star atlases, NGC 1746 is plotted without NGC 1758 - with the exception of the many early editions of the original Norton's Star Atlas, which show H VII-21 but not NGC 1746 The NGC itself tersely describes the latter object as a cluster, poor despite the fact that it contains some 50 stars from 8th-magnitude and downward. Interestingly, Sky...

Legend of Taurus

Sumerians as the 'Bull of Light', by the Egyptians as Osiris-Apis and was the Golden Calf of biblical times. Taurus, the bull, is the symbol of springtime, which is the time for ploughing and planting, but it is also the symbol of love, which seems to blossom during springtime. her loveliness that he transformed himself into a magnificent white bull. He moved close to the princess and lowered his head. The princess immediately knew that he was offering her the opportunity to fulfill her dream. When she looked into his pleading eyes and felt his wave of love, she climbed onto his back. Zeus, in the form of the bull, dashed into the sea and with great speed swam beyond the horizon to the island of Crete. There he changed himself back to his true form, told her of his love and that he was an immortal god. The princess was so overwhelmed by the intensity and sincerity of his love that she accepted him as her lover. The constellation of Taurus symbolizes this love story. In the...

Observational Astronomy 111 Historical development

The Greek astronomer Hipparchus (c. 127 bc) used astronomical observations to determine the lengths of the four seasons and the duration of the year to within 6.5 minutes. He also derived the distance to the Moon and the Sun, but his most amazing feat was to notice a small westward drift of the constellations which we now call the precession of the equinoxes. This effect causes the current Pole Star (Polaris) to move away from the North point and circle back after almost 26,000 years Chinese astronomers recorded the appearance and fading of an exceptionally bright star in 1054 ad in the constellation we now call Taurus, but it was not until the 20th century that Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) associated this event with the supernova explosion which gave rise to the Crab Nebula, also known as Messier 1, the first entry in the list of nebulous objects studied by Charles Messier (1730-1817). Following the invention of the telescope in the early 1600s, Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) and others...

Exploration Of The Moon

On 11 December 1972, the sixth and final lunar surface mission of the Apollo Program (Apollo 17) landed in a valley near the edge of Mare Serenitatis (Figure 1.13). Astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt spent 72 hours at the site, named Taurus-Littrow (after the mountains to the north). The site was geologically diverse, with the mountain ring of the Serenitatis Basin nearby, and lava

Whats to See Stars Galaxies Nebulae

The Pleiades, a star cluster in the constellation of Taurus. This cluster includes a glowing nebula among the stars. Photo by Chris Schur with an 8 inch Schmidt camera. The Pleiades, a star cluster in the constellation of Taurus. This cluster includes a glowing nebula among the stars. Photo by Chris Schur with an 8 inch Schmidt camera.

Magnetic Field and Ionization Degree

As noted earlier, the magnetic field is a critical parameter for understanding star formation. It is also extremely hard to measure. The most attractive approach is to use the Zeeman effect but this has proved to be extremely hard in particular for cold dense regions. One needs in practise to have a probe with an unpaired electron such as OH or CN and one is hampered by the fact that the splitting does not increase with frequency. Thus, Zeeman effect is most easily observed at low frequency and indeed large low frequency arrays such as SKA show promise for the future. Presently, some of the best results have been obtained with the Arecibo telescope observing OH (see e.g. Crutcher & Troland 2000) with a beam of roughly 3 arc minutes or roughly 0.1 parsec at the distance of Taurus (too coarse for the dense core nuclei).

Postwar Years Radar Everywhere

With this ingenious device, capable of 10 arcminutes of resolution, the Australians made some of the most important observations in early radio astronomy. They discovered that enhanced solar radio emission was associated with sunspots (in 1946) and that the temperature of the radio emitting regions of the sun were at a million degrees, a conclusion based on detecting radio waves from what turned out to be the solar atmosphere (called the corona) and studying the spectrum of these radiations (see Appendix A.4). They also observed the first solar radio burst (1947) produced by violent explosions known as flares. They confirmed the position of the Cygnus A radio source (1947) and found several new radio sources which helped to arouse the interest of optical astronomers in the new science. They also discovered the Taurus A radio source in 1947 (see Chapter 4 for its radiograph), and their accurate position measurements facilitated its identification w ith the Crab Nebula (1948). Then...

Debris disks Asteroid or Kuiper Belt

Mean circumstellar dust mass derived from millimeter or sub-millimeter continuum observations (see Eq. 1 from Carpenter et al., 2005) as a function of age for stars with stellar masses between 0.5 and 2 M0. The stellar samples include stars observed as part of the FEPS legacy program, Taurus, IC 348, Lindroos binary stars, the j Pic moving group and the Local Association, and stars with known planets from radial velocity surveys (see Carpenter et al., 2005 for a discussion and references of the observations). Individual points indicate sources that have been detected at S N 3 in the FEPS sample (stars) and the other stellar samples represented in this figure (filled circles). The open circles show the location of TW Hya at 10 Myr and e Eri at 730 Myr. The dashed line shows the mass-age relation derived by Spangler et al. (2001) from ISO observations. (Figure from Carpenter et al, 2005.) Fig. 2.6. Mean circumstellar dust mass derived from millimeter or sub-millimeter...

Magnificent desolation

No, not a still from a science-fiction movie but a real (Apollo 17) astronaut by the 'Station 6 Boulder' on the North Massif of the Moon's Taurus-Littrow Valley The South Massif can be seen on the far side of the Valley. The Apollo 17 mission in December 1972 was the last manned expedition to the Moon's airless surface. (NASA photograph.)

Million years TTauri Phase

Named after a prototypical young stellar object in the constellation Taurus, the T-Tauri phase is one of extreme fury. And as with all T-Tauri stars, this earliest form of solar activity would have been driven - at least in part - by a powerful magnetic field. Because the gases inside the young star were by now fully ionised - a soup of positively and negatively charged elements - their movement as the star rotated effectively amounted to a series of gigantic electric currents. Thus the spinning star developed a global magnetic field in the same way that a wire carrying an electric current does - just as the Sun generates its field even today. During the Sun's T-Tauri phase, though, the star would have been spinning very quickly -once in 8 days compared with once in 30 days - spun up by the swirling gases that had ploughed into it earlier. This means that the T-Tauri Sun's magnetic field was much mightier than at present, and this is what made this phase in the Sun's formation so...

New year new millennium same stars

If we could go back this week to Aristotle's time and look up at the night sky, we would still find wasp-waisted Orion the Hunter, with his distinctive 'belt' of three stars aligned east to west, well up in the northeastern sky by 8 o'clock. Following closely behind would be the sparkling Dog Star, Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky. Nearly overhead, the tiny cluster known as the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters, would glimmer like diamond chips just above the triangular visage of Taurus the Bull, his angry eye marked by the ruddy star Aldebaran. To the northeast, another bright star, Capella in Auriga the Charioteer, would flash its usual yellow and orange hues. Nearer the eastern horizon, two stars side by side would be just clearing the trees orange Pollux, the brightest and easternmost of the two, and white Castor. These are the two brightest stars in Gemini the Twins.

Jupiters Radio Bursts

Hi 1955, as part of a 22-MHz sky survey, two budding radio astronomers (B. F. Burke and K. L. Franklin, working at the Carnegie Institute in Washington, D.C.) made daily observations of the Crab nebula supernova remnant, which is a strong radio source named Taurus A. They used it to produce a standard signal to calibrate their data. As they further developed their antenna and receiver, they persisted in monitoring the Crab. When the time came to begin the systematic search for new radio sources, they had to make daily adjustments to the antenna system so that it would receive signals from directions a little further south each day. 'Jupiter, came Franklin's answer, causing them to laugh at the odd coincidence in view of the remark by Tatel earlier in the day. Neither of them noticed that Jupiter was in Gemini, the constellation immediately adjacent to Taurus, the home of the Crab nebula.

