Xray Diffractometry

Bragg derived a description of coherent scattering from an array of periodic scattering sites, i.e., atoms in a crystalline solid. The scalar description of diffraction considers the case of monochromatic radiation impinging on two sheets of atoms in the crystal spaced dm between reflecting planes. The wavelength X of the radiation is smaller than the interatomic spacing dm of the specific (hkl) planes. Bragg invoked the Law of Reflectivity (or Reflections) that states that the scattering...

Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry

Cross Section Elastic Collision

In a typical scattering chamber, the sample is located such that the beam position does not shift across the sample as the sample is tilted with respect to the incident ion beam. The backscattering detector is mounted as close to the incident beam as possible such that the average backscattering angle, S, is close to 180 , typically 170 , with a detector solid angle of 5 millisteradians (msr). The vacuum requirements in the target chamber are comparable to those in the accelerator beam lines....

Energy

Figure 3.9. 3.7 MeV RBS spectra from TaN films sputter-deposited on Si using different N2 Ar flow ratios. N-resonance peaks are clearly visible at this energy 5 . Figure 3.9. 3.7 MeV RBS spectra from TaN films sputter-deposited on Si using different N2 Ar flow ratios. N-resonance peaks are clearly visible at this energy 5 . The XRD spectra obtained from the TaN films, deposited on Si using different nitrogen flow ratios, are shown in Figure 3.10. The variations in position, intensity and shape...

Silver Aluminum Films

Sio2 Rutherford Backscattering Rbs

The use of Ag(Al) thin films is a method to prevent agglomeration of Ag on SiO2 at high temperatures. Pure Ag and Ag(Al) thin films were deposited on thermally grown SiO2 using electron-beam evaporation. Typical base pressure and operation pressure were 5x 10-7 and 4x 10-6 Torr, respectively. To obtain the Ag(Al) thin film, which is a Ag thin film containing a small amount of Al, a Ag-Al alloy for electron-beam evaporation was prepared by mixing pure Ag slug with pure Al slug targets Ag(Al)-I...

Preface

Silver (Ag) is considered as a future interconnect material for ultra large scale integrated (ULSI) circuit technology, because of its low resistivity (1.6 Q-cm), a value lower than that of aluminum (Al) or copper (Cu), the current choices for ULSI metallization. The drawbacks of Ag in terms of agglomeration, adhesion and corrosion are overcome by the use of encapsulation layers or addition of a few percent of alloying elements (such as Al and Ti). For example, silver with a 5 Al meets all the...

References

Holloway, T. Y. Kwok, US Patent No. 5,130,274 (1992). 2 The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, Semiconductor Industry Association, San Jose, CA, 1994. 3 J. Li, J. W. Mayer, Y. Shacham-Diamand, E. G. Colgan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60. 2983(1992). 4 D. Adams, and T. L. Alford, Materials Science and Engineering Reports 40, 207(2003). 5 T. Iijima, H. Ono, N. Ninomiya, Y. Ushiku, T. Hatanaka, A. Nishiyama, H. Iwai, Extended Abstracts of the 1993 International...

Silver Metallization

As the complexity of multilayer metallization (MLM) increase, the performance limiting resistive and capacitive signal delays increase accordingly. The development of advanced ultra large scale integration (ULSI) and gigascale integration (GSI) technologies will place stringent demands on future interconnect and metallization schemes 1 . To decrease the resistance-capacitance (RC) signal delays, the circuit can be fabricated with a metal having resistivity lower than the currently used Al(Cu)...

Titanium Nitride Selfencapsulation of Silver Films

The existing metallization schemes for ohmic contacts, gate metal and interconnections are found to be inadequate for the development of ultra large scale integration (ULSI) and gigascale integration (GSI). These inadequacies include the reliability of aluminum and its alloys as current carriers, susceptibility to electromigration and the relatively high resistivity of Al ( 2.7 Q-cm). For the development of faster devices, the resistance-capacitance (RC) delay must be reduced. Advanced...

T 1 i 1 i 1 i 1 r AgAl

Plot of theoretical stress values versus annealing temperature for three different systems 16 4.4.4.2 Electrical Properties of Silver Films In this study, it was also found that at higher temperatures more Al segregates to the surface. The trapping of Al in the Ag is responsible for the high electrical resistivities observed for the low temperature anneals. However, heat treatment at higher temperature reduces the residual Al and hence gives rise to lower resistivities. X-ray...

Silver Electromigration Resistance

Electromigration has been identified as a primary failure mode of interconnect lines used in semiconductor-integrated circuits. It is a high-current density induced mass transport phenomenon manifesting itself as voids, hillocks, or open circuits, due to a momentum exchange between conduction electrons and host metal atoms. The electromigration failure of Al(Cu) interconnects has been extensively investigated because of the dominant use of Al(Cu) as conductors in microelectronics devices for...

Corrosion of Encapsulated Silver Films Exposed to a Hydrogensulfide Ambient

Silver, unlike a metal such as aluminum, lacks the property of self-passivation and this deficiency makes it susceptible to oxidation and corrosion during processing 12 . Dry silver does not form a significant surface oxide under atmospheric conditions. Czandema showed that at most one monolayer of oxygen atoms adhere to the silver surface 13 . However, when exposed to an atmospheric environment containing reduced sulfur gases and either particulate or gaseous chlorine, silver forms corrosion...