List Of Illustrations

Figure 3.1. Retrograde motion of a superior planet. 15

Figure 3.2. Eudoxus's model for retrograde motion. 16

Figure 3.3. Hipparchus's solar model. 19

Figure 3.4. Ptolemy's model for the planets. 21

Figure 3.5. The equant. 22

Figure 3.6. Model for solar motion using secondary epicycle. 24

Figure 3.7. Equivalence of geocentric and heliocentric models for planetary motion. 28

Figure 3.8. The Tychonic system. 29

Figure 4.1. The al-Tusi couple. 39

Figure 4.2. Al-Shatir's model of the motion of the Moon. 40

Figure 4.3. Dante's universe. 43

Figure 4.4. The Copernican system. 48

Figure 5.1. The Tychonic system. 59

Figure 5.2. Figure from Schofield (1981, plate 16). 60

Figure 5.3. Kepler's heliocentric system (1596). 62

Figure 6.1. A drawing of stars from Galileo's Starry Messenger (1610). 75

Figure 6.2. Leonard Digges's universe (1576). 76

Figure 6.3. Herschel's 20-foot reflector, completed in 1783. 79

Figure 6.4. NGC 1514: (a) Modern photograph and

(b) Herschel's original sketch. 81

Figure 7.1. Messier nebula M 51, the Whirlpool nebula.

(a) Lord Rosse's sketch. 89 Figure 7.1. Messier nebula M 51, the Whirlpool nebula.

(b) Modern photo. 90 Figure 7.2. The Hooker 100-inch telescope at Mount Wilson. 96 Figure 7.3. Andromeda nebula M 31. 97

xii List of Illustrations

Figure 8.1. Hubble's historic red shift-distance graph (1929). 115

Figure 8.2. Lemaitre's universe (1932). 116

Figure 8.3. Eddington's universe (1933). 117

Figure 8.4. Einstein-de Sitter universe (1932). 117

Figure 9.1. Wilson and and the Holmden microwave receiver. 134

Figure 10.1. The Hubble Space Telescope. 138

Figure 10.2. Einstein's Cross, a gravitationally lensed quasar. 143

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