Physical Properties of Magnetized Clouds

Where n R2B is the magnetic flux through the cloud. Supercritical clouds (M > Mcr) cannot be supported by magnetic fields alone, even if they were perfectly frozen in the gas (see Section 3), and they would collapse on a magnetically diluted free-fall timescale. Subcritical clouds (M < Mcr) are supported by magnetic field against collapse (even if the external pressure increases) and evolve on the time scale that characterizes the diffusion of the magnetic field. On the scale of molecular cloud cores, (R 0.1 pc), the magnetic critical mass is of the order of a few M0, close to the actual mass of low-mass (Taurus) cores. Therefore, the initial conditions for star formation are characterized by a condition of near magnetic criticality (M Mcr). Any theory of star formation should then elucidate in the first place how the small fraction of mass of a molecular cloud that is eventually converted into stars (less than 10 , according to Lada and Lada, 2003) reached this critical state.

Illustrious Members of the Host

And to the upper right of Orion, supposedly facing the Hunter in fearsome conflict, is Taurus the Bull. Taurus has two stars to mark the tips of his long horns (one of these stars is borrowed by Auriga to help form the desired pentagon of stars that is the main pattern of Auriga). But Taurus draws looks and expressions of admiration mostly because of its two great star clusters and its 1st-magnitude orange star Aldebaran. Aldebaran forms a dramatic V- or arrowhead shape with the large cluster called the Hyades (see Sight 25), even though Aldebaran is really much closer than the cluster. Aldebaran marks the Bull's Eye, and the rest of the V, formed by the brightest Hyades stars, outlines Taurus's handsome face. To the upper right from the Hyades is one of the most lovely sights in all of astronomy the Pleiades or Seven Sisters star cluster (see Sight 26). The main stars of the Pleiades form a tiny dipper that is much richer than the sprawling Hyades.

Physical Properties of the ISM

The Local ISM (LISM) is an example of how the ISM structure appears spatially distributed in the Galaxy. The LISM is the neighborhood of our Sun, within a radius of 460 pc (1,500 lyr). The Sun is about 8,500 pc away from the Galactic Center and is located in the Orion spiral arm of the Milky Way. Figure 3.2 shows the plane-projected locations of molecular clouds, stellar associations, and the diffuse LISM with respect to the Sun 268 . The Sun is surrounded by quite a number of gas clouds. These clouds, of course, are still thin enough so one can see right through them. The Sun is located in a void comprised of coronal gas, which we refer to as the Local Bubble 267, 678 . This void borders into molecular clouds near the Scorpius-Centaurus stellar association, which extends into the Aquila-Rift, into the Gum Nebula and the Vela-Remnant, into the Taurus cloud, and into the Orion stellar association with its molecular clouds (see also Chap. 10). Part of the latter is the famous Horsehead...

The internal structure of the 11498 and L1517B cores

To show the level of detail currently possible in the analysis of the internal structure of starless cores, this section summarizes the recent study of two cores in the Taurus-Auriga complex, L1498 and L1517B. These two cores (Fig. 1) were selected for their close-to-round shape and relative isolation, in addition to being starless (no IRAS or 2MASS sources), and they have been subject to observations in the 1.2mm continuum and a number of molecular lines using the FCRAO 14m, IRAM 30m and Effelsberg 100m telescopes (Fig. 2). A complete account of is this work is presented in Tafalla et al. (2004 2005, in preparation).

Science Payload Commissioning Overview

The instruments completed their functional tests during February-March 2006. The first observations of an external target are termed first light observations, and these were staggered throughout the May to September 2006 period for the various instruments. Alice detected interplanetary hydrogen Lyman-a and Lyman- emission during its first light observations on May 29. Alice then observed two UV calibration stars, y Gruis and p Leonis, on August 31. Owing to safety reasons, the Alice SOCC door was not opened until July 2007, after the Jupiter encounter. Ralph MVIC first light occurred during observations of its stellar calibration targets (the M6 and M7 galactic open clusters) through its windowed door on May 10, and then through the opened door on May 28. Both Ralph MVIC and Ralph LEISA observed the asteroid 2002 JF56 in a moving target tracking test during May 11-13. Ralph LEISA made the first observations of its calibration star (Procyon) on June 29. LORRI first light occurred when...

Picking Landing Sites

Apollo 15 was the first mission to land an extended distance from the lunar equator, touching down on the plains to the north of Mount Hadley. It also required an approach that was far steeper than any that had ever been flown. The so-called Hadley Basin offered geologists a look at some of the most ancient terrain on the Moon and some of the widest variety of rocks and soil within a narrow area. The 15,000 foot high Mount Hadley rose to the south of the lunar module while to the west ran the deep Hadley Rille, which channeled huge amounts of lava during the Moon's active periods billions of years ago. The program also brought in prestigious geologists such as Eugene Shoemaker, Lee Silver and Farouk El-Baz to assist the astronauts in training. The geologists were not favorably received at first. Upon meeting El-Baz, one astronaut reportedly asked if the program was all out of American scientists. Undaunted and wildly enthusiastic, El-Baz worked closely with Apollo 15 command module...

High angular resolution observations

This region has been further investigated with the spectrograph STIS on board HST, that worked at 0.1 angular resolution in the optical (i.e. 14 AU in Taurus). Although STIS worked with only R 6000, the combination with high angular resolution gave new and important information, as jets could be resolved transversely. For example, we have observed the jets from the TTSs RW Aur and DG Tau with multiple exposures of the 0.1 STIS slit, stepping the slit position across the flow every 0.07 (see Fig. 3). In this way we have built 3-D cubes of data (2-D spatial, 1-D in velocity) to study in detail the region of interest (Bacciotti et al. 2000 Woitas et al. 2002). One projection of the datacubes gives 2-D images of the jets in different velocity intervals, similarly to the 'channel maps' of radio interferometry. The jets imaged in this way show an onion-like kinematic structure, being more collimated at higher velocities and excitation.

Winter Constellations

Taurus the Bull features the bright and orange Aldebaran, which with the giant Hyades star cluster forms the V-shaped pattern of stars that depicts the face of the Bull (for a close-up on the Hyades, see Sight 25). Taurus also contains the loveliest and most remarkable of all naked-eye star clusters the Pleiades (see Sight 26), which are located on the imagined shoulder of the Bull. Taurus is one of the twelve constellations of the zodiac, so the Moon and planets make many impressive journeys through it. The rest of Taurus is marked by two stars that represent the tips of the Bull's rather long horns. The brighter of the two stars, Beta Tauri, links the pattern of Taurus to that of Auriga the Charioteer. The dimmer of the two horn stars, Zeta Tauri, assists in locating one of the most fascinating of all telescopic objects the supernova remnant M1, also known as the Crab Nebula (one of the objects mentioned in Sight 30). Taurus gains some of its interest by seeming to face and...

The Stages Immediately Following Star Birth

About to start shining eject a lot of material at hundreds of kilometers per second. These objects are known as T Tauri stars, named after a variable star discovered in the constellation of Taurus. Immediately surrounding a T Tauri star, within an arcminute or so, a small nebula can often be seen. This is made of interstellar dust and gas immediately around the protostellar object. Gas seems to be moving both in and out of the T Tauri star while, incredibly, at some distance further out small nebulae are found streaming away from the star in the same way that a jet in a radio galaxy is pointed away from its nucleus (Chapter 11). These small companion nebulae are known as Herbig Haro (HH) objects after their discoverers. The HH objects were for a very long time a mystery because they did not appear to have any stellar objects associated with them. The stellar objects are not located in the HH objects, but are light-years away.

View the Gems in Gemini

As the stars move from east to west during the course of the night, it takes longer for Gemini to reach its prime position in the south than it does for either Taurus or Orion. Gemini doesn't peak until nearly 2 a.m. in mid-December and 10 p.m. in mid-February. (From the southern United States, Gemini passes nearly overhead at these times.) It takes about eight hours from the time the constellation rises for it to reach its highest point, and another eight hours pass before it sets.

Geologist on the Moon

Barring human intervention, the footprints of two men will remain undisturbed at a place called Taurus-Littrow for many millennia to come. One set of those footprints belongs to Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Jack Schmitt, who walked his way into one of mankind's most exclusive clubs when he became the last person to set foot in the Moon's ancient dust, on 11 December 1972.

