Montes Apenninus

Terminator at10.255E

+ means Fast or North.

means West or South.

WinJupos then predicts that at the given input, the Moon is 600 high in WSW direction and is sinking. Its age is 6.7 days. Its C. M. (Central Meridian) is 5.960, meaning the Moon disc is centered at longitude 5.960 E and hence an extra 5.960 zone of libration** is visible along the east limb. Similarly, Declination of Earth -1.320 implies that the Moon disc is centered at latitude 1.32 S, giving an extra 1.32 zone of libration near the south pole. Terminator at 10.250 (E)

indicates that crater Sabine & Ritter are illuminated at favorable angles similar to T096 of Map 8 The angles are also oblique enough to spot the wrinkle ridges around Lamont. On the other hand, crater Armstrong is known small (about 5 km or 2.5 arcseconds angular). It is easier to spot Armstrong with bigger telescopes, as well as the domes and rilles in the map.

In the above table, Terminator at 10.250 (E) is just an alternative quote of Colongitude 349.750, because they always sum to 3600, 1800 or 00. The colongitude tells the instantaneous position of the terminator from which one can calculate the sunlight angle, and hence the height of a surface feature from the length of its shadow. Methods to determine feature heights are demonstrated in http://paganastronomy. net/lunarcrater.html.

WinJupos is not the only program available. There are other Internet sources of moon ephemeredes.

Libration is elaborated in the |Event 1|pages.

IMAGINATION helps tremendously in lunar observation. Give a name or token to your feature favorite. It will not appear in standard Moon atlas but is a good marker of memory. For instance, the Straight Wall (Rupes Recta) can be thought as a sword with a handle at the southern end. This handle is also the wall portion of the "ghost crater" Thebit P, see figure at right or Map 12. The floor of Thebit P is shaded by a pattern of darker lava which resembles a dagger. The combination is then a sword and a dagger side by side on the edge of Mare Nubium.

The imagination may _ be extended to crater Alphonsus, see figure at right or Map 12|. A close look at its floor shows three small, dark lava patches along the inner rim, and there are clefts and craterlets on the patches. Such appearance suggests that it might be a remnant of local volcanism, probably very young by geologic age. If the Moon's interior is not totally inert, someday volcanic outgases may leak through the craterlets. They would be ionized by sunlight, becoming luminously noticeable as some kind of LTP (lunar transient phenomena). LTP are short durations of brightness, color or shape changes on the lunar surface. They have been reported for decades even during the Apollo missions, although a lot of them remain controversial. The three most likely explanations of LTP are: a flash from meteorite impact, some form of electrostatic discharge and outgoing gases ionized by high-energy particles from space.

In |Map 1|, there is a page on three families of Moon rocks. The mare basalt looks dark. The anorthosite, which exists in highlands or beneath the mare basalts, is light-colored. The breccia is a cemented type caused by the heat and pressure of a meteorite impact. This rock scenario may inspire speculation about the peculiarities of some surface features. Books and web links about lunar geology are highlighted in the References! page.

Maria, Impact Basins and Evolution of the Moon

The Moon keeps the same face towards the Earth. The large dark area of this face (the nearside) is termed Mare, the Latin for "Sea". The term was originated in the 17th century, when the dark plains were thought to be water. Maria are physically smooth lowlands of solidified lava, typically 500~1500 m thick over the lunar crust. They erupted 3~4 billion years ago and are younger than the bright surrounding highlands. Maria share 17 % of the total lunar surface.

Plains of relatively small areas are Latinized as Sinus (Bay), Lacus (Lake) or Palus (Marsh). Monies are "mountain ranges". Three huge montes run along the eastern edge of Mare Imbrium — Montes Apenninus, Montes Caucasus and Montes Alpes as shown in T001. They are part of the rising rim of the impact basin that holds the lava floor of Mare Imbrium.

Lacus Somniorum

Mare Cognitum Known Sea JSfig

Mare Crisinm Sea of Crises jj|j

Mare Fecunditatis Sea of Fertility

Mare Frigoris Sea of Cold

Mare Humonim Sea of Moisture )Bj

Mare Imbrium Sea of Rains jflig

Mwe insuiarum Sea of Isles gfg

Mare Nectaris Sea of Nectar }Uf§ Maria on the east limb are given in |Everiti 1| pages

Mare Nubium Mare Serenitatis Mare Tranquiiiitatis Mare Vaporum Oceanus Proceilarum Lacus Mortis Lacus Sonmiortim Pains Epidemiarwn

Sea of Clouds [email protected] Sea of Serenity jtf§ Sea of Tranquillity ff Sea ofVapors f^fg Ocean of 3orms Lake of Death ^M Lake of Dreams If® Marsh of Epidemics

Pähls Putredinis Paius Somni Sinus A estu um Sinus Amoris Sinus Honoris Sinus iridum Sinus Medii Sinus Roris

Marsh of Decay HS (Bin) Marsh ofSleep PS Bay of Billows Bay of Love gt Bay of Honor : Bay of Rainbows Central Bay ^J^f Bay of Dew ¡¡¡¡H

Mare Cognitum Known Sea JSfig

Mare Crisinm Sea of Crises jj|j

Mare Fecunditatis Sea of Fertility

Mare Frigoris Sea of Cold

Mare Humonim Sea of Moisture )Bj

Mare Imbrium Sea of Rains jflig

Mwe insuiarum Sea of Isles gfg

Mare Nectaris Sea of Nectar }Uf§ Maria on the east limb are given in |Everiti 1| pages

Mare Nubium Mare Serenitatis Mare Tranquiiiitatis Mare Vaporum Oceanus Proceilarum Lacus Mortis Lacus Sonmiortim Pains Epidemiarwn

Sea of Clouds [email protected] Sea of Serenity jtf§ Sea of Tranquillity ff Sea ofVapors f^fg Ocean of 3orms Lake of Death ^M Lake of Dreams If® Marsh of Epidemics

Pähls Putredinis Paius Somni Sinus A estu um Sinus Amoris Sinus Honoris Sinus iridum Sinus Medii Sinus Roris

Marsh of Decay HS (Bin) Marsh ofSleep PS Bay of Billows Bay of Love gt Bay of Honor : Bay of Rainbows Central Bay ^J^f Bay of Dew ¡¡¡¡H

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