Radiative transfer analysis

As outlined in Section 7.4, the evolution of the dust phase in circumstellar disks is expected to depend on the radial and vertical position in the disk. Based on the above selected studies, we conclude that multi-wavelength observations tracing different regions and relevant physical processes with high spatial resolution are mandatory in order to rule out ambiguities. As an example, we refer to the model of the circumstellar environment of the Butterfly star in Taurus by Wolf et al. (2003) which is based on high-resolution continuum observations at near-infrared and millimeter wavelengths. On the one hand, the millimeter observations were sensitive to the long-wavelength radiation being re-emitted from the dust in the central parts close

Northern Winter Southern Summer Nebulae

I know that the winter sky is dominated by bright, easy to see, constellations. Please don't get so drawn to them that you don't spend some time observing in parts of the sky nearby Orion, Gemini, Canis Major, and Taurus. I promise that even though Monoceros, Puppis, and Pyxis are not as flashy as their companions, there is plenty to see in those parts of the sky. Also, during this part of the year our friends in the southern hemisphere are viewing the Magellanic Clouds for many hours until they drop from exhaustion and then start to prepare another observing list for tomorrow night

Ic 2149 Plnnb Aur 05 564 46

While I am at high power, concentrating on this little nebula, a big bright meteor goes right through the field of view and scares me half to death. I have time to look away from the eyepiece and with my naked eye see about 30 degrees of this fireball moving through Orion and Taurus. It flames out and leaves a nice train of smoke that lasts for 3 minutes. Telescopic meteors are a rare and fascinating occurrence. Once my heart rate slowed down enough so I could enjoy it

The Moon looms larger

The Apollo 17 Command Service Module, photographed from Lunar Module Challenger, is just visible against the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The Apollo 17 Command Service Module, photographed from Lunar Module Challenger, is just visible against the Taurus-Littrow landing site. ''We would enter the valley from the east with the sun behind and below us for good shadow definition of rocks and craters. Like many other major lunar valleys, Taurus-Littrow extends radially from a large circular basin in this case the 300-mile diameter basin called Mare Serenitatis. This huge basin formed about 3.9 billion years

Three Dimensional Look at the Winter Sky Sirius Stars of Orion and Aldebaran

The beautiful winter constellation Orion and the nearby brightest fixed star Sirius are well known. On the opposite side of Orion is the bright Aldebaran in the constellation of Taurus, or the Bull. Only two centuries ago, the distances to these stars were unknown. A watcher of this section of the starry sky would think of it as two dimensional. But now, when admiring this region, we have the extra bonus of knowing how far away they are. We indicate in Fig. 8.5 this part of the sky, together with distances for most of the stars. Here the nearest ones are Sirius at 2.7 pc and Aldebaran at 20 pc (or 65 light years). The other bright stars are all farther than 100 pc and generally at such large distances, parallaxes cannot be measured from the ground, and the distances have been estimated by other means. Fig. 8.5 Sirius, the stars of Orion and Aldebaran of the Bull (Taurus) make a beautiful view in winter evenings. The stars are located at very different distances in space, here given in...

The Hyades Star Cluster sight and Aldebaran25

The Hyades star cluster and Aldebaran have already been discussed in Sights 9, 15, and 17. In those chapters, they were considered as part of a marvelous group of constellations (the Orion group), as part of one of the brightest and most interesting individual constellations (Taurus), and as one of the brightest stars and the naked-eye cluster it shines in front of.

The lunar dust problem returns

Okay, we'll take a look at it here while you're sleeping,'' Parker offered. Cernan opened the LCRU blanket to 100 per cent and opened the battery covers. He had been diligent in keeping the LRV's critical components dusted periodically, but it was not just the rover but each astronaut's suit that had to be dusted off as much as possible. The lunar dust was tenacious, clinging to the fabric of their suits, metal surfaces and even their visors. They prepared to take their samples aboard the LM and completed closing out their first EVA at Taurus-Littrow.

Scientists in the valley

After a spectacular night launch on 7 December 1972, the LM Challenger and the CSM America separated in orbit on 11 December, and Cernan and Schmitt touched down on the Moon shortly afterwards. This time the target was the Taurus-Littrow area, a flat-bottomed valley ringed by mountains, on the edge of the Sea of Serenity. The area seems to be one where lavas from the maria partially flooded a pre-existing valley.

Relation to Greek Astronomy

One surviving application of zodiacal signs from Mesopotamia was the use of differences in rising times to distinguish places of different latitudes. The latitude of a place in the ancient world (indeed into medieval times) was expressed in terms of the ratio of lengths of the longest to the shortest days. For example, the latitude of Babylon was expressed as 3 2. This is the ratio of the rise time for the sequence of six signs, Cancer (the summer solstice), Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius, to those for the sequence Capricorn (the winter solstice), Aquarius, Pisces, Aries, Taurus, and Gemini, at the latitude of Babylon. Note that although exactly half the sky is involved in each sequence, the rise times are unequal because of the varying angle of rise made by the ecliptic on the horizon.

Y Supernova in Messier

Many supernovae have been seen in outer galaxies, but in our own Galaxy only four have been seen during the last thousand years all these became brilliant enough to be seen with the naked eye in broad daylight. The brightest of all was seen in 1006 in the constellation of Lupus, the Wolf (Map 20) it is not well documented, but appears to have been as bright as the quarter-moon. We know more about the supernova of 1054, in Taurus (Map 17), because it has left the gas-patch known as the Crab Nebula, which contains a pulsar spinning round 30 times a second this is one

Modeling Spectral Energy Distributions

Figure 11.24 shows the spectral energy distribution of the IRAS source 04016+2610. This Class I object, with Lbol 4 L0, lies at the western edge of the L1489 dense core in Taurus-Auriga and is shown in the molecular line maps of the core in Figure 3.12. The IRAS satellite itself contributed the measured fluxes from 12 to 100 pm, while the data at other wavelengths come from a variety of groundbased and airborne telescopes. The average visual extinction toward the core, as obtained from 12C18O observations, is about 10 mag. Any field star that happens to lie behind such a cloud would surely be invisible optically and detectable only at in-

Supernovae as Engines of Creation

As you might expect, an explosion as tremendous as that of a supernova creates a great deal of debris. The Crab Nebula, in the constellation Taurus, is the remnant of a supernova that appeared in 1054 C.E. Chinese astronomers left records of that event, reporting a star so brilliant that it was visible for a month in broad daylight. The bright radio source Cassiopeia A is also a supernova remnant.

The Egyptian Constellations

Senmut Tomb

The fresco, 3 x 3.6 meters large, was made by tracing a grid of red and blue lines, partially still visible today, and then painting the hieroglyphics in black. Touch-ups in red and blue appear on some of the figures. The picture is divided into two parts by a double belt of stars with a central inscription. The top square shows a list of decans similar to a stellar clock. Under the name of each decan are depicted the stars representing it. The list starts, on the left side, with Sirius followed by Orion represented turned toward Sirius, and then by the lades, the stars that form the basis of the Taurus constellation, in the typical shape of a V. On top of them there is a group of four stars, three of which are aligned with one another, and the central one is circled by three ellipses, possibly representing the Pleiades (Juan Belmonte, personal communication). Four of the five visible planets are also represented Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, and Venus while Mars is missing, as in many...

Were Carbon Stars Rampant in our Early Universe

The outer envelopes of such stars are rich in carbon, dredged up from their nuclear-burning interiors. Carbon forms the basis of life on Earth, and there are principally two mechanisms by which carbon can be released into space. The first is by means of an exploding star (such as the famous Crab Nebula in Taurus, seen to explode in the year 1054 AD) and the second, by means of these immensely interesting carbon stars. Carbon stars continually lose mass by means of stellar winds. During the phase of outward blowing stellar winds, these stars play an absolutely crucial role in spewing elements such as carbon into space. We are indeed made of carbon based stardust produced in stars.

Conclusion and Outlook

The sample we will obtain analysing the complete ISOSS database (15 sky coverage) is much larger than any of the previous FIR air-borne, balloon-borne or sub-mm ground-based samples. The cold spot search will be extended to the giant molecular cloud complexes in Orion, Taurus, Cepheus, Cygnus and Ophiuchus. Extrapolating the results of our Chamaeleon survey, we expect to detect a large number of very cold cloud cores in the Milky Way. A series of follow-up measurements in mm and sub-mm wavelengths has been started in order to derive the physical properties of the gas in the very cold cores.

The era of lunar exploration draws to a close

Parker informed them that the scheduled Station 10 stop at Emory and Sherlock craters was being scrubbed, and that they were to return to the LM. Parker then told them that Houston wanted an LRV sample 1.1 km from their last stop, which Schmitt collected. Several hundred meters from the LM, Cernan stopped the rover again for Schmitt to deploy another seismic charge. Schmitt discovered that the Lunar Hand Tool Carrier had unlatched from the Aft Pallet Assembly and swung open. The sample rake and scoop were missing, having fallen off sometime during the traverse from Station 9. Fortunately, the big sample bag was still firmly attached. Schmitt placed the seismic charge in a small depression, took a locator photo and rejoined Cernan on the rover. He then asked Cernan to drive toward a big rock he had up-ended earlier so that he could spot it and collect it as a sample at the end of their EVA. It was amazingly dark, nearly black. Schmitt placed it in the large sample bag at the rear of...

Introduction And Observations

The formation of low mass stars and planetary systems is one of the most interesting astronomical themes, because it is very closely related to the origin of the Solar System. Observationally, extensive flux surveys at mm and sub-mm wavelengths were performed by Beckworth et al. 1 and Osterloh and Beckwith 2 . They revealed that more than a half of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) are accompanied with considerable millimeter excess emission. The excess can be explained well by the thermal emission from the compact dust disk whose radii are a few x 100 AU and masses are a few x 0.01 M 1,3,2 ,

The Crab the Veil and Other Supernova Remnants

Think, for instance, of the Crab Nebula in Taurus. This magnitude 8.4 patch of glow is conveniently located only about 1 northwest of Zeta Tauri, the star that marks the tip of the Bull's southern horn. The Crab is also known as M1 the very first object of Charles Messier's famous list. The nickname refers to the clawlike projections of this radiant patch's scalloped edges. You'll need a good 8-inch telescope to begin seeing that kind of detail in M1. But even if you're watching in a very small telescope, the reality of seeing this object will send a tremor through you. Why The Crab Nebula, located about 6,500 light-years from Earth, is the remnant of a supernova that flamed up brighter than Venus in our skies a little less than a thousand years ago. It's possible that American Indian pictographs of a crescent and star in two different caves in northern Arizona are depictions of a conjunction of the Moon and supernova that was visible before dawn on July 5, 1054. Today, as this object...

Impact of Xrays on the Environment of YSOs

Mass accretion rate, Macc, derived from the luminosity of the hydrogen recombination lines vs. the mass of the star,I M*, (adapted from 18 ). Dots show Macc measurements from Pa,3 (filled detections, empty upper limits) diamonds are measurements from Br7 (filled detections, empty upper limits) crosses are objects in Taurus. The dashed line shows the relation Macc x M '8 the dotted line plots, for comparison, the relation Macc x Mt Fig. 1. Mass accretion rate, Macc, derived from the luminosity of the hydrogen recombination lines vs. the mass of the star,I M*, (adapted from 18 ). Dots show Macc measurements from Pa,3 (filled detections, empty upper limits) diamonds are measurements from Br7 (filled detections, empty upper limits) crosses are objects in Taurus. The dashed line shows the relation Macc x M '8 the dotted line plots, for comparison, the relation Macc x Mt

The Discovery of Xrays from Protostellar Jets

The first convincing evidence of X-ray emission originating from protostellar jets was reported by Pravdo and collaborators in 2001 21 and by Favata and collaborators a few months later 6 . The first team discovered an X-ray-emitting jet in the Orion nebula by analyzing the data collected with the Chandra X-ray observatory in October 2000. Favata et al. 6 discovered an X-ray-emitting jet in the dark cloud L1551 in Taurus by analyzing the data collected with XMM-Newton in September 2000. In subsequent years, many other X-ray sources associated with protostellar jets have been discovered, prompting the interest of the scientific community to study this new class of X-ray sources. In the following sections, we briefly review the main results obtained from the data analysis and discuss the observational features characterizing these sources.

Confirmed Xray Emitting Jets

These authors observed the region, including the dark cloud L1551 in Taurus for -50 ksec withc EPIC on board XMM-Newton 14 , in September 2000, and analyzed the energy band ranging between 0.3 and 8 keV. The left panel in Fig. 5 shows the region, including L1551 IRS5 and HH 154 as seen in the X-rays with the XMM-Newton EPIC camera. The right panel shows a close-up view of HH 154 as seen with HST. The leftmost X-ray point-like source (x1) is positionally coincident with the embedded source L1551 IRS5 and its jet.

Fabryperot Spectroscopes

Nonetheless, there are a few astronomical examples, and we consider here TAURUS, which additionally serves as an illustration of the desperation with which acronyms may be sought since its name is derived from the 'Taylor-Atherton Uariable-resolution Radial Uelocity System' The second generation TAURUS-2 instrument was designed for the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). It is intended primarily for mapping the velocities of emission-line objects. The instrument has the etalon placed in a collimated beam from the telescope. A filter isolates one of the transmitted orders, and the beam is re-imaged. The final image, detected by an IPCS or CCD detector, is thus pseudo-monochromatic. That is, at any point in the image the radiation covers only a very narrow waveband, but because of the changing angle of incidence onto the etalon, the centre of that waveband changes over the image. In operation, the spacing of the etalon is varied by piezoelectric spacers to scan...

Supernova remnants and a bright crab

The archetypal Crab nebula results from the second type of supernova, for it encloses a neutron star at its heart, the corpse of an exploded star that can now be admired as a pulsar. Of all supernova remnants, the Crab nebula is the best known, located in the constellation of Taurus. The brightening that followed the explosion was observed by Chinese star-spotters on 4 July 1054, whilst in Europe, the schism was tearing the Church apart. Today, almost a thousand years after the signs of the cataclysm reached Earth (the explosion itself took place 6500 years before that, since the Crab nebula is located 6500 light-years away), the nebula resulting from the explosion is moving out from its centre at a speed of 1500 km s-1 and shines as brightly as 80000 suns. Most of the radiation is emitted in synchrotron form. This particular kind of radiation is produced when high-energy electrons are trapped inside magnetic fields, as we said earlier.

Radio and Solar System Discoveries

In 1948, Martin Ryle (1918-84), who worked on radar for the British during the war, discovered the brightest radio source in the sky other than the Sun, supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. Beginning in the last few years of this decade and resulting in a Nobel Prize in physics and a Bruce Medal (see page 249) in 1974, Ryle developed the aperture-synthesis technique of radio astronomy. By adjusting the positions of a group of small telescopes, he found that he could achieve a precision equal to that obtained by one giant telescope covering the same area. Using this method, radio astronomers eventually exceeded the resolution capabilities of their optical colleagues. In 1949, British astronomer John Bolton (1922-93) (see Bruce Medalists, page 249) and his team in Australia achieved sufficient angular resolution to identify the first-known radio sources with optical objects. Their interferometer identified Taurus A as the Crab Nebula, Virgo A as the galaxy M87, and Centaurus A as the galaxy...

The Most Connected Star

Surely no star is glorified more by its connections with other celestial objects than Aldebaran. To begin with, Aldebaran is the only 1st-magnitude star that lies right in front of a star cluster. And not just any star cluster the closest and largest cluster that really looks like one, the Hyades. And the major stars of the Hyades form with Aldebaran a V shape that is a perfect depiction of the face of famous Taurus, the Bull with Aldebaran as the Bull's bright eye. Not far west of Aldebaran and the Hyades is the more condensed cluster considered to be the loveliest of all to the naked eye the Pleiades. The very name Aldebaran is Arabic for the follower, a title that probably means the follower of the Pleiades in their nightly journey across the sky. Taurus and and the giant winter asterisms of bright stars. Extend the short arms of the Aldebaran. Aldebaran-and-Hyades-V straight out to the tips of Taurus's horns at Zeta Tauri and Beta Tauri. The lower Hyades arm, the one ending with...

Formation on Large Scales

The previous sections demonstrated that most stars do not form in isolation but in rather crowded groups. However, if this is the case then not too many young PMS stars should be detected too far away from ESCs. In this respect, it is quite a twist of fate that the first very young late-type stars were detected in the Taurus region, rather far away from any major stellar clusters 442 . Thus there are regions of molecular gas that spread over larger volumes without accumulating large dense cores but still exhibit moderate star-formation rates. Two examples are the Taurus-Auriga region and the Lupus region. Other sites are OB associations, which, besides dense stellar cluster cores, are also associated with extended molecular gas. Stellar groupings in these regions are generally unbound. They are loose aggregates of stars that formed either in weakly bound cores or in completely unbound structures. That these areas have to exist as well becomes clear by looking at the large-scale...

Aldebaran in Modern Poetry and Science Fiction

If Aldebaran weren't the eye of Taurus, it could be located in the Bull's forehead. But speaking of the star as being in the forehead of the wintry sky is more interesting it may, consciously or unconsciously, be a reference to that way Aldebaran leads the rest of the winter constellations across the sky (our aforementioned role of Aldebaran and the Hyades as the vanguard of the main army of splendor at whose front center Orion strides).

Gasgiant planet census

In order to explain the formation of the ice-giant planets, however, disk instability requires the presence of massive (OB) stars to generate a high flux of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) or far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. Given that most stars are believed to have formed in regions of high-mass star formation, such as Orion or Carina (Lada and Lada, 2003), disk instability would be consistent with a high frequency of gas-giant planets. Core accretion, however, seems to require a more quiescent setting with long-lived disks and a low EUV FUV background, such as occurs in regions of low-mass star formation (Taurus, Auriga, Rho Ophiuchus). These regions are thought to contribute only a minor fraction of stars (Lada and Lada, 2003). Core accretion would then be more consistent with a low overall frequency of gas-giant planets.

The Making of the

The Sun is by all standards an average star. In its young years it certainly was a T Tauri star, though with a mass that puts it already beyond the peak of a typical cluster mass function. The Sun is a G-type star. Such a stellar type is not uncommon in the Taurus-Auriga region, though the Sun clearly descended from a much older generation of star formation. The following sections attempt to present a rough overview of likely properties of the early Solar Nebula and the Sun's evolutionary path.

I6 Star Clusters and Associations

Several collections of stars can be picked out in the sky, really do form separate clusters in space. E.g. the Pleiades in Taurus and the Hyades around Aldebaran, the brightest star in Taurus, are such open star clusters. Almost the whole of the constellation Coma Berenices is also an open star cluster. Many objects appearing as nebulous patches to the unaided eye, when looked at with a telescope, turn out to be star clusters, like Praesepe in the constellation Cancer, or Misan, the double cluster in Perseus (Fig. 16.1). In addition to open clusters some apparently nebulous objects are very dense globular clusters, such as those in Hercules and in Canes Venatici (Fig. 16.2).

Super Earths and failed cores

If core accretion is the dominant formation mechanism, but seldom occurs in a disk long-lived enough for a complete gas-giant planet to form, then the typical outcome of core accretion may be a system of failed cores, i.e. a system of ice-giant planets, unaccompanied by gas giants. If disk instability dominates, inner gas giants should be the rule, accompanied by outer ice-giant planets in systems which formed in Orion-like regions and experienced EUV FUV photoevaporation of their gaseous envelopes. In Taurus-like regions, disk instability should produce only gas giants, unaccompanied by outer ice giants.

Multiplicity among Embedded Protostars

Focusing on a sample of 14 embedded young stellar objects that drive giant molecular outflows (mostly embedded protostars) and gathering near-infrared and radio high-angular resolution data, Reipurth (2000) found an observed binary frequency of order 80 , the highest ever measured in a population of young stars. The projected separations ranged from less than 10 to several thousand AUs and, due to the variety of distance and instrumental technique involved, it is difficult to extract a multiplicity rate that could be compared to other surveys. Yet, the observed multiplicity was so high that it led Reipurth to argue that the presence of giant outflows is directly related to multiplicity, possibly through the dynamical decay of unstable high-order multiples. If true, this would imply, however, that the high multiplicity rate he estimated is actually an overestimate of the intrinsic rate for all embedded sources. Following on this idea, Reipurth et al. (2002 2004) obtained...

Gasgiant planet formation epochs

However, several other techniques could be employed. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will have sufficient astrometric precision to search for the wobbles of young stars caused by gas-giant companions on Jupiterlike orbits, though star spots may be a troublesome source of photocenter noise, and the limited life (5 to 10 yr) of SIM may prevent the detection of long-period orbits. Nearby low-mass star-forming regions such as Taurus and Ophiuchus would be the primary hunting grounds. Searching the very youngest stars, still embedded in their infalling clouds of gas and dust, may be difficult with an optical telescope such as SIM, but if SIM finds that the youngest stars are already wobbling, this would be additional good evidence for a rapid formation process.

Spectacular Stellar Deaths

As the gases of the explosion are driven off into space they leave two markers behind. First is an ever-expanding cloud of gas illuminated by radiation created within the cloud by high temperatures and a strong magnetic field. This nebula is the grave of the deceased star marking where the titanic explosion took place. In the year 1054, skywatchers noted a brilliant new star in Taurus. The star grew so bright that it was visible for months in broad daylight before fading away to never be viewed again. At least that is, not until the telescope was invented. Astronomers searching that area found the remnant of the supernova and named the cloud the Crab Nebula for its crustacean-like appearance. The second marker is the core remnant itself. The core is called a neutron star because all that is left at the core is neutrons. The collapse of the core causes the protons, electrons and neutrons in each atom to become fused together into one enormous neutron. Because the center of the...

Apollo 17 Launch Operations

During three days in the Taurus-Littrow valley on the moon, Cernan and Schmitt set up their multimillion-dollar array of scientific experiments, using the lunar rover to get them about the crater-pocked landscape. They took three excursions for a total of more than 32 kilometers in the rover, gathering rock samples and taking gravity measurements. Upon return to the command module, the team orbited the moon for nearly two more days of experimentation. They left the last of the Apollo lunar surface experiment packages. With four previously established nuclear-powered stations, the Apollo 17 equipment would allow scientists to monitor the moon's heat flow, volcanic activity, meteor impacts, and other phenomena. Also left behind were eight time bombs scheduled to go off after the astronauts started their return to earth. With the lunar module ascent stage, which was jettisoned into the moon, the bombs were expected to create artificial moonquakes that could be measured by seismometers...

Observations of H2O Maser Sources in Nearby Molecular Clouds with VERA

We presented the first results of multi-epoch VLBI observations of H2O maser sources in nearby molecular clouds with VERA. Observed sources were SVS13A in NGC1333, TMR-1 in the Taurus Molecular Cloud, Orion KL, HH1, and Mon R2 in the Orion-Monoceros Molecular Cloud Complex. Using the VERA dual-beam receiving system (Honma et al. 2003), we carried out phase-referencing VLBI and measured absolute proper motion and annual parallax of H2O maser features. We successfully detected the annual parallax of Orion KL, 2.4 0.4 mas, corresponding to the distance of 410 50 pc from the Sun (Fig. 1). In addition, the annual parallax of SVS13A was also determined to be 4.4 0.9 mas (230 50 pc), although the life time of the maser feature was only 100 days. We will continue monitoring observations of these sources with VERA to determine their annual parallax more precisely.

Counting the Pleiades

One deep-sky object that can be observed with the unassisted eye, binoculars, or small telescopes is the star cluster M45, the Pleiades. Located in the constellation Taurus, this collection of young stars can be found with the aid of the the finder chart in Figure 7-7. This cluster is best observed from midnorthern latitudes on evenings from late fall to early spring high in the western sky. Figure 7-7. Finder chart for M45, the Pleiades. M45 (the Pleiades) in constellation Taurus

The Crab Nebula A Result of Supernova Explosion

Among the most significant pulsars are PSR 0833-45 in the constellation of Vela and NP 0532 in Taurus. Close to both pulsars we observe a nebulous cloud of gas which flew away from the star in an explosion. The latter nebula is known as Crab nebula it looked crab-like to its discoverer Earl of Rosse William Parsons (Fig. 19.8). These pulsars confirm the connection between supernova remnants and pulsars that Fritz Zwicky first suggested and that occurred to Fred Hoyle in the Cambridge seminar (we will encounter both Zwicky and Hole later on in this book).

The Ecliptic and the Zodiac

The ecliptic is the circular path of Earth's orbit around the Sun. During this movement classically 12 (actually 13) constellations that are in the background beyond the Sun are sequentially hidden from view by the Sun. These constellations comprise the Zodiac. They are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpius, Ophiuchus, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius and Pisces. This line-up of constellations was recognized in ancient times. The early Greeks visualized animals moving among the constellations of the Zodiac. Each constellation is depicted as an animal except for Libra. 'Zodiac' means animal in Greek.

Selecting The Last Landing Site

Apollo Training

The last manned lunar mission to date, Apollo 17, left Earth on 7 December and landed near the south-eastern edge of Mare Serenitatis, in the valley of Taurus-Littrow - a veritable geologist's paradise. Because this was to be the final manned expedition in the Apollo series, serious consideration had been given to the landing site. All of the high priority regions were revisited and examined by scientists, geologists and other lunar experts, and many were excluded for either scientific or operational reasons. This left three potential sites under final consideration the seventy-five-mile-diameter Alphonsus crater east of Mare Nubium, the central peaks of the slightly smaller Gassendi crater to the north of Mare Humorum, and the Taurus-Littrow valley. A place called Taurus-Littrow On the other hand, Taurus-Littrow, which takes its name from the Taurus mountain and Littrow crater, was a narrow valley surrounded by three steep, mile-high massifs, part of similar mountains that make up...

High Energy Emission Properties of Neutron Stars

On July 4, 1054 A.D., Chinese astronomers noted a guest star in the constellation Taurus. As we know today, this event marked the arrival of light from the deadth of a massive main sequence star that underwent a core collapse when its internal thermal energy produced by the nuclear fusion processes was not sufficient anymore to counteract the gravitational force against the star's collapse. The cloud of gas that

Iconographic Representations on Cylinder Seals

The lunar crescent is always present. A second deity figure is also always present, with the arms held in a closely comparable position on all these seals. A third deity, Adad, usually standing on a bull (Taurus), appears frequently. Two different kinds of staves are shown on most of the seals. A scorpion man appears on four seals, and the frit vulva, a symbol of Venus, on five. The unity of these different seals is extraordinary. Perhaps even more remarkable is their similarity to a symbol set on a monument of Esarhaddon, from Zinjirli (Figure 7.2). However, the seals show the interaction of Ishtar and the other deity figures. The monument shows only the symbols. The interaction seems to imply that the deities were together in the same part of the sky. The scorpion man has been identified as the constellation Scorpio, but if there is a direct interaction with the Pleiades, a second scorpion at or near Betelgeuse, as suggested by parallel evidence elsewhere (...

Apollo 17 Landing Site Selection

From Mare Crisium to Mare Serenitatis from Apollo 15, as well as gamma ray and X-ray data along the spacecraft's orbital path. In October, the Board reviewed the Apollo 15 photographs taken from the Service Module mapping camera, together with the other data. Four of the six potential landing sites considered from this review were eliminated. The two remaining potential sites were added to the three other high-priority contenders. The five sites under consideration for Apollo 17 now included Alphonsus, Copernicus central peaks, Gassendi central peaks on the northern rim of Mare Humorum, a site southwest of Mare Crisium, and a highlands-volcanic site, designated Taurus-Littrow, on the southeastern edge of Mare Senenitatis. In December 1971, a Site Evaluation Document was issued to thirty-two evaluators, including the principal investigators, co-investigators and other scientists involved with experiment packages, and mission planners. The responses evaluated by the Ad Hoc Site...

The Tree of the World

Mayan Scorpion Symbols

The Mayas also studied the movements of the stars, especially those of the Milky Way. The Milky Way was seen as a heavenly counterpart of the sacred tree, the ceiba, which was thus the tree of the world, a veritable path of the spirits that led to the gate of the Kingdom of the Dead. Guarding the gate was a monster (the term does not perhaps reflect how the Mayas perceived him), frequently depicted in sculptures and reliefs. The Milky Way and the ecliptic can both be considered as two maximum circles traced in the celestial sphere, which intersect with each other at two points, one in the middle between the Gemini and Taurus constellations, and the other between Scorpion and Sagittarius. The Mayas represented all this by means of a cruciform symbol, in which the ecliptic, arranged horizontally, is portrayed as a two-headed serpent. In some representations, the serpent is shown along with strange figures clambering upon it. These are the constellations of the ecliptic, that is, the...

The Pleiades rise at sunset

Just before dawn in early June, a tiny dipper-shaped group of stars in Taurus can be seen shining faintly through the strong twilight. This event is the 'helical rising' of the Pleiades, the cluster's first appearance after coming from behind the Sun. For the rest of the year, the Pleiades rise earlier each day, mounting ever higher in the sky until this week, when they rise as the Sun sets and are in the sky all night. Look toward the east after sunset to see this distinctive nest of stars glimmering among the trees.

Properties of stellar jets

Collimated outflows are associated to single and multiple Class 0-I-II sources, in a wide range of masses. They appear since the very beginning of the formation process and often have two lobes that propagate in opposite directions perpendicular to the plane of the circumstellar disk. The jet length may vary from a few hundreds AU to several parsecs, while typical widths are of 200 AU, with an opening angle of only a few degrees. Archetypical cases are the HH 34 and HH 111 jets in Orion, and the HH 30 jet in Taurus, see Fig. 1.

Mesopotamian constellations and the zodiac

The names of constellations were being recorded on clay tablets as far back as the time of the Sumerians, around 3000 bc. Some of these names are familiar to us today the bull (Taurus), the lion (Leo) and the scorpion (Scorpius). This interest in forming constellations may have reflected their desire to organize the sky in a mythologically meaningful manner, particularly the area through which traveled the Sun, Moon, and planets, which we now call the ecliptic. In this way, a reference point for describing the location of these heavenly bodies was made, and this information was useful in preparing calendars for agricultural and social purposes, improving navigation at sea, and making astrological predictions. Paralleling this development was the creation of 18 constellations that were easily observed at night to be in the path of the Moon. These included not only star groups more or less similar to our own, but also some asterisms that we do not recognize as constellations. Historian...

Shapleys Second Copernican Revolution

In 1914 Shapley was employed at Mount Wilson observatory which had the world's biggest (1.5m mirror) telescope. He started to study the Cepheids in globular star clusters, and their use in distance determinations. What are globular star clusters Mostly the clusters are loose collections of stars, with hundreds of members, like Pleiades in the constellation Taurus. Globular star clusters are clearly different they are spherical in shape, and the number of stars could be over a million. In their centers, the images of stars appear to merge together to form a smooth luminous nebula (Fig. 20.8). Fig. 20.8 There are two kinds of star clusters. The open star clusters are more common. They are loosely bound gatherings of often young stars. We show the open cluster of Pleiades (The Seven Sisters) in Taurus (a) and the globular cluster Omega Centauri (b) (photos by Harry Lehto and Tapio Korhonen, respectively) Fig. 20.8 There are two kinds of star clusters. The open star clusters are more...

Index of Astronomical Objects

Cygnus, 509, 545, 547 Lupus, 101 Monoceros, 63, 104 Orion, 2 Perseus, 495 Taurus, 10 Taurus-Auriga Complex, 11, 60, 73, 358, 414 L1434, 12 L1459, 12 a Persei (Per OB3), 110,423 61 Orionis, 7 Cassiopeia OB2, 97, 454 Cassiopeia-Taurus, 110,423,567 Cepheus OB1, 109 Cepheus OB2, 110,117,687 Cepheus OB6, 110 Collinder 121, 110 Cygnus OB2, 569 Cygnus OB7, 569 Gemini OB1, 96,565 Lacerta OB1, 110 Lower Centaurus-Crux, 110, 111 Monoceros OB1, 104,109 Monoceros OB2, 109,117 Orion OB1, 109, 110, 114, 567 Perseus OB2, 107, 109, 110, 567 Sagittarius OB1, 686 Scorpius R5, 106 Taurus R1 R2, 106 Taurus-Orion R1, 106 Vela R1, 106 Vela R2, 106 Reflection Nebulae NGC 2023, 226 NGC 7129, 688,709 S106, 96 Taurus-Auriga, 14, 97, 98, 100, 105, 110,

The History Of Astronomy

Little progress was made in the following centuries, though there were some interesting Indian writings (Aryabhata, 5th century AD), and in 570 AD Isidorus, Bishop of Seville, was the first to draw a definite distinction between astronomy and astrology. The revival of astronomy was due to the Arabs. In 813 Al-Ma'mun founded the Baghdad school of astronomy, and various star catalogues were drawn up, the most notable being that of Al-Sufi (born about 903). During this period two supernova were observed by Chinese astronomers the star of 1006 (in Lupus) and 1054 (in Taurus, the remnant of which is today seen as the Crab Nebula). 1949 Identification of further radio sources Taurus A (the Crab Nebula), Virgo A (M.87), and Centaurus A (NGC 5128). These were the first radio sources beyond the Solar System to be identified with optical objects.

Legends of the Pleiades

Frightened by the new surroundings and hid in a cave. They were unaware that Nirunja, who lives in Orion, and wanted to make love to the sisters, saw them leave their home in the sky. He secretly followed them down to Earth. When he saw them entering the cave he decided to wait until nightfall when they would be asleep. He then built a camouflage of fig leaves and slowly crept toward the sleeping beauties. As he snuggled among them they awoke and fought their way to the rear of the cave where they escaped through a small crevice in the rock and flew up to their home in the sky. Nirunja, enraged, ran out of the cave, climbed to the top of the mountain and raced after the sisters. Just as he was about to catch them Taurus the Bull, who lives between the seven sisters and Nirunja's home in Orion, awakened from his sleep and faced Nirunja threatening him with his gigantic horns. Nirunja stared at Taurus, realized he could not get past him, and in frustration returned to his home in the...

Last Steps On The Lunar Surface

''As we leave the Moon and Taurus, we leave as we came, and God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind.'' As he lifted his boot from the lunar soil, he added, ''As I take these last steps from the surface for some time to come, I'd just like to record that America's challenge of today has forged man's destiny of tomorrow. Godspeed the crew of Apollo 17.''

The Foot of Al Jauzah

Rigel is sometimes said to mark the western knee of Orion, the Hunter, but its name suggests that it marks the foot (we can picture Orion with this forward foot upraised as he prepares to strike with his club at the onrushing Taurus, the Bull). Paul Kunitzsch tells us that the name Rigel was first used in the West more than a thousand years ago, when it was adopted from the Arabic title rijl al jauza the foot of al Jauzah. We do not know who al Jauzah was but the word seems to refer to Orion as a feminine figure who is

Eva3 The Last Day On The Moon

Gordon Fullerton, the Wakeup CapCom, roused Cernan and Schmitt from their sleep at 160 hours and 25 minutes GET to start the third and last day of Apollo 17's exploration of Taurus-Littrow. It was Wednesday, 13 December 1972. Throughout the entire mission, the Earth was lower to the Moon's horizon than for any other Apollo mission, and Cernan described the Earth's continents that were visible from the Lunar Module's window. Robert Parker soon came online as the CapCom for EVA preparations and the day's surface activities. Parker went over the station stops and updated Cernan and Schmitt on the subtle changes to the day's planned activities. Unlike Apollo 16's third EVA, the astronauts would have a full day's schedule, with over seven hours on the surface. Cernan was first on the lunar surface again and Schmitt followed several minutes later. They went about the preliminary surface duties as per their Cuff Check List. The rover's LCRU TV camera was powered up and Ed Fendell got the TV...

The Night Launch Of Apollo

Days before the scheduled launch of Apollo 17, all the motel rooms in Cape Canaveral, Titusville and the surrounding small towns were booked. This last launch of Apollo brought in the news media from across the United States and from around the world. Many individuals traveled by car and motor home from as far away as California and Alaska to find any place they could park their vehicle to see the majestic Saturn V in the distance. All of them wanted to be part of this historic event. It was also historic for another reason, as it would be the only launch of the Saturn V to take place at night, with liftoff scheduled for 9 53 p.m. This decision was the result of orbital mechanics. The Trans-Lunar Injection for all previous Apollo lunar missions was initiated over the Pacific Ocean. However, Taurus-Littrow was not accessible using the TLI burn over the Pacific in December. It could only be achieved by launching at night and initiating the TLI over the Atlantic Ocean. The Saturn V lit...

Where Is Orion Nakshtra Situated And How Far It Is From Earth

Ardra Nakshatra Constellation

The brilliant orange-red star (mag. 0.5) we see on the Hunter's right shoulder is a red supergiant with a diameter between 300 and 400 times that of the Sun. It is called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse (Ardra). Actually, the brightness of Betelgeuse varies over time although we will notice the change only over a period of almost six years. At its brightest (mag. 0.1) Betelgeuse is a little brighter than Aldebaran, the orange star in the neighbouring constellation of Taurus (see p.42). At its faintest (mag. 0.9) t is dimmer than Rigel, the bright blue-white star that marks the left leg of the Hunter. Ardra is one of the 27 nakshatras of Indian astronomy (see p.115). Orion's belt from Taurus's eye

Notable Surface Features

Prominent and noteworthy features of the lunar surface range from prominent craters such as Copernicus and Tycho to sites important in humanity's brave history of lunar exploration such as Taurus-Littrow and Hadley Rille. The Taurus-Littrow Valley region on the Moon was selected as the landing site of the Apollo 17 manned lunar mission. Located at 22 N, 31 E, it is named for the surrounding Taurus Mountains, a part of the ramparts of the Serenitatis Basin (Mare Serenitatis) impact structure, and for the nearby 30-km- (19-mile-) diameter crater Littrow. Sample analyses conducted on Earth interpreted the highland rocks as parts of the material excavated by the enormous impact that created the Serenitatis Basin. Some rocks from the Taurus-Littrow site, which is crossed by one of the rays of material ejected from the impact that formed the comparatively young crater Tycho, suggested an age for the crater of about 100 million years. The complex geologic history of the Taurus-Littrow region...

The Xray Account of YSOs

Distance is a major obstacle for X-ray studies of star-forming regions, a fact which is related to the limited sensitivity of existing instruments. Chandra's sensitivity holds the current standard with its 0.5 spatial resolving power, which is orders of magnitude better than all other X-ray observatories listed in Table 2.1 and all planned observatories for the foreseeable future. It provides a flux limit of 10 16 erg cm 2 s_1. The density of stars in young stellar clusters can reach up to 2 x 104 pc 3 in Orion 397 whereas in regions of average stellar density, like in the vicinity of the Sun or the Taurus-Auriga complex, can reach about 1-3 pc 3. Thus even Chandra cannot resolve such extreme stellar densities at distances further than 1.3 kpc, whereas HST is able resolve that in the optical up to 6.5 kpc. Such extreme densities are not found in every case as many regions are older than the core of the ONC and appear more dispersed. High spatial resolution usually comes at the expense...

Geologist Walks On The Moon

Just four hours after touchdown, the crew began the first of their three planned lunar EVAs. Wearing his bulky spacesuit and life support system backpack, Cernan had eased himself backward through Challenger's tiny hatch, descended the fragile ladder and then stood on the footpad for a few moments of contemplation. As he placed his left foot firmly into the thin lunar crust he said, As I step off at the surface of Taurus-Littrow, I'd like to dedicate the first steps of Apollo 17 to all those who made it possible.''

Eclipses of the Third Kind

Most of these remote light sources are extremely faint, but every so often the Moon will obscure some particularly bright star, and numerous amateur astronomers will be keen to witness the event. The target might be Regulus, the bright white star in the constellation Leo, or Aldebaran, the vivid red object in Taurus, or some other familiar heavenly jewel. Nor do the planets escape alignment with the Moon because they occupy a restricted band about the ecliptic, they, too, are frequently blotted out for a brief time.

The Supernova as Creator

As you might expect, an explosion as tremendous as that of a supernova creates a great deal of debris. The Crab Nebula, in the constellation Taurus, is the remnant of a supernova that appeared in c.e. 1054. Chinese astronomers left records of that event, reporting a star so brilliant that it was visible for a month in broad daylight. The bright radio source Cassiopeia A is also a supernova remnant.

Mission And Eva Traverse Planning

With the selection of Taurus-Littrow as the landing site for Apollo 17, mission and EVA transverse planning commenced. The lunar mission was made up of scientific experiment deployment and geologic exploration, but there was also science and photography to be performed by the Command Module Pilot while in orbit around the Moon. Jack R. Sevier was Chairman of the Traverse Planning Subcommittee of the Science Working Panel, and was assisted by Dr. Robert. A. Parker, Apollo 17 The Apollo Field Geology Investigation Team was responsible for planning the geologic exploration at Taurus-Littrow and for preparing the crew for the scientific tasks to be performed on the lunar surface. It would also provide geologic guidance Orbital photography from Apollo 15 and geologic maps of the Taurus-Littrow region in 1 250,000 scale, 1 50,000 scale and 1 25,000 scale, served as the basis for planning the EVA traverses in detail. As with Apollo 15 and 16, the availability of the Lunar Roving Vehicle...

Training At The Manned Spacecraft Center Houston Texas

Gettyimages Lathe

Jack Schmitt (left) and Gene Cernan drive Grover during a geologic field trip on the Pancake Range in south-central Nevada during September 1972. The appearance of the surrounding terrain was similar to what they would encounter at Taurus-Littrow. (NASA) Jack Schmitt (left) and Gene Cernan drive Grover during a geologic field trip on the Pancake Range in south-central Nevada during September 1972. The appearance of the surrounding terrain was similar to what they would encounter at Taurus-Littrow. (NASA)

XRay Astronomy

Many other sub-orbital rocket flights followed as research groups around the world pursued the mystery of the origin of the cosmic X-ray emission. By 1971 a total of about 50 discrete X-ray sources had been detected, though some were highly variable and seen for only a brief period of time. Sco X-1 itself was found to vary in flux by a factor of about 2, and its optical counterpart, a 13th magnitude blue variable star, was located. A source in Taurus, Tau X-1, was identified with the Crab Nebula the remnant of the supernova of 1054 AD. Both the nebula and the central pulsar were X-ray emitters, the X-ray emission from the latter being pulsed in the same way as its optical and radio output. X-ray sources had also been found to be associated with extragalactic objects, including the galaxy M87 in the Virgo cluster and the quasar 3C 273.

The Lore of Aldebaran

Much of the lore of Aldebaran is shared by it with the Hyades or with Taurus as a whole. The heavenly Bull here seems to date back to long before Greek times. In fact, there is evidence that Taurus was originally the lead constellation of the zodiac and its formation may date back to around 4000 bc, when it marked the vernal equinox. Taurus has most often been identified with the bull that Zeus became to carry away Europa. But Taurus is also a bull imagined to be challenging Orion and his hounds in the tableau of winter constellations that has come together from the work of many imaginations. Aldebaran's rosy color can be the bloodshot of the angry Bull's eye. Aldebaran figures prominently in other lore that is independent of the Hyades or Taurus. One of the most stirring of such stories is told by the Her-vey Islanders of Polynesia. They say that the Pleiades cluster was once a single star, the brightest of all, rivaling a half-moon in radiance. The Pleiad-star boasted of his beauty...

Dave Shayler

In further research, I found that some of the scientist-astronauts had left before completing pilot school, and with the talk of cutting back Apollo in the wake of Apollo 13 to less than the ten landings planned, I hoped that some of these scientist-astronauts would get the chance to fly - anywhere. Several names interested me from those early days. Coming from the United Kingdom, with no chance of a manned space programme of our own, having an astronaut (and geologist) named Tony England suggested we might at least claim the feat of placing England on the Moon Sadly, the only actual British astronaut'', Tony Llewellyn (born in Wales), had to withdraw from the programme due to his difficulties with piloting jets. Still, Bill Thornton was married to an English woman, which interested me, and two other scientist-astronauts had interesting backgrounds and potential careers Joe Allen and Karl Henize. Two years later, I watched Jack Schmitt explore Taurus-Littrow during Apollo 17,...

Dark Clouds

The clouds of Taurus-Auriga, indicated as the shaded area of Figure 1.1, have long been noted even in optical images. Figure 1.8 is a photograph from early last century by E. E. Barnard, covering a region of about 50 square degrees. Here one sees prominent dark lanes in the otherwise rich stellar field. Referring to this photograph in his 1927 atlas of the Milky Way, Barnard wrote Very few regions of the sky are so remarkable as the Taurus region. Indeed, the photograph is one of the most important of the collection, and bears the strongest proof of the existence of obscuring matter in interstellar space. The molecular gas accompanying the obscuring dust can be seen most readily in 12C16O, as shown in Figure 1.9. The Taurus-Auriga region covers a greater angular area than the Orion

Studying The Stars

The heritage of the Greek science of the stars passed through many different civilizations. In each case, the figures of the constellations took on the personalities of the heroes of local legends. The Mediterranean animals of the zodiac were transformed by other cultures, such as the Persians and Indians, into more familiar creatures, like the ibex, Brahman bulls, or a crayfish. This page is from an 18th-century Arabic manuscript. It depicts the zodiacal signs of Gemini, Cancer, Aries, and Taurus. The signs are in the Arabic script, which is read from right to left.

Chapter Summary

The raw material for new stars within our Galaxy is a relatively small admixture of gas, concentrated especially near the spiral arms. Much of this diffuse matter is bound together into the extensive structures known as giant molecular clouds. At discrete sites, such as the Orion Nebula, both low-mass objects like the Sun and the much more luminous O and B stars form together within populous clusters. Other cloud complexes, such as that in Taurus-Auriga, are less dense and massive than giant molecular clouds. These sparser entities create loose associations of low- and intermediate-mass objects.


ISO was a great technical, operational and scientific success. Due to excellent engineering and a fortunate combination of circumstances at launch, the liquid helium supply lasted over 10 months longer than the specified 18 months. The extra lifetime not only led to many more observations but also made it possible to observe the Taurus Orion region - inaccessible in the nominal mission. By a combination of very good in-orbit performance, detailed analysis on the ground and a variety of tune-ups, the accuracy of the pointing system was improved to the arc second level. The absolute pointing error was reduced to around 1, ten times better than specified and the short term jitter was about five times better than the specification of 2.7 (2a, half cone, over a 30 second period of time). The optical performance of the telescope and baffle system was excellent, with straylight being too low to measure.

Work on the catalog

Charles Messier's first encounter with a nebulous object occurred during his preparations for the return of Comet Halley. When he observed Comet de la Nux for that purpose in August 1758, he came across an object in Taurus, which looked very similar to the comet, but it did not move. It was the 28th of August 1758 when Messier discovered the Crab Nebula, now known as M 1. He obtained the position of this apparently new nebula two weeks later (12th of September ). Messier did not know then that M 1 had already been found by Charles Bevis in England in 1731, and so took his observation for a new discovery. That kindled an interest that would eventually lead to his famous catalog. As he described it in 1801 What made me produce this catalog was the nebula which I had seen in Taurus, September 12, 1758, while I was observing the comet of that year. The shape and brightness of that nebula reminded me so much of a comet, that I undertook to find more of its kind, to save astronomers from...


And, Houston, as I step off at the surface at Taurus-Littrow, I'd like to dedicate the first step of Apollo 17 to all those who made it possible. Bob, this is Gene, and I'm on the surface and, as I take man's last step from the surface, back home for some time to come but we believe not too long into the future I'd like to just (say) what I believe history will record. That America's challenge of today has forged man's destiny of tomorrow. And, as we leave the Moon at Taurus-Littrow, we leave as we came and, God willing, as we shall return, with peace and hope for all mankind. Godspeed the crew of Apollo 17.